John F. Kennedy Jr.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr. referred to as JFK Jr. or John John, was an American lawyer and magazine publisher. He was a son of President John F. Kennedy and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy, a younger brother of former Ambassador to Japan Caroline Kennedy, his father was assassinated three days before his third birthday. From his early childhood years at the White House, Kennedy was the subject of great media scrutiny, he became a popular social figure in Manhattan. Trained as a lawyer, Kennedy worked as a New York City Assistant District Attorney for four years. In 1995, he launched George magazine, using his celebrity status to publicize it. Kennedy died in a plane crash in 1999. John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr. was born at MedStar Georgetown University Hospital on November 25, 1960, two weeks after his father was elected president. His parents had a stillborn daughter named Arabella four years before John Jr.'s birth. John Jr. had an older sister, a younger brother, who died two days after his premature birth in 1963.
His putative nickname, "John-John", came from a reporter who misheard JFK calling him "John" twice in quick succession. John Jr. lived in the White House during the first three years of his life and remained in the public spotlight up until his death. His father was assassinated on November 22, 1963, the state funeral was held three days on John Jr.'s third birthday. In a moment that became an iconic image of the 1960s, John Jr. stepped forward and rendered a final salute as his father's flag-draped casket was carried out from St. Matthew's Cathedral; the family continued with their plans for a birthday party to demonstrate that the Kennedys would go on despite the death of the president. Kennedy attended private schools in Manhattan, starting at Saint David's School and moving to Collegiate School, which he attended from third through tenth grade, he completed high school at Massachusetts. After graduating, he went to Brown University. There, he co-founded a student discussion group that focused on contemporary issues such as apartheid in South Africa, gun control, civil rights.
Visiting South Africa during a summer break, he was appalled by apartheid, arranged for U. N. Ambassador Andrew Young to speak about the topic at Brown. By his junior year at Brown, he had moved off campus to live with several other students in a shared house, spent time at Xenon, a club owned by Howard Stein. Kennedy was initiated into Phi Psi, a local social fraternity, the Rhode Island Alpha Chapter of national Phi Kappa Psi fraternity until 1978, he graduated in 1983 with a bachelor's degree in American studies, took a break, traveling to India and spending some time at the University of Delhi, where he met Mother Teresa. He worked with some of the Kennedy special interest projects, including the East Harlem School at Exodus House and Reaching Up. After President Kennedy was assassinated in 1963, Jacqueline Kennedy moved her family, after brief residency in Georgetown area of Washington, to a luxury apartment on the Upper East Side of Manhattan in New York City, where Kennedy Jr. grew up.
In 1967, his mother took him and Caroline on a six-week "sentimental journey" to Ireland, where they met President Éamon de Valera and visited the Kennedy ancestral home in Dunganstown. After his uncle Robert was assassinated in 1968, his mother took him and his sister out of the United States, saying: "If they're killing Kennedys my children are targets... I want to get out of this country." The same year, she married Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis, the family went to live on his private island of Skorpios. Kennedy is said to have considered his stepfather "a joke". In 1971, Kennedy returned to the White House with his mother and sister for the first time since the assassination. President Richard Nixon's daughters gave Kennedy a tour that included his old bedroom, Nixon showed him the Resolute desk under which his father had let him play; when Onassis died in 1975, he left Kennedy $25,000, though Jacqueline was able to renegotiate the will, acquired $20 million for herself and her children.
In 1976, Kennedy and his cousin visited an earthquake disaster zone at Rabinal in Guatemala, helping with heavy building work and distributing food. The local priest said that they "ate what the people of Rabinal ate and dressed in Guatemalan clothes and slept in tents like most of the earthquake victims", adding that the two "did more for their country's image" in Guatemala "than a roomful of ambassadors". On his sixteenth birthday, Kennedy's Secret Service protection ended and he spent the summer of 1978 working as a wrangler in Wyoming. Before attending Brown University, Kennedy accompanied his mother to Africa. On a pioneering course, he rescued his group, which had gotten lost for two days without food or water, won points for leadership. In 1979, the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum was dedicated, Kennedy made his first major speech, reciting Stephen Spender's poem "I Think Continually of Those Who Were Truly Great". After the 1984 Democratic Convention in San Francisco, Kennedy returned to New York and earned $20,000 a year in a position at the Office of Business Development, where his boss reflected that he worked "in the same crummy cubbyhole as everybody else.
