United States of Europe

The United States of Europe, the European State, the European Superstate, the European Federation and Federal Europe are similar hypothetical scenarios of a single sovereign country in Europe, organised as a federation, similar to the United States of America, as contemplated by political scientists, geographers, historians and fiction writers. At present, while the European Union is not a federation, various academic observers regard it as having the characteristics of a federal system; the term "United States of Europe" – as a direct comparison with the United States of America – would imply that each of the European states would acquire a status similar to that of a U. S. state. The term European Superstate by eurosceptics within the United Kingdom, is used as a criticism of further integration into the EU with a loss of national sovereignty, although it has been used positively in the British press. Various versions of the concept have developed over the centuries, many of which are mutually incompatible.

Such proposals include those from Bohemian King George of Podebrady in 1464. George Washington allegedly voiced support for a "United States of Europe", although the authenticity of this statement has been questioned. Felix Markham notes how during a conversation on St. Helena, Napoleon Bonaparte remarked: "Europe thus divided into nationalities formed and free internally, peace between States would have become easier: the United States of Europe would become a possibility". "United States of Europe" was the name of the concept presented by Wojciech Jastrzębowski in About eternal peace between the nations, published 31 May 1831. The project consisted of 77 articles; the envisioned United States of Europe was to be an international organisation rather than a superstate. Giuseppe Mazzini, an early advocate of a "United States of Europe" regarded the European unification as a logical continuation of the unification of Italy. Mazzini created the Young Europe movement; the term "United States of Europe" was used by Victor Hugo, including during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849.

Hugo favoured the creation of "a supreme, sovereign senate, which will be to Europe what parliament is to England" and said: "A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas". Hugo planted a tree in the grounds of his residence on the Island of Guernsey and was noted in saying that when this tree matured the United States of Europe would have come into being; this tree to this day is still growing in the gardens of Maison de Hauteville, St. Peter Port, Victor Hugo's residence during his exile from France. In 1867, Giuseppe Garibaldi and John Stuart Mill joined Victor Hugo at a congress of the League for Peace and Freedom in Geneva. Here the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin stated: "That in order to achieve the triumph of liberty and peace in the international relations of Europe, to render civil war impossible among the various peoples who make up the European family, only a single course lies open: to constitute the United States of Europe".

The French National Assembly called for a United States of Europe on 1 March 1871. Following the catastrophe of the First World War, some thinkers and visionaries again began to float the idea of a politically unified Europe. In 1923, the Austrian Count Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi founded the Pan-Europa Movement and hosted the First Paneuropean Congress, held in Vienna in 1926; the aim was for a Europe based on the principles of liberalism and social responsibility. Before the communist revolution in Russia, Leon Trotsky foresaw a "Federated Republic of Europe — the United States of Europe", created by the proletariat. In 1929, Aristide Briand, French Prime Minister, gave a speech before the Assembly of the League of Nations in which he proposed the idea of a federation of European nations based on solidarity and in the pursuit of economic prosperity and political and social co-operation. At the League's request, Briand presented a "Memorandum on the organisation of a system of European Federal Union" in 1930.

In 1931, French politician Édouard Herriot and British civil servant Arthur Salter both penned books titled The United States of Europe. After the First World War, Winston Churchill had seen continental Europe as a source of threats and sought to avoid Britain's involvement in European conflicts. On 15 February 1930, Churchill commented in the American journal The Saturday Evening Post that a "European Union" was possible between continental states, but without Britain's involvement: We see nothing but good and hope in a richer, more contented European commonality, but we have our own dream and our own task. We are with Europe, but not of it. We are linked but not compromised. We are interested and associated but not absorbed. During the 1930s, Churchill was influenced by and became an advocate of the ideas of Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi and his Paneuropean Union, though Churchill did not advocate Britain's membership of such a union.. During the World War II victories of Nazi Germany in 1940, Wilhelm II stated that "the hand of God is creating a new wor

Nobody (album)

Nobody is a collaborative studio album, by American hip hop recording artist Chief Keef and record producer 12Million. It was independently released on December 2014, by Keef's Glo Gang label; the album is a solo effort, includes two guest features from Tadoe and Kanye West. The album's production and lyrics are representative of the drill music genre. On November 22, 2014, when Keef announced the release of an album, titled Nobody, slated for a December 2, 2014 release, it became apparent that the "Nobody" track had developed into its own project, rather than as a portion of Bang 3; the album experienced a slight delay, but was released on December 16 through iTunes digital download. Meaghan Garvey of Pitchfork Media wrote that the album was, "released and without much fanfare." On September 2, 2014, Chief Keef released the cover art for the song "Nobody". The cover art features the heads of Keef and Kanye West side by side fading into the black background, where Keef was shown holding a bundle of dollar bills up to his ear.

