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United States naval reactors

United States naval reactors are nuclear reactors used by the United States Navy aboard certain ships to generate the steam used to produce power for propulsion, electric power, catapulting airplanes in aircraft carriers, a few more minor uses. Such naval nuclear reactors have a complete power plant associated with them. All U. S. Navy submarines and supercarriers built. There are no commissioned conventional submarines or aircraft carriers left in the U. S. Navy, since the last conventional carrier, USS Kitty Hawk, was decommissioned in May 2009; the U. S. Navy had nine nuclear-powered cruisers with such reactors but they have since been decommissioned. Reactors are designed by a variety of contractors developed and tested at one of several government -owned and prime contractor-operated facilities: Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory in West Mifflin and its associated Naval Reactors Facility in Idaho, Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory in Niskayuna, New York and its associated Kesselring site in West Milton, New York, all under the management of the office of Naval Reactors.

Sometimes there were full-scale nuclear-powered prototype plants built at the Naval Reactors Facility and Windsor to test the nuclear plants, which were operated for years to train nuclear-qualified sailors. Each reactor design is given a three-character designation consisting of: A letter for the type of ship the reactor is intended for A consecutive generation number A letter for the reactor's designer For example, a S9G reactor represents a submarine, ninth-generation, General Electric designed reactor. Conceptual analysis of nuclear marine propulsion started in the 1940s. Research on developing nuclear reactors for the Navy was done at Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory in West Mifflin, Pennsylvania starting in 1948. Under the long-term leadership of Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, the first test reactor plant, a prototype referred to as S1W, started up in U. S. in 1953 at the Naval Reactors Facility in Idaho. Bettis Laboratory and Naval Reactors Facility were operated and for many decades afterwards by Westinghouse.

The first nuclear-powered vessel, the submarine USS Nautilus, put to sea in 1955. USS Nautilus marked the beginning of the transition of submarines from slow and short-ranged conventional submarines to ones capable of sustaining 20–25 knots submerged for weeks on end. Much of the early development work on naval reactors was done at the Naval Reactors Facility on the campus of the Idaho National Laboratory. USS Nautilus was powered by the S2W reactor, crew were trained on the land-based S1W reactor at INL; the second nuclear submarine was USS Seawolf, powered by a sodium-cooled S2G reactor, supported by the land-based S1G reactor at the Kesselring site under Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory operated by General Electric. A spare S2G was built but never used. USS Seawolf was plagued by superheater problems, with the result that USS Nautilus delivered far superior performance; this and the risks posed by liquid sodium in the event of an accident at sea led Admiral Rickover to select the pressurized water reactor as the standard U.

S. naval reactor type. The S2G was removed from USS Seawolf and replaced by the S2Wa reactor, using components from the spare S2W, part of the USS Nautilus program. All subsequent U. S. naval reactors have been PWRs, while the Soviet Navy used PWRs, but used lead-bismuth cooled liquid metal cooled reactors of three types in eight submarines: K-27 and the seven-member Alfa class. Experience with USS Nautilus led to the parallel development of further submarines, powered by single reactors, an aircraft carrier, USS Enterprise, powered by eight A2W reactor units in 1960. A cruiser, USS Long Beach, was powered by two C1W reactor units. USS Enterprise remained in service for over 50 years, was inactivated in 2012. Full-scale land-based prototype plants in Idaho, New York, Connecticut preceded development of several types of U. S. naval nuclear reactors. After initial construction, some engineering testing was done and the prototypes were used to train nuclear-qualified sailors for many years afterwards.

For example, the A1W prototype at Naval Reactors Facility led to development of A2W reactors used in USS Enterprise. By 1962, the US Navy had 26 nuclear submarines operational and 30 under construction. Nuclear power had revolutionized the U. S. Navy; the technology was shared with the United Kingdom, while technological development in France and the Soviet Union proceeded separately. After the Skate-class vessels, reactor development proceeded and in the U. S. a single series of standardized designs was built by both Westinghouse and General Electric, with one reactor powering each vessel. Rolls Royce built similar units for Royal Navy submarines and developed the design further to the PWR-2. Numerous submarines with an S5W reactor plant were built. At the end of the Cold War in 1989, there were over 400 nuclear-powered submarines operational or being built; some 250 of these submarines have now been scrapped and some on order canceled, due to weapons reduction programs. The Russian Navy and United States Navy had over one hundred each, with the United Kingdom and France less than twenty each and China six.