I heaped on the work and was always pleased." From 1984 to 1986, he worked for the New York City Office of Business Development and served as deputy director of the 42nd Street Development Corporation in 1986, conducting negotiations with developers and city agencies. In 1988, he became a summer associate at Manatt, Rothenberg & Phillips, a Los Angeles la
National Consumers League
The National Consumers League, founded in 1899, is an American consumer organization. The National Consumers League is a private, nonprofit advocacy group representing consumers on marketplace and workplace issues; the NCL provides government and other organizations with the consumer's perspective on concerns including child labor, food safety, medication information. The organization was chartered in 1899 by social reformers Jane Josephine Lowell, its first general secretary was Florence Kelley. Under Kelley's direction, the League's early focus was to oppose the harsh, unregulated working conditions many Americans were forced to endure; the founding principles of the NCL are: "That the working conditions we accept for our fellow citizens should be reflected by our purchases, that consumers should demand safety and reliability from the goods and services they buy." The league's focus continues to be to promote a fair marketplace for consumers. Under Kelley's leadership, the League established labeling certifying that products were made under fair working conditions, protected workers from exploitation by employers, promoted food inspection and advocated for child labor restrictions, the limiting of work hours and establishing minimum wage laws for women.
Kelley was opposed to sweatshops and for the minimum wage, eight-hour workdays, children's rights. In founding the National Consumers League in 1899, one of Kelley's strong concerns was that the league oppose sweatshop labor. Kelley worked to establish a work-day limited to eight hours. In 1907 she participated in the Supreme Court case Muller v. Oregon, which sought to overturn limits to the hours female workers could work in non-hazardous professions. Kelley helped file the "Brandeis Brief", which included sociological and medical evidence of the hazards of working long hours, set the precedent of the Supreme Court's recognition of sociological evidence, used to great effect in the case "Brown v. Board of Education". Sally Greenberg a senior attorney at Consumers Union, is the executive director of the National Consumers League. Greenberg has worked with members of Congress, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, other federal agencies, the media and consumer safety organizations to shape policy on such issues as product safety, auto safety, legal and liability reform.
Current NCL educational campaigns include: Choose To Lose, NCL's brand new survey conducted by Harris Interactive finds that while many Americans think they're "lighter" than they are, most are not being told by a doctor they need to lose weight. NCL's 2007 Five Worst Teen. Over one million youth have been injured on the job since the release of the NIOSH Report on Deficiencies in Federal Child Labor Protections. Second annual Corporate Social Responsibility survey conducted with Fleishman-Hillard Inc, examined the expectations that the public has of corporate America and the factors that drive those beliefs and attitudes. LifeSmarts is a free program designed to teach teenagers consumer rights and responsibilities as they pertain to health, finance and the environment. Fraud.org is a reporting platform through which the National Consumers League collects information about scams, extracts trends from data, forwards reports to law enforcement. The Child Labor Coalition was formed in 1989 to combat child labor and protect teen workers from health and safety hazards.
It is co-chaired by the American Federation of Teachers. Script Your Future is a public awareness initiative which teaches patients undergoing long-term prescription therapy the importance of communicating with healthcare professionals and following regimens carefully. Antitrust Better Business Bureau Class action Consumer complaint Fairtrade labelling Mandatory labelling Planned obsolescence / Product recall Unfair competition Mabel Cory Costigan, vice president and lobbyist for NCL in the 20th century Josephine Goldmark, et al. "The Work of the National Consumers' League. During the Year Ending March 1, 1910," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science Vol. 36, Supplement pp 1–75 in JSTOR, primary source National Consumers League - official website National Consumers' League Records. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University
National Woman's Party
The National Woman's Party is an American women's political organization formed in 1916 to fight for women's suffrage. After achieving this goal with the 1920 adoption of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, the NWP advocated for other issues including the Equal Rights Amendment, still seeking ratification today; the most prominent leader of the National Woman's Party was Alice Paul, its most notable event was the 1917-1919 Silent Sentinels vigil outside the gates of the White House. The National Woman's Party was an outgrowth of the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, formed in 1913 by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns to fight for women's suffrage; the National Woman's Party broke from the much larger National American Woman Suffrage Association, focused on attempting to gain women's suffrage at the state level. The NWP prioritized the passage of a constitutional amendment ensuring women's suffrage throughout the United States. Alice Paul was linked to England's Women's Suffrage Political Union, organized by Emmeline Pankhurst.
