United States Foreign Service
The United States Foreign Service is the diplomatic service of the United States federal government under the aegis of the United States Department of State. It consists of approximately 15,000 professionals carrying out the policy of the United States. Created in 1924 by the Rogers Act, the Foreign Service combined all consular, in addition to the units function, the Rogers Act defined a personnel system under which the United States Secretary of State is authorized to assign diplomats abroad. Members of the Foreign Service are selected through a series of written and they serve at any of the 265 United States diplomatic missions around the world, including embassies and other facilities. C. The Department of Agriculture, the Department of Commerce, and the United States Agency for International Development. The United States Foreign Service is managed by a Director General, the Director General is traditionally a current or former Foreign Service Officer. Starting in November 23,1975 until October, 2nd,2016 under a Departmental administrative action, the two positions are now separate.
As the head of the bureau, the Director General held an equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State. The current Director General is Arnold A. Chacón, who was sworn in on December 22,2014. On September 15,1789, the 1st United States Congress passed an Act creating the Department of State and appointing duties to it, initially there were two services devoted to diplomatic and consular activity. Throughout the 19th century, ambassadors, or ministers, as they were prior to the 1890s, and consuls were appointed by the president. Many had commercial ties to the countries in which they would serve, in 1856, Congress provided a salary for consuls serving at certain posts, those who received a salary could not engage in private business, but could continue to collect fees for services performed. Lucile Atcherson Curtis was the first woman in what became the U. S, she was the first woman appointed as a United States Diplomatic Officer or Consular Officer, in 1923. The Rogers Act of 1924 merged the diplomatic and consular services of the government into the Foreign Service, an extremely difficult Foreign Service examination was implemented to recruit the most outstanding Americans, along with a merit-based system of promotions.
In 1927 Congress passed legislation according diplomatic status to representatives abroad of the Department of Commerce, in 1930 Congress passed similar legislation for the Department of Agriculture, creating the Foreign Agricultural Service. Though formally accorded diplomatic status, however and agricultural attachés were civil servants, in addition, the agricultural legislation stipulated that agricultural attachés would not be construed as public ministers. On July 1,1939, both the commercial and agricultural attachés were transferred to the Department of State under Reorganization Plan No, the agricultural attachés remained in the Department of State until 1954, when they were returned by Act of Congress to the Department of Agriculture. Commercial attachés remained with State until 1980, when Reorganization Plan Number 3 of 1979 was implemented under terms of the Foreign Service Act of 1980, Officers were expected to spend the bulk of their careers abroad and were commissioned officers of the United States, available for worldwide service
In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government. Since ancient times, when societies were tribal, there were councils or a headman whose decisions were assessed by village elders, eventually these councils have slowly evolved into the modern Parliamentary system. The first parliaments date back to Europe in the Middle Ages, for example in 1188 Alfonso IX, the modern concept of parliamentary government emerged in the Kingdom of Great Britain and its contemporary, the Parliamentary System in Sweden. In England, Simon de Montfort is remembered as one of the fathers of representative government for holding two famous parliaments, the first, in 1258, stripped the King of unlimited authority and the second, in 1265, included ordinary citizens from the towns. Later, in the 17th century, the Parliament of England pioneered some of the ideas and systems of liberal democracy culminating in the Glorious Revolution, in the Kingdom of Great Britain, the monarch, in theory, chaired cabinet and chose ministers.
In practice, King George Is inability to speak English led the responsibility for chairing cabinet to go to the minister, literally the prime or first minister. By the nineteenth century, the Great Reform Act of 1832 led to parliamentary dominance, with its choice invariably deciding who was prime minister, hence the use of phrases like Her Majestys government or His Excellencys government. Nineteenth century urbanisation, industrial revolution and, modernism had already fueled the political struggle for democracy. In the radicalised times at the end of World War I, a parliamentary system may be either bicameral, with two chambers of parliament or unicameral, with just one parliamentary chamber. Scholars of democracy such as Arend Lijphart distinguish two types of parliamentary democracies, the Westminster and Consensus systems, the Westminster system is usually found in the Commonwealth of Nations and countries which were influenced by the British political tradition. These parliaments tend to have a more style of debate.
The Australian House of Representatives is elected using instant-runoff voting, while the Senate is elected using proportional representation through single transferable vote, regardless of which system is used, the voting systems tend to allow the voter to vote for a named candidate rather than a closed list. The Western European parliamentary model tends to have a more consensual debating system, Consensus systems have more of a tendency to use proportional representation with open party lists than the Westminster Model legislatures. The committees of these Parliaments tend to be more important than the plenary chamber, some West European countries parliaments implement the principle of dualism as a form of separation of powers. In countries using this system, Members of Parliament have to resign their place in Parliament upon being appointed minister, ministers in those countries usually actively participate in parliamentary debates, but are not entitled to vote. Some countries such as India require the prime minister to be a member of the legislature, the head of state appoints a prime minister who will likely have majority support in parliament.