The total today is about 160. The United States is the main navy with nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, while Russia has nucle

Wattenberg Gas Field

The Wattenberg Gas Field is a large producing area of natural gas and condensate in the Denver Basin of central Colorado, USA. Discovered in 1970, the field was one of the first places where massive hydraulic fracturing was performed and on thousands of wells; the field now covers more than 2,000 square miles between the cities of Denver and Greeley, includes more than 23,000 wells producing from a number of Cretaceous formations. The bulk of the field is in Weld County, but it extends into Adams, Broomfield and Larimer Counties; the reservoir rocks are Cretaceous sandstones and limestones deposited under marine conditions in the Western Interior Seaway. The gas and condensate is contained within Cretaceous formations in the deepest part of the Denver Basin, where the rocks were subject to enough heat and pressure to generate oil and gas from organic material in the rock; the field is basin-centered gas field. Most of the gas-producing formations are considered tight gas. Although the field today is in the deepest part of the basin, an unconformity at the base of the Pierre Shale shows that the field is on an early paleohigh active in the Middle Cretaceous.

Although numerous wells had drilled through the Wattenberg Field over the decades, many drillers and wellsite geologists noticed gas “shows” in the "J" Sandstone and other strata, the "J" Sandstone and other gas-bearing formations had permeability too low to yield gas in commercial quantities. Core samples indicated the "J" Sandstone was similar to the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone reservoir in the San Juan Basin; this was supported with the Aug. 1967 discovery of the Roundup Field. Additionally, examination of outcrops and electrical logs showed the "J" Sandstone to be a delta-front sandstone. Amoco geologist Pete Matuszczak noticed that all the wells drilled over a large area recorded noncommercial gas shows, with no water, through the "J" Sandsone on the mudlogs and drillstem tests, he suggested that the area might be made to produce large economic quantities if the wells were treated with the new method of massive hydraulic fracturing, which Amoco was using in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico.

Drilling started in 1970, wells were completed in the J Sandstone, at depths from 7350 to 8500 feet. Drilling deep gas fortuitously found conventional oil in places in the shallower Terry and Hygiene sandstones; the D Sandstone, another conventional reservoir produces in limited areas within Wattenberg. Additional producing formations were added to the field. Starting in 1981, operators discovered that the Codell Sandstone would yield economic quantities of oil and gas if hydraulically fractured. Hundreds of new wells were completed in the Codell in the early 1980s. Additional wells were drilled and hydraulically fractured in the Plainview and Lytle formations, below the J Sandstone; the initial spacing of one "J" Sandstone well per 320 acres was found insufficient to drain the reservoir, so the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission approved infill wells. Gas wells in Wattenberg were drilled vertically until 2009, when operators discovered that horizontal wells drilled in the chalk of the Niobrara Formation yielded better quantities of gas and condensate, setting off a new round of drilling.

In 1973, the field was thought to contain 1.1 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas. Through 2008, the Wattenberg Field had produced 2.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, an estimated 5.2 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas remained. In 2013, the US Energy Information Administration listed Wattenberg as the 9th largest gas field in the US in terms of remaining proved gas reserves, 4th in remaining proved oil/condensate reserves; as of March 2018, the field was producing 1.92 billion cubic feet of gas and 331 thousand barrels of oil and condensate per day, from more than 23,000 active wells. More than 40 companies operate wells in Wattenberg; as of 2017, the five largest producers of oil and gas in the field were: Kerr-McGee, Noble Energy, PDC Energy, Extraction Oil and Gas, SRC Energy. Together, the top five producing companies produced 84 percent of the total gas produced in 2017

Los Angeles LGBT Center

The Los Angeles LGBT Center is a provider of programs and services for lesbian, gay and transgender people. The organization's work spans four categories, including health, social services and leadership and advocacy; the Center is the largest facility in the world providing services to LGBT people. The Center was founded in part by gay and lesbian rights activist Morris Kight. In 1998, the organization named its library the Judith Light Library after one of its benefactors, actress Judith Light; the current CEO is Lorri Jean. On October 2, 2010, the Center became the recipient of a $13.3 million, five-year grant from the federal United States Department of Health and Human Services Administration on Children and Families in order to create a model program for LGBTQ youth in foster care. It was the largest-ever grant by the federal government to an LGBT organization, the only grant out of six total grants that did not go to a government agency or academic institution. In 2016, Holly Woodlawn's estate founded the Holly Woodlawn Memorial Fund for Transgender Youth at the Center, to benefit some of the Center's programs, including Trans Pride L.

A. Trans* Lounge, Transgender Economic Empowerment Project, trans health care services. Woodlawn was transgender herself. HealthPrimary medical care by providers who specialize in caring for LGBT people HIV/AIDS specialty care through its Jeffrey Goodman Special Care Clinic HIV and STD testing and treatment Individual/group counseling and psychiatric care Crystal meth and other drug recovery services On-site pharmacy Health and medical research Social services and housingEmergency shelter and transitional housing for youth 7 day/week support services for homeless youth, including meals, showers, etc. Support services and activities for seniors Legal support and advocacy Hate crime survivor assistance Domestic violence survivor assistance Youth mentoring and empowerment Employment support with special programs for transgender people and youth Family services and programs Culture and educationPerformances and exhibitions on the Center's stages and in its galleries LGBT charter high school GED program Continuing education and personal-enrichment program David Bohnett CyberCenter and computer lab Community meeting and event space Leadership and advocacyPolitical and civil rights advocacy Suicide prevention in schools Technical support and assistance to sister organizations LGBT cultural competency trainings Mentoring and training emerging leaders in strategic domestic and international communities.