While a college student in England, Paul became involved with the Pankhursts and their English suffrage campaign. During this time Alice Paul met Lucy Burns, who would go on and be a co-founder of the NWP. Although Paul was tied to the militant suffrage campaign in England, when she left to pursue suffrage in the United States, instead Paul pioneered civil disobedience in the United States. For example, members of the WSPU heckled members of parliament, spit on police officers, committed arson. While the British suffragettes stopped their protests in 1914 and supported the British war effort, Paul continued her struggle for women's equality and organized picketing of a wartime time president to maintain attention to the lack of enfranchisement for women. Members of the NWP argued it was hypocritical for the United States to fight a war for democracy in Europe while denying its benefits to half of the US population. Similar arguments were being made in Europe, where most of the allied nations of Europe had enfranchised some women or soon would.
After their experience with militant suffrage work in Great Britain, Alice Paul and Lucy Burns reunited in the United States in 1910. The two women were appointed to the Congressional Committee of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. In March 1913, the two women organized the first national suffrage parade of 5,000–8,000 women in Washington, D. C. on the day before Woodrow Wilson's inauguration. This was designed as a political tactic to show the strength of women and to show that they would pursue their goals under Wilson's administration. Leading the parade was Inez Milholland who wore all white and rode on a white horse, which served as a symbol for the suffrage movement; this placement of Millholland at the start of the parade was strategic because of Mulholland's beauty, Paul knew she would attract media attention and followers. One of the criticisms of this first national suffrage parade was the barrier of colored women from participating side by side with white women. Though Paul never opposed black women getting the right to vote, she barred them from marching with the white women and forced them to be in the back of the parade with the men to appease southern women.
The parade devolved into chaos due to violent reactions from the crowd and a lack of support by the local police. The D. C. police did little to help the suffragists. After this incident, which Paul used to rally public opinion to the suffrage cause and Burns founded the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage in April 1913, which split off from NAWSA that year. There were many reasons for the split, but Paul and Burns were frustrated with the National's slower approach of focusing on individual state referendums and wanted to pursue a congressional amendment. Alice Paul had chafed under the leadership of Carrie Chapman Catt, as she had different ideas of how to go about suffrage work, a different attitude towards militancy. Catt disapproved of the radical strategies, inspired by the British "Suffragettes", Paul and Burns were trying to implement into the American Suffrage Movement; the split was confirmed by a major difference of opinion on the Shafroth-Palmer Amendment. This amendment was spearheaded by Alice Paul's replacement as chair of the National's Congressional Committee, was a compromise of sorts meant to appease racist sentiment in the South.
Shafroth–Palmer was to be a constitutional amendment that would require any state with more than 8 percent signing an initiative petition to hold a state referendum on suffrage. This would have kept the law-making out of federal hands, a proposition more attractive to the South. Southern states feared a congressional women's suffrage amendment as a possible federal encroachment into their restrictive system of voting laws, meant to disenfranchise the black voter. Paul and Burns felt that this amendment was a lethal distraction from the true and necessary goal of an all-encompassing federal amendment protecting the rights of all women—especially as the bruising rounds of state referendums were perceived at the time as damaging the cause. In Paul's words: "It is a little difficult to treat with seriousness an equivocating, childish substitute for the simple and dignified suffrage amendment now before Congress." Women associated with the party staged a innovative suffrage parade on March 3, 1913, the day before Wilson's inauguration.
