United States presidential election in California, 2016

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United States presidential election in California, 2016
California
← 2012 November 8, 2016 2020 →
Turnout 75.27% Increase
 
Hillary Clinton official Secretary of State portrait crop.jpg
Official Portrait of President Donald Trump.jpg
Nominee Hillary Clinton Donald Trump
Party Democratic Republican
Home state New York New York
Running mate Tim Kaine Mike Pence
Electoral vote 55 0
Popular vote 8,753,788 4,483,810
Percentage 61.73% 31.62%

California Presidential Election Results 2016.svg
County Results

California 2016 presidential results by county.png
Results by county with size showing number of votes

President before election

Barack Obama
Democratic

Elected President

Donald Trump
Republican

Treemap of the popular vote by county.

The 2016 United States presidential election in California of November 8, 2016 was won by Democrat Hillary Clinton with a 61.7% majority of the popular vote over Republican Donald Trump. California's 55 electoral votes were assigned to Clinton.

Clinton won the state with 61.73% of the vote and a 30.11% margin, both the highest since Franklin D. Roosevelt's 66.95% vote share and 35.25% margin in 1936. This was also the first time Orange County voted Democratic since 1936, when Franklin D. Roosevelt swept every single county in the state. Trump's vote share in the state (31.62%) was the lowest for a major-party candidate since John W. Davis's 8.2% in 1924.

General election[edit]

Statewide results[edit]

U.S. presidential election in California, 2016 [1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Hillary Clinton 8,753,788 61.73%
Republican Donald Trump 4,483,810 31.62%
Libertarian Gary Johnson 478,500 3.37%
Green Jill Stein 278,657 1.96%
Independent Bernie Sanders (write-in) 79,341 0.56%
Peace and Freedom Gloria La Riva 66,101 0.47%
Independent Evan McMullin (write-in) 39,596 0.28%
Independent Mike Maturen (write-in) 1,316 0.01%
Independent Laurence Kotlikoff (write-in) 402 0.00%
Independent Jerry White (write-in) 84 0.00%
Total votes 14,181,595 100.00%

Primary elections[edit]

On June 7, 2016, in the presidential primaries, California voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic, Republican, Green, and Libertarian, Peace and Freedom, and American Independent parties' respective nominees for President.

While California has had a top-two candidates open primary system since 2011,[2] presidential primaries are still partisan races. Registered members of each party may only vote in their party's presidential primary. Unaffiliated voters may choose any one primary in which to vote, if the party allows such voters to participate,[2] for 2016, the American Independent, Democratic and Libertarian, parties have chosen to allow voters registered with no party preference to request their respective party's presidential ballots.[3]

Democratic primary[edit]

Democratic primary results by county.
  Hillary Clinton
  Bernie Sanders

Seven candidates appeared on the Democratic presidential primary ballot:[4]

Opinion polling[edit]

Results[edit]


e • d Democratic Party's presidential nominating process in California, 2016
– Summary of results –
Candidate Popular vote Estimated delegates
Count Percentage Pledged Unpledged Total
Hillary Clinton 2,745,302 53.07% 254 66 320
Bernie Sanders 2,381,722 46.04% 221 0 221
Willie Wilson 12,014 0.23%
Michael Steinberg 10,880 0.21%
Roque De La Fuente 8,453 0.16%
Henry Hewes 7,743 0.15%
Keith Judd 7,201 0.14%
Write-in 23 0.00%
Uncommitted N/A 10 10
Total 5,173,338 100% 475 76 551
Source: California Secretary of State - Presidential Primary Election Statement of Votes The Green Papers

Republican primary[edit]

Republican primary results by county.
  Donald Trump

Five candidates appeared on the Republican presidential primary ballot, four of whom had suspended their campaigns prior to the primary:[4]

Donald Trump, the only candidate with an active campaign, won each Congressional district by substantial margins, as well as all the statewide delegates, to capture all 172 votes.

California Republican primary, June 7, 2016
Candidate Votes Percentage Actual delegate count
Bound Unbound Total
America Symbol.svg Donald Trump 1,665,135 74.76% 172 0 172
John Kasich (withdrawn) 252,544 11.34% 0 0 0
Ted Cruz (withdrawn) 211,576 9.50% 0 0 0
Ben Carson (withdrawn) 82,259 3.69% 0 0 0
Jim Gilmore (withdrawn) 15,691 0.70% 0 0 0
Write-ins 101 0.00% 0 0 0
Unprojected delegates: 0 0 0
Total: 2,227,306 100.00% 172 0 172
Source: The Green Papers

Libertarian primary[edit]

Libertarian primary results by county.
  Gary Johnson
  Tie

Twelve candidates appeared on the Libertarian presidential primary ballot:

The primary took place after Gary Johnson won the Libertarian nomination at the Party's 2016 convention.