The music on the album was noted to be, "experimental, devoid of any conventional hits." On the album, Keef touches on the concept of his fame, how it has impacted his life in both positive and negative aspects. The album included "emotional cornerstones," as well as subtle jokes made by Keef at his own expense. Keef raps about his romantic insecurities that have been compiling in his work since 2012, the, "unflinching ubermasculinity that characterizes drill and its proponents, beyond that, the temperament expected of black men from a young age."Specifically, on the track "Nobody", various sources reached a consensus that Keef's slurs and croons over Kanye West's vocals contributed to one of his more driven songs. Chris Coplan of Consequence of Sound writes that Keef's auto-tuned vocals are, "part slur and part croon", that Kanye West's, "succinct-yet-soulful backing harmonies sound doubly hazy over rumbling drum beats and the intermittent flutter of keys." The Source writes that the song is, "one of the more driven cuts we’ve heard from the Chicago rapper in recent history."

Garvey writes that the track is, "about Keef at his rawest and most honest," referring to the line, "They thought I was a joke," as being burbled, "with a melancholy that suggests he reads the comments." Zach Frydenlund of Complex, writes that the song is, "decked out in auto-tune from start to finish, as Keef handles the majority of the record with his unique crooning throughout." However, Brennan Carley of Spin, commented, "as West croons in his trademark 808s warble in the background, the drill rapper slurs through bragging lyrics." In comparison to Keef's mixtape, Back From the Dead 2, Meaghan Garvey of Pitchfork Media, stated that Nobody was, "sharper and more purposeful." Garvey adds her opinions on the tracks, commenting, "a handful feel more like sketches than completed works. But its high points have a clarity unmatched within Keef’s last two years of work, he may not be coming back to earth any time soon, but he’s looking his audience in the eyes." Garvey gave the album an overall score of 7 out of 10, stating, "Nobody is, at its best, strikingly lucid.

Maybe his recent passion for visual art has rekindled an interest in direct expression. Maybe he’s just growing up." All tracks are produced by 12Million himself, except. Samples credits"Nobody" samples the instrumentals from Willie Hutch's "Brother's Gonna Work It Out". "Nobody" is a song by Chief Keef featuring fellow rapper Kanye West. It was released on December 2014 as the lead single and title track from the album. "Nobody" prominently samples Willie Hutch's 1973 track "Brother's Gonna Work It Out", sampled by Chance the Rapper at an earlier date on his 2013 mixtape Acid Rap. West's feature makes heavy usage of auto-tune, mixed with his emotions. On August 18, 2014, Keef shared a snippet of the track via Instagram; the artwork for it was released by him on September 2. It was announced on November 22, 2014 that the song was set to be released on December 2 and would be included on Keef's album of the same title, which shut down any speculation that "Nobody" was set to be a track on Bang 3.

However, the track was released at a date originally planned, since it came out on December 15, 2014. Vibe had praise for both artists on the collaboration, describing it as them trading:'auto-tuned melodies reflective how they both turned somethin’ into nothin’'. However, Pitchfork had praise for only Keef's work throughout the song, describing it as being him:'at his rawest and most honest'. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Canja de galinha

Canja de galinha, or canja, is a popular chicken soup of Portuguese, Cape Verdean, Brazilian cuisine. The Portuguese term galinha means "hen", but became the generic name for the species, much like chicken in English. Portuguese chicken congee has the rice much more cooked than in most Western chicken soup recipes, but it is not disintegrated as in the Asian one; the basic ingredients include chicken, rice or massa pevide. Common flavoring ingredients are olive oil, saffron, white pepper and pepper, it is accompanied by slices of Portuguese broa bread on the side for dipping. This is only a variation of this recipe; the Brazilian recipe for flu uses whole pieces of chicken from the areas with more bones, fried in a light refogado using a sole smashed garlic clove, has the rice and vegetables boiled in broth much more cooked than the usual, might call for parsley and green onions along the mint. No seasoning besides light use of salt, fried garlic, green onion and mint is allowed. Olive oil might be added to the soup of those who are almost healed.

It is a common Brazilian food taboo that mixing rice and a gluten-possessing cereal or cereal-based food is not a good thing to be done, but some people still dip bread in the soup, as the Portuguese do. Corn-derived foodstuff, though, is regarded as too "heavy" to be eaten by sick people, much like legumes. Canja de galinha is consumed by Brazilians and Cape Verdeans when they have a cold. In Portugal, Cape Verde and Brazil, canja de galinha is believed to help a person overcome colds, digestive problems, other mild forms of sickness. In Cape Verde, canja is sometimes served after the funeral, at the home of the deceased because it "soothes" the heart, it is served in that country during special occasions, such as New Year's Eve and other special family events. Since canja de galinha is simple and light, it is consumed before a main course meal as well as a late supper. Caldo de pollo, canja's much "heavier" Hispanic American relative List of soups