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Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs
The Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs is part of the U. S. Department of Labor. OFCCP is responsible for ensuring that employers doing business with the Federal government comply with the laws and regulations requiring nondiscrimination; this mission is based on the underlying principle that employment opportunities generated by Federal dollars should be available to all Americans on an equitable and fair basis. OFCCP administers and enforces three equal employment opportunity laws: Executive Order 11246, as amended. S. C. § 4212. Collectively, these laws make it illegal for contractors and subcontractors doing business with the federal government to discriminate in employment because of race, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, or status as a protected veteran. In addition and subcontractors are prohibited from discriminating against applicants or employees because they inquire about, discuss, or disclose their compensation or that of others, subject to certain limitations.
Its regulations can be found at CFR Title 41 Chapter 60: Property Management. OFCCP, as it is today, was created in 1978 with Executive Order 12086 by President Jimmy Carter through a consolidation of all the Affirmative Action enforcement responsibilities at each federal agency with Executive Order 11246 to the United States Secretary of Labor; the origins of the agency trace back to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and World War II when he signed Executive Order 8802, preventing discrimination based on race by government contractors. In 1953 President Dwight D. Eisenhower created the President’s Committee on Government Contracts with Executive Order 10479; the order was a follow-up to Executive Order 10308 signed by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 establishing the anti-discrimination Committee on Government Contract Compliance. In 1961 President Kennedy issued Executive Order 10925 which created the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity; this called for people to take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are hired and employees are treated during employment without regard to race, color or national origin.
On September 24, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed EO 11246 transferring responsibility for supervising and coordinating the Federal Contract Compliance from the President’s Committee to the Secretary of Labor who established the Office of Federal Contract Compliance. Executive Order 11375 by President Lyndon Johnson in 1967 added sex discrimination to OFCCP’s mandate. In 1975 the name was changed from OFCC to OFCCP by President Gerald Ford; this reflected the addition of the responsibility to enforce laws prohibiting discrimination against the disabled and veterans. The agency has helped develop new applicant and record keeping regulations covering internet applicants. There are six Regional Offices: Mid-Atlantic, Northeast, Pacific and Southwest and Rocky Mountain. In the national office there are three divisions: Management & Administrative and Program Development, Program Operations. National Industrial Liaison Groups Affirmative Action Association of America National Urban League National Association for the Advancement of Colored People League of United Latin American Citizens Center for Corporate Equality List of OFCCP Deputy Assistant Secretaries Equal Opportunity Employment Official website OFCCP in the Federal Register The OFCCP Institute National Industrial Liaison Groups NILG Conference Affirmative Action The Center for Corporate Equality
United States Secretary of Labor
The United States Secretary of Labor is a member of the Cabinet of the United States, as the head of the United States Department of Labor, controls the department, enforces and suggests laws involving unions, the workplace, all other issues involving any form of business-person controversies. There was a U. S. Secretary of Commerce and Labor, who led this department along with the U. S. Department of Commerce as one department. Since the two departments split in 1913, the Department of Commerce is now headed by a separate U. S. Secretary of Commerce. Alexander Acosta has been Secretary of Labor since April 28, 2017. Parties Democratic Republican As of April 2019, there are twelve living former Secretaries of Labor, the oldest being George P. Shultz; the most recent Secretary of Labor to die was William Usery Jr. on December 10, 2016. The line of succession for the Secretary of Labor is as follows: Deputy Secretary of Labor Solicitor of Labor Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management Assistant Secretary for Policy Assistant Secretary for Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs Assistant Secretary for Employment and Training Assistant Secretary for Employee Benefits Security Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health Assistant Secretary for Mine Safety and Health Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs Chief Financial Officer Administrator and Hour Division Assistant Secretary for Veterans' Employment and Training Assistant Secretary for Disability Employment Policy Deputy Solicitor of Labor Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy Deputy Assistant Secretary for Congressional Affairs Deputy Assistant Secretary for Employment and Training Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy Deputy Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health Deputy Assistant Secretary for Mine Safety and Health Regional Solicitor—Dallas Regional Administrator for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management—Region VI/Dallas If none of the above officials are available to serve as Acting Secretary of Labor, the Designated Secretarial Designee assumes interim operational control over the Department, except the Secretary's non-delegable responsibilities.