The head of state appoints a minister who must gain a vote of confidence within a set time. The head of state appoints the leader of the party holding a plurality of seats in parliament as prime minister
Head of government
The term head of government is often differentiated from the term head of state, as they may be separate positions, and/or roles depending on the country. In parliamentary systems, including constitutional monarchies, the head of government is the de facto leader of the government. For example, in the United Kingdom, the prime minister advises the Queen on the appointment of the cabinet, advice she is required to accept. On the other hand, the Queens long service as the head of state enables her to provide the prime minister with information and insight into many matters to better run the government. However, because the United Kingdom is a monarchy, the Prime Minister uses his or her own discretion regarding whether or not to follow the Queens advice. The Queen is entitled to appoint a new Prime Minister, in presidential republics or in absolute monarchies, the head of state is usually the head of government. The relationship between that leader and the government, can vary greatly, ranging from separation of powers to autocracy, in semi-presidential systems, the head of government may answer to both the head of state and the legislature, with the specifics provided by each countrys constitution.
A modern example is the present French government, which originated as the French Fifth Republic in 1958, in France, the president, the head of state, appoints the prime minister, who is the head of government. In some cases, the head of state may represent one political party, in this case, known as cohabitation, the prime minister, along with the cabinet, controls domestic policy, with the presidents influence is largely restricted to foreign affairs. In directorial systems, the executive responsibilities of the head of government are spread among a group of people, a prominent example is the Swiss Federal Council, where each member of the council heads a department and votes on proposals relating to all departments. A common title for many heads of government is prime minister, various constitutions use different titles, and even the same title can have various multiple meanings, depending on the constitutional order and political system of the state in question. In addition to prime minister, titles used for the democratic model, some of these titles relate to governments below the national level.
Have been used by various Empires and Princely States of India as a title for the Prime Minister, maltese, In Malta, the head of government is Prim Ministru. In this case, the prime minister serves at the pleasure of the monarch, some such titles are diwan, pradhan, wasir or vizier. However, just because the head of state is the de jure dominant position does not mean that he/she will not always be the de facto political leader, in some cases, the head of state is a figurehead whilst the head of the government leads the ruling party. In some cases a head of government may even pass on the title in hereditary fashion, the ability to vote down legislative proposals of the government. Control over or ability to vote down fiscal measures and the budget, all of these requirements directly impact the Head of governments role. Many parliamentary systems require ministers to serve in parliament, while others ban ministers from sitting in parliament, heads of government are typically removed from power in a parliamentary system by Resignation, Defeat in a general election
President of the United States
The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.
In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation
United States Attorney General
The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice per 28 U. S. C. §503, concerned with affairs, and is the chief law enforcement officer. The 84th and current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions, who assumed the office on February 9,2017, the attorney general serves as a member of the Cabinet of the President of the United States and is the only cabinet officer who does not have the title Secretary of. The Attorney General is appointed by the President and takes office after confirmation by the United States Senate, the office of Attorney General was established by Congress by the Judiciary Act of 1789. In 1870, the Department of Justice was established to support the general in the discharge of their responsibilities. Parties No party Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Status As of April 2017, there are eleven, living former US Attorneys General, the most recent Attorney General to die was Janet Reno on November 7,2016. Barr served as acting general in their capacity as deputy attorney general.
2 Richard L. Thornburgh and Eric Holder served as acting general in their capacity as deputy attorney general. Both subsequently served as general, Thornburgh 1988–1991 and Holder 2009–2015. 4 Assistant Attorney General for the DOJ Civil Division Stuart M. Gerson was acting general from January 20,1993. Gerson was fourth in the line of succession at the Justice Department, during his time as Acting AG, Gerson supported the Brady bill and was in office in the beginnings of the Waco siege. Janet Reno, President Clintons nominee for attorney general, was confirmed on March 12, Acting Attorney General Gersons last day at the Justice Department was March 19. 5 On August 27,2007, President Bush named Solicitor General Paul Clement as the acting attorney general, to take office upon the resignation of Alberto Gonzales. According to administration officials, Clement took that office at 12,01 am September 17,2007, keisler served as acting attorney general until the nomination of Michael Mukasey on November 9,2007.