The Los Angeles LGBT Center operates facilities in seven Los Angeles, CA locations: Anita May Rosenstein Campus - Santa Monica Blvd at McCadden Place McDonald/Wright Building - 1625 N. Schrader Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90028-6213 The Village at Ed Gould Plaza - 1125 N. McCadden Place, Los Angeles, CA 90038 The Center Weho - 8745 Santa Monica Boulevard, West Hollywood, CA 90069 Triangle Square - 1602 Ivar Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90028 Mi Centro - 553 S. Clarence Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033 Trans Wellness Center - 3055 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 360, Los Angeles, CA 90010 List of LGBT community centers Torie Osborn LGBT culture in Los Angeles Official website

Jens Haaning

Jens Haaning is a Danish conceptual, contemporary artist living and working in Copenhagen. Haaning has produced a body of artworks since the 1990s, which – when seen together – offers an acute reflection of a complex and changing society in the West; the works address the existing structures of power and communication in the global society and necessitate a debate around subjects such as migration, displacement and other aspects related to our coexistence. The works consist of interventions in institutional structures or public spaces. Examples of these are: ‘Middelburg Summer 1996’, a temporary relocation of a factory employing immigrant workers to the exhibition space De Vleeshal, The Netherlands, ‘Turkish Jokes’ a sound piece with a tape-recording of jokes, told by Turks in their native language, played in a public square in Oslo, Norway. Haaning has exhibited extensively, the main exhibitions include: Documenta XI, Germany, the 9th Istanbul Biennial, Turkey, Traffic at CAPC Museé d'art contemporain, France, Vienna Secession, Austria, Publicness at ICA, England, the 6th Gwangju Biennale, South Korea and latest a large survey of Haaning’s works from the 1990s until 2017 at Göteborg International Biennial for Contemporary Art, Sweden.

Artist website Creative Time Göteborg International Biennial for Contemporary Art

Donovan Browning

Donovan Albert Browning was an English professional footballer who played at right-back in the Football League for Southampton in the 1930s. Browning was born into a farming family at Ashley, near New Milton and represented New Forest Schools before joining New Milton of the Hampshire League in 1934. In May 1935, Browning moved across the New Forest to join Southampton of the Football League Second Division, he spent his first year at The Dell in the reserves and his first-team debut came on 28 December 1936, when he replaced Charlie Sillett at right-back, with Sillett moving to the left in the absence of Arthur Roberts for the match against Coventry City, which ended in a 1–1 draw. Although Browning lost his place for the next match, he was recalled in February and played most of the remaining matches until the end of the season, he started the next season as first-choice right-back before a serious knee injury in early October put him out of the game for several months. On his return in February, he had lost his consistency and only played another four matches before being transfer-listed for a fee of £500 in May 1938.

No other club came in for him, so he remained at The Dell for another year, making only six reserve-team appearances before he was released in May 1939. Browning was a talented cricketer and was on the ground-staff at Hampshire County Cricket Club's County Ground, he became a farmer in Dorset with 5,000 acres and was still a season ticket holder at the Dell in 1992. Career details on www.11v11.com

Cocktail party

A cocktail party is a party at which cocktails are served. It is sometimes called a cocktail reception. A cocktail party organized for purposes of social or business networking is called a mixer. A cocktail hour is sometimes used by managers of hotels and restaurants as a means of attracting bar patrons between 4 pm and 6 pm; some events, such as wedding receptions, are preceded by a cocktail hour. During the cocktail hour, guests socialize while eating appetizers. Organizers of these events use the cocktail hour to occupy guests between related events and to reduce the number of guests who arrive late. Although it has been said that the inventor of the cocktail party was Alec Waugh of London, an article in the St. Paul Pioneer Press in May 1917 credited its invention to Mrs. Julius S. Walsh Jr. of St. Louis, Missouri. Mrs. Walsh invited 50 guests to her house on a Sunday at high noon for a one-hour affair. "The party scored an instant hit," the newspaper declared, stating that within weeks cocktail parties had become "a St. Louis institution".

Alec Waugh noted that the first cocktail party in England was hosted in 1924 by war artist Christopher Nevinson. Women who attend a cocktail party may wear a cocktail dress. A cocktail hat is sometimes worn as a fashion statement. Cocktail hors d'oeuvres The Cocktail Party, a play by T. S. Eliot