Director, Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs Director of the Women's Bureau Regional Administrator and Training Administration—Dallas Regional Administration, Occupational Safety and Health Administration—Dallas United States Deputy Secretary of Labor List of living former members of the United States Cabinet Official website
Center for American Progress
The Center for American Progress is a public policy research and advocacy organization which presents a liberal viewpoint on economic and social issues. It has its headquarters in Washington, D. C; the president and chief executive officer of CAP is Neera Tanden, who worked for the Obama and Clinton administrations and for Hillary Clinton's campaigns. The first president and CEO was John Podesta, who has served as White House Chief of Staff to U. S. President Bill Clinton and as the chairman of the 2016 presidential campaign of Hillary Clinton. Podesta remained with the organization as chairman of the board until he joined the Obama White House staff in December 2013. Tom Daschle is the current chairman; the Center for American Progress has a youth-engagement organization, Generation Progress, a sister advocacy organization, the Center for American Progress Action Fund. Citing Podesta's influence in the formation of the Obama Administration, a November 2008 article in Time stated that "not since the Heritage Foundation helped guide Ronald Reagan's transition in 1981 has a single outside group held so much sway".
The Center for American Progress was created in 2003 as a left-leaning alternative to think tanks such as the Heritage Foundation and the American Enterprise Institute. Since its inception, the center has assembled a group of high-profile senior fellows, including Lawrence Korb, Assistant Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan. S. Senator from North Carolina John Edwards. Sarah Rosen Wartell, a co-founder and executive vice-president of the center, has been named President of the Urban InstituteThe center helped Congressman John Murtha develop "strategic redeployment", a comprehensive plan for the Iraq War that included a timetable and troop withdrawals. ThinkProgress is a blog edited by Judd Legum that "provide a forum that advances progressive ideas and policies." It is an outlet of the Center for American Progress. Generation Progress is CAP's youth outreach arm. According to the organization, Generation Progress partners with over a million millennials. Known as the American Progress Action Fund, the Center for American Progress Action Fund is a "sister advocacy organization" and is organizationally and financially separate from CAP, although they share many staff and a physical address.
Politico wrote in April 2011 that it "openly runs political advocacy campaigns, plays a central role in the Democratic Party’s infrastructure, the new reporting staff down the hall isn’t walled off from that message machine, nor does it keep its distance from liberal groups organizing advocacy campaigns targeting conservatives". Whereas CAP is a 501 nonprofit, CAP Action is a 501. In 2003, George Soros promised to financially support the organization by donating up to $3 million. CAP Action is headed by Neera Tanden. "The Moscow Project" is one of its initiatives. The Washington Center for Equitable Growth known as Equitable Growth, is a research and grantmaking organization founded in 2013 and "housed at the Center for American Progress". Equitable Growth funds academic research in economics and other social sciences, with a particular interest in government's role in the distribution of economic growth and the role of public perceptions of fairness in shaping government policy. Science Progress was an internet publication about progressive technology policy.
Science Progress was a project of the Center for American Progress. Its mission was "to improve the understanding of science among policymakers and other thought leaders and to develop exciting, progressive ideas about innovation in science and technology for the United States in the 21st Century." It began publication on 4 October 2007, the fiftieth anniversary of the launch of Sputnik 1. Content on the web site included news, in-depth essays, text- and audio-based interviews; the Science Progress staff included Editor-In-Chief Jonathan D. Moreno. In 2017, the Center opposed Bernie Sanders' single-payer health plan. Critics said that this was because of funding from the health care industry, such as The Blue Cross Blue Shield Association, the Health Care Service Corporation and America's Health Insurance Plans, who would be eliminated under Sanders' plan. In 2018, the Center proposed an alternative to single payer that would offer patients and employers a choice between government coverage and private insurance.