6 Deputy Attorney General Mark Filip was asked to assume the position of acting attorney general by President-elect Obama, Filip led the Department while President Obamas nominee, Attorney-General Designate Eric Holder, awaited confirmation by the United States Senate. Holder was confirmed on February 2,2009, and sworn in the next day, thus ending Filips tenure as the acting attorney general
United States Department of the Interior
The United States Department of the Interior is the United States federal executive department of the U. S. About 75% of federal land is managed by the department. The Department is administered by the United States Secretary of the Interior, the current Secretary is Ryan Zinke. The Inspector General position is vacant, with Mary Kendall serving as acting Inspector General. Despite its name, the Department of the Interior has a different role from that of the ministries of other nations. In the United States, national security and immigration functions are performed by the Department of Homeland Security primarily, the Department of the Interior has often been humorously called The Department of Everything Else because of its broad range of responsibilities. A department for domestic concern was first considered by the 1st United States Congress in 1789, the idea of a separate domestic department continued to percolate for a half-century and was supported by Presidents from James Madison to James Polk.
The 1846–48 Mexican–American War gave the new steam as the responsibilities of federal government grew. Polks Secretary of the Treasury, Robert J. Walker, became a champion of creating the new department. In 1849, Walker stated in his report that several federal offices were placed in departments with which they had little to do. Walker argued that these and other bureaus should be together in a new Department of the Interior. A bill authorizing its creation of the Department passed the House of Representatives on February 15,1849, the Department was established on March 3,1849, the eve of President Zachary Taylors inauguration, when the Senate voted 31 to 25 to create the Department. Its passage was delayed by Democrats in Congress who were reluctant to create more patronage posts for the incoming Whig administration to fill, the first Secretary of the Interior was Thomas Ewing. Many of the concerns the Department originally dealt with were gradually transferred to other Departments. Other agencies became separate Departments, such as the Bureau of Agriculture, however and natural resource management, American Indian affairs, wildlife conservation, and territorial affairs remain the responsibilities of the Department of the Interior.
As of mid-2004, the Department managed 507 million acres of surface land, energy projects on federally managed lands and offshore areas supply about 28% of the nations energy production. Within the Interior Department, the Bureau of Indian Affairs handles some federal relations with Native Americans, the current acting Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs is Lawrence S. Roberts, an enrolled member of the Oneida Tribe in Wisconsin. Several cases have sought accounting of such funds from the departments of Interior, in addition, some Native American nations have sued the government over water-rights issues and their treaties with the US
United States Secretary of Agriculture
The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The current Acting Secretary is Mike Young, who has held the office since the inauguration of Donald Trump on January 20,2017, the position carries similar responsibilities to those of agriculture ministers in other governments. The 297,000 mi2 of national forests and grasslands are managed by the United States Forest Service, the safety of food produced that are produced in the United States and sold here is ensured by the United States Food Safety and Inspection Service. The Food Stamp Program works with the states to provide food to low-income people, advice for farmers and gardeners is provided by the United States Cooperative State Research and Extension Service. The Washington Post reports that he said There are days when I have literally nothing to do, president Obama asked him to stay and asked him to look into the problem of opioid addiction. The following is a list of Secretaries of Agriculture, since the creation of the office in 1889, parties Democratic Republican As of April 2017, there are nine living former Secretaries of Agriculture, the oldest being Robert Bergland.
The most recent Secretary of Agriculture to die was Clayton Yeutter, the most recently serving Secretary to die was Edward Rell Madigan on December 7,1994. United States Department of Agriculture website
United States Secretary of the Interior
The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the U. S. Department of the Interior. The Secretary serves on and appoints the private citizens on the National Park Foundation board, the Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. The U. S. Department of the Interior should not be confused with the Ministries of the Interior as used in other countries. Ministries of the Interior in these other countries correspond primarily to the Department of Homeland Security in the U. S, Cabinet and secondarily to the Department of Justice. On December 13,2016, President-elect Donald Trump picked Ryan Zinke for the position of Interior Secretary, the most recent to die was William P. Clark, Jr. on August 10,2013. List of Secretaries of the Interior List of Secretaries of the Interior The Department of Everything Else, Highlights of Interior History
United States Secretary of Labor
Formerly, there was a U. S. Secretary of Commerce and Labor, who led this department along with the U. S. Department of Commerce as one department. Since the two split in 1913, the Department of Commerce is now headed by a separate U. S. Secretary of Commerce. The most recent Secretary of Labor to die was William Usery Jr. on December 10,2016, United States Deputy Secretary of Labor List of living former members of the United States Cabinet Hall of the Secretaries of Labor and Biographies
George Ervin Sonny Perdue III is an American politician who served as the 81st Governor of Georgia from 2003 to 2011. Upon his inauguration in January 2003, he became the first Republican Governor of Georgia since Reconstruction, Perdue currently serves on the Governors’ Council of the Bipartisan Policy Center in Washington, DC, and is President Donald Trumps nominee for U. S. Secretary of Agriculture. If confirmed, Perdue would only be the second Secretary of Agriculture from the Deep South, the first was Mike Espy of Mississippi, who served under President Bill Clinton from January 1993 to December 1994. On January 18,2017, incoming U. S. President Donald Trump announced that he would nominate Perdue to be United States Secretary of Agriculture and his nomination was transmitted to the Senate on March 9,2017. Perdue was born in Perry, the son of Ophie Viola, a teacher and he grew up and still lives in Bonaire, an unincorporated area between Perry and Warner Robins. Perdue has been known as Sonny since childhood and prefers to be called by name, he was sworn in.