California Libertarian presidential primary, June 7, 2016[5]
Candidate Votes Percentage
Gary Johnson 19,294 62%
John McAfee 3,139 10%
Austin Petersen 1,853 6%
Rhett Smith 1,531 5%
Joy Waymire 923 3%
John David Hale 873 3%
Marc Allan Feldman 867 3%
Jack Robinson, Jr. 739 2%
Steve Kerbel 556 2%
Darryl Perry 521 2%
Derrick Michael Reid 462 1%
Cecil Ince 417 1%
Total 31,175 100%

Green primary[edit]

Green Party of California presidential primary, June 7, 2016[6]
Candidate Votes Percentage National delegates
Jill Stein 10,134 76.4% -
Darryl Cherney 1,288 9.7% -
Sedinam Kinamo Christin Moyowasifza Curry 762 5.7% -
William Kreml 555 4.2% -
Kent Mesplay 528 4.0% -
Total 13,267 100% -

Other parties[edit]

American Independent[edit]

AIP primary
  Alan Spears
  Arthur Harris
  J.R. Myers
California American Independent presidential primary, June 7, 2016[7]
Candidate Votes Percentage
Alan Spears 7,348 19%
Arthur Harris 6,510 17%
Robert Ornelas 6,411 17%
J.R. Myers 4,898 13%
Wiley Drake 4,828 13%
James Hedges 3,989 11%
Thomas Hoefling 3,917 10%
Total 37,901 100%

The American Independent Party, a far-right and paleoconservative political party that formed when endorsing the candidacy of George Wallace in 1968 held a small presidential primary on June 7. It was won by attorney Alan Spears.

The American Independent Party nullified the results of this primary when they endorsed Donald Trump in August,[8] the party indicated that Trump was a popular write-in choice during the primary, but was not allowed on the ballot because there was no evidence that Trump wanted the American Independent endorsement.[9]

Peace and Freedom[edit]

California Peace and Freedom presidential primary, June 7, 2016[10]
Candidate Votes Percentage
Gloria Estela La Riva 2,232 49%
Monica Moorehead 1,369 30%
Lynn Sandra Kahn 963 21%
Total 4,564 100%

Polling[edit]

Results[edit]

Below is an official list of Recognized Write-in Candidates. California law only requires that 55 "electors" sign on to declare a person a write-in candidate, not that the person consent, according to a statement from the Secretary of State's Office.[11]

Results by county[edit]

Final results by county certified December 16, 2016.[12]

County Candidate Total
Clinton Trump Johnson Stein Sanders La Riva McMullin Maturen Kotlikoff White
Alameda percent 78.69% 14.66% 2.58% 2.73% 0.64% 0.48% 0.20% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 514,842 95,922 16,906 17,830 4,206 3,162 1,291 71 27 9 654,266
Alpine percent 55.48% 36.05% 4.15% 3.49% 0.17% 0.50% 0.17% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 334 217 25 21 1 3 1 0 0 0 602
Amador percent 33.86% 59.12% 4.53% 1.28% 0.56% 0.31% 0.33% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 6,004 10,485 804 227 100 55 59 0 0 0 17,734
Butte percent 43.50% 47.24% 4.84% 2.71% 0.82% 0.52% 0.36% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 41,567 45,144 4,625 2,594 782 501 340 10 0 1 95,564
Calaveras percent 34.34% 58.40% 4.77% 1.83% 0.32% 0.24% 0.10% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 7,944 13,511 1,104 424 75 56 22 0 0 0 23,136
Colusa percent 40.12% 53.54% 3.92% 1.28% 0.36% 0.59% 0.18% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 2,661 3,551 260 85 24 39 12 0 0 0 6,632
Contra Costa percent 68.49% 24.87% 3.46% 1.85% 0.69% 0.34% 0.29% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 319,287 115,956 16,123 8,637 3,204 1,566 1,355 36 11 0 466,175
Del Norte percent 36.46% 53.71% 4.35% 2.56% 1.45% 0.85% 0.61% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 3,485 5,134 416 245 139 81 58 0 0 0 9,558
El Dorado percent 38.90% 52.62% 5.37% 1.52% 0.76% 0.20% 0.62% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 36,404 49,247 5,027 1,425 713 190 578 4 3 0 93,591
Fresno percent 50.06% 43.94% 3.28% 1.52% 0.50% 0.31% 0.38% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 141,341 124,049 9,246 4,300 1,417 875 1,070 17 3 1 282,319
Glenn percent 32.37% 61.12% 3.96% 1.02% 0.61% 0.57% 0.33% 0.02% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 3,065 5,788 375 97 58 54 31 2 0 0 9,470
Humboldt percent 56.04% 31.01% 3.65% 6.21% 2.13% 0.64% 0.31% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 33,200 18,373 2,163 3,681 1,264 379 181 5 0 0 59,246
Imperial percent 67.93% 26.42% 2.54% 1.55% 0.61% 0.70% 0.17% 0.09% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 32,667 12,704 1,221 745 291 339 81 43 0 0 48,091
Inyo percent 39.02% 52.54% 4.06% 2.65% 0.82% 0.63% 0.30% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 3,155 4,248 328 214 66 51 24 0 0 0 8,086
Kern percent 