In the United States, the title of federal judge means a judge nominated by the president of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate pursuant to the Appointments Clause in Article II of the United States Constitution. In addition to the Supreme Court of the United States, whose existence and some aspects of whose jurisdiction are beyond the constitutional power of Congress to alter, Congress has established 13 courts of appeals with appellate jurisdiction over different regions of the United States, 94 United States district courts; every judge appointed to such a court may be categorized as a federal judge. All of these judges described thus far are referred to sometimes as "Article III judges" because they exercise the judicial power vested in the judicial branch of the federal government by Article III of the U. S. Constitution. In addition, judges of the Court of International Trade exercise judicial power pursuant to Article III. Other judges serving in the federal courts, including magistrate judges and bankruptcy judges, are sometimes referred to as "federal judges".
The primary function of the federal judges is to resolve matters brought before the United States federal courts. Most federal courts in the United States are courts of limited jurisdiction, meaning that they hear only cases for which jurisdiction is authorized by the United States constitution or federal statutes. However, federal district courts are authorized to hear a wide range of criminal cases. District Court judges are recognized as having a certain degree of inherent authority to manage the matters before them, ranging from setting the dates for trials and hearings to holding parties in contempt or otherwise sanctioning them for improper behavior. In other circumstances their actions are dictated by federal law, the federal rules of procedure, or "local" rules created by the specific court system itself. "Article III federal judges" serve "during good behavior". Judges hold their seats until they die, or are removed from office. Although the legal orthodoxy is that judges cannot be removed from office except by impeachment by the House of Representatives followed by conviction by the Senate, several legal scholars, including William Rehnquist, Saikrishna Prakash, Steven D. Smith, have argued that the Good Behavior Clause may, in theory, permit removal by way of a writ of scire facias filed before a federal court, without resort to impeachment.
As of 2018, federal district judges are paid $208,000 a year, circuit judges $220,600, associate justices of the Supreme Court $255,300 and the chief justice of the United States $267,000. All were permitted to earn a maximum of an additional $21,000 a year for teaching. Chief Justice John Roberts has pleaded for an increase in judicial pay, calling the situation "a constitutional crisis that threatens to undermine the strength and independence of the federal judiciary"; the problem is that the most talented associates at the largest U. S. law firms with judicial clerkship experience earn as much as a federal judge in their first year as full-time associates. Thus, when those attorneys become experienced partners and reach the stage in life where one would consider switching to public service, their interest in joining the judiciary is tempered by the prospect of a giant pay cut back to what they were making 10 to 20 years earlier. One way for attorneys to soften the financial blow is to spend only a few years on the bench and return to private practice or go into private arbitration, but such turnover creates a risk of a revolving door judiciary subject to regulatory capture.
Thus, Chief Justice Roberts has warned that "judges are no longer drawn from among the best lawyers in the practicing bar" and "If judicial appointment ceases to be the capstone of a distinguished career and instead becomes a stepping stone to a lucrative position in private practice, the Framers' goal of a independent judiciary will be placed in serious jeopardy." Each federal judge serves at a particular "duty station" for the duration of his or her federal service. This is important because of the relationship among several federal statutes. First, 28 U. S. C. § 456 entitles federal judges to reimbursement of transportation and "subsistence" expenses incurred while transacting official business away from their duty stations. Section 456 prescribes that the District of Columbia is the duty station of all members of the U. S. Supreme Court, the D. C. Circuit, the Federal Circuit, the U. S. District Court for the District of Columbia. Second, there are several reasons federal judges need to transact official business outside of their regular courthouse.
28 U. S. C. §§ 291 and 292 authorize a broad variety of temporary reassignments of circuit and district judges, both horizontally and vertically. Many federal judges serve on administrative panels like the judicial council for their circuit or the Judicial Conference of the United States; some of the larger circuit courts like the Ninth Circuit hold regular sessions at multiple locations
Tom Fuentes served as an Assistant Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation from 2004 to 2008. Fuentes served in the FBI for 29 years under various other positions as well. Fuentes was raised in Chicago, Illinois, to Cuban parents, he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics, Business Administration and Public Service Administration from Governors State University, University Park, Illinois. Fuentes' 29-year career in the FBI included 11 years as a member of the U. S. Government's Senior Executive Service. Fuentes directed the FBI Office of International Operations, which included offices at FBI Headquarters in Washington, D. C. and 76 Legal Attaché offices in U. S. Embassies and Consulates worldwide, he was responsible for FBI Special Agents and Analysts assigned to the Interpol Washington, D. C. National Central Bureau office, United Nations, General Secretariat office in Lyon, France as well as Europol Headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands. Fuentes was an Assistant Director of the FBI from 2004 until his retirement in November 2008.
He served as a member of the Executive Committee of Interpol from 2006 through 2009. Earlier in his career, Fuentes served as Special Agent in Charge of the Indianapolis Division of the FBI, he was the first FBI executive on-scene commander in Iraq. Fuentes is a 2007 graduate of the FBI's National Executive Institute and is a member of the FBI National Academy Associates, he is a member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police. He served as a member of the IACP's International Policing Steering Committee, the G8 Law Enforcement Projects Group. After leaving the FBI, Fuentes became a Law Enforcement Analyst for CNN in which he served as a frequent on-air Contributor for news stories regarding U. S. and international law enforcement and national security matters. Fuentes is President of Fuentes International, L. L. C. A consulting firm based in Washington, D. C, he has been an executive consultant to Inc.. Palantir Technologies, Inc. and Deloitte Consulting, Inc. He is a member of the U. S. State Department Overseas Security Advisory Council.
In 2013, Fuentes received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Society of Asian Federal Officers. In that same year he joined McDaniel, Inc. as Vice President for International Development. During a CNN interview in February 2018, following the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting, Fuentes argued against U. S. president Donald Trump's proposal to equip teachers and school officials with guns. Fuentes embroiled himself in controversy with comments concerning female teachers' ability to carry a firearm
The Lord's slope is a geographical gradient at Lord's Cricket Ground in London, England. The slope is in the cricket pitch and runs from the north end of the ground to the south end with a drop of 2.5 metres. The land on which Lord's was built was near a duck pond on a hill in St. John's Wood, it was leased by Thomas Lord following a request from George Finch, 9th Earl of Winchilsea to find a location where cricket could be played in relative privacy. Lord's was enclosed by stands. In the 21st century, there were calls for the slope to be levelled as a result of the advent of drop-in pitches. Smaller ridges in the pitch had been removed by surveyors. However, the Marylebone Cricket Club rejected these calls stating that removal of the slope would require rebuilding of Lord's and would mean that the ground would be unable to host Test cricket for five years as the new pitch would need time to mature after the levelling. In 2002, the Lord's outfield was drainage installed. During this work, several small deviations in the pitch were removed.
During the 2012 Summer Olympics, when Lord's hosted the Archery tournament, there were suggestions that the slope would affect the archers. However, British archer Alison Williamson rejected this, stating that the slope was noticeable; the Lord's slope is used to advantage by bowlers in cricket matches at Lord's. Because of the slope's angles, seam bowlers from the Pavilion End and swing bowlers from the Nursery End gain an advantage as the natural variation of the slope alters the bounce of the ball when bowling; the gradient of the slope is noted to affect right-handed batsmen more than left-handed batsmen as the ball moves towards left-handed batsmen. Despite the advantages the slope gives to bowlers, some batsmen make high scores when playing at Lord's