Perdue is the first cousin of U. S, Perdue played quarterback at Warner Robins High School and was a walk-on at the University of Georgia, where he was a member of the Beta-Lambda chapter of Kappa Sigma Fraternity. Perdue is not related to the family owns and operates Perdue Farms. Perdue served in the U. S. Air Force, rising to the rank of captain before his discharge, after serving as a member of the Houston County Planning & Zoning Commission in the 1980s, Perdue ran for a seat in the Georgia General Assembly. He defeated Republican candidate Ned Sanders in 1990 and succeeded Democratic incumbent Ed Barker as the Senator representing the 18th district. Perdue was elected in 1991,1994, and 1996, serving as his partys leader in the Senate, from 1994 to 1997 and his committee assignments included Ethics, Finance & Public Utilities, Health & Human Services and Economic Development, Tourism & Cultural Affairs. He switched party affiliation from Democrat to Republican in 1998 and was re-elected to the Senate as a Republican and he won re-election in 2000.
In December 2001, Perdue resigned as State Senator and devoted entirely to running for the office of Governor. He won the 2002 Georgia gubernatorial election, defeating Democratic incumbent Roy Barnes, 51% to 46% and he became the first Republican governor of Georgia in over 130 years since Benjamin F. Conley. In 2006, Perdue was re-elected to a term in the 2006 Georgia gubernatorial election. His Democratic opponent was Lieutenant Governor Mark Taylor, Libertarian Garrett Michael Hayes was on the ballot. Perdue advocated reforms designed to cut waste in government, most notably the sale of surplus vehicles, prior to Perdues becoming governor, no state agency had even compiled an inventory of what assets the state owned. In education, Perdue promoted the return of most decision-making to the local level, after Perdue took office, in 2003 and 2004, Georgia moved up from last place in the country in SAT scores
Head of state
A head of state is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. In some countries, the head of state is a figurehead with limited or no executive power, while in others. Former French president Charles de Gaulle, while developing the current Constitution of France, some academic writers discuss states and governments in terms of models. An independent nation state normally has a head of state, the non-executive model, in which the head of state has either none or very limited executive powers, and mainly has a ceremonial and symbolic role. In parliamentary systems the head of state may be merely the chief executive officer, heading the executive branch of the state. This accountability and legitimacy requires that someone be chosen who has a majority support in the legislature and it gives the legislature the right to vote down the head of government and their cabinet, forcing it either to resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution. In parliamentary constitutional monarchies, the legitimacy of the head of state typically derives from the tacit approval of the people via the elected representatives.
In reality, numerous variants exist to the position of a head of state within a parliamentary system, the king had the power of declaring war without previous consent of the parliament. For example, under the 1848 constitution of the Kingdom of Italy, the Statuto Albertino—the parliamentary approval to the government appointed by the king—was customary, so, Italy had a de facto parliamentarian system, but a de jure presidential system. These officials are excluded completely from the executive, they do not possess even theoretical executive powers or any role, even formal, hence their states governments are not referred to by the traditional parliamentary model head of state styles of His/Her Majestys Government or His/Her Excellencys Government. Within this general category, variants in terms of powers and functions may exist, the constitution explicitly vests all executive power in the Cabinet, who is chaired by the prime minister and responsible to the Diet. The emperor is defined in the constitution as the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people and he is a ceremonial figurehead with no independent discretionary powers related to the governance of Japan.
Today, the Speaker of the Riksdag appoints the prime minister, Cabinet members are appointed and dismissed at the sole discretion of the prime minister. In contrast, the contact the President of Ireland has with the Irish government is through a formal briefing session given by the taoiseach to the president. However, he or she has no access to documentation and all access to ministers goes through the Department of the Taoiseach. The president does, hold limited reserve powers, such as referring a bill to the court to test its constitutionality. The most extreme non-executive republican Head of State is the President of Israel, semi-presidential systems combine features of presidential and parliamentary systems, notably a requirement that the government be answerable to both the president and the legislature. The constitution of the Fifth French Republic provides for a minister who is chosen by the president