In October 2016, the Intercept reported that United Arab Emirates Ambassador to the U. S. Yousef Al Otaiba praised "a CAP report released that advocates for continued cooperation with Gulf states like Saudi Arabia and the UAE."In January 2019, two CAP staffers were fired for leaking an email exchange that suggested improper influence by the United Arab Emirates over the CAP. Some open government groups, such as the Sunlight Foundation and the Campaign Legal Center, criticized the Center's failure to disclose its contributors since it was so influential in appointments to the Obama administration. CAP was criticized by several Jewish organizations after some employees "publicly used language that could be construed as anti-Israel or anti-Semitic". Bloggers associated with CAP published several posts using phrases such as "apartheid" and "Israel-firsters", causing NGO Monitor, the American Jewish Committee, the Anti-Defamation League to label them anti-Israel
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938
The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 29 U. S. C. § 203 is a United States labor law that creates the right to a minimum wage, "time-and-a-half" overtime pay when people work over forty hours a week. It prohibits most employment of minors in "oppressive child labor", it applies to employees engaged in interstate commerce or employed by an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, unless the employer can claim an exemption from coverage. The Fair Labor Standards Act applies to "employees who are engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, or who are employed by an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce" unless the employer can claim an exemption from coverage. An employer with at least $500,000 of business or gross sales in a year satisfies the commerce requirements of the FLSA, therefore that employer's workers are subject to the Fair Labor Standards Act's protections if no other exemption applies.
Several exemptions exist that relieve an employer from having to meet the statutory minimum wage and record-keeping requirements. The largest exceptions apply to the so-called "white collar" exemptions that are applicable to professional and executive employees. Exemptions are narrowly construed, as an employer must prove that the employees fit "plainly and unmistakably" within the exemption's terms; the Fair Labor Standards Act applies to "any individual employed by an employer" but not to independent contractors or volunteers because they are not considered "employees" under the FLSA. Still, an employer cannot exempt workers from the Fair Labor Standards Act by calling them independent contractors, many employers have illegally and incorrectly classified their workers as independent contractors; some employers mislabel employees as volunteers. Courts look at the "economic reality" of the relationship between the putative employer and the worker to determine whether the worker is an independent contractor.
Courts use a similar test to determine whether a worker was concurrently employed by more than one person or entity. For example, a farm worker may be considered jointly employed by a grower. In many instances, employers do not pay overtime properly for non-exempt jobs, such as not paying an employee for travel time between job sites, activities before or after their shifts, preparation central to work activities. If an employee is entitled to overtime, the employer must pay them one and a half times their "regular rate of pay" for all hours they work over 40 in the same work week. Employees employed in a ministerial role by a religiously affiliated employer are not entitled to overtime under the act. During World War II, the Army-Navy "E" Award for excellence in war production required maintaining the fair labor standards established under the Act. Under the Fair Labor Standards Act, an employer must pay each employee the minimum wage, unless the employee is "engaged in an occupation in which the employee customarily and receives more than $30 a month in tips."
If the employee's wage does not equal minimum wage, including tips, the employer must make up the difference. However, the employee must be allowed to keep all tips, either individually or through a tip pool. A tip pool may contain only "employees who customarily and receive tips." "The phrase'customarily and regularly' signifies a frequency which must be greater than occasional, but which may be less than constant."While the nomenclature of a job title is not dispositive, the job of "busboy" is explicitly validated for tip-pool inclusion by an authoritative source. "A busboy performs an integral part of customer service without much direct interaction, but he does so in a manner visible to customers.... Thus, for a service bartender to be validly included in a tip pool, he must meet this minimal threshold in a manner sufficient to incentivize customers to'customarily and regularly' tip in recognition' of his services; the Fair Labor Standards Act was drafted in 1932 by Senator Hugo Black. Black's proposal to require employers to adopt a thirty-hour workweek met stiff resistance.
In 1938, a revised version of Senator Black's proposal was passed that adopted an eight-hour day and a forty-hour workweek and allowed workers to earn wage for an extra four hours of overtime as well. According to the act, workers must be paid minimum wage and overtime pay must be one-and-a-half times regular pay. Children under eighteen cannot do certain dangerous jobs, children under sixteen cannot work in manufacturing or mining, or during school hours. Though it did not cover executives, seasonal employees, some other groups, the Fair Labor Standards Act gave raises to 700,000 workers, President Franklin Roosevelt called it the most important piece of New Deal legislation since the Social Security Act of 1935. In 1946, the United States Supreme Court ruled, in Anderson v. Mt. Clemens Pottery Co. that preliminary work activities controlled by the employer and performed for the employer's benefit are properly included as working time under the FLSA. In response, Congress passed the Portal-to-Portal Act narrowing the Supreme Court's decision.
The 1947 Portal-to-Portal Act specified what type of time was considered compensable work time. In general, as long as an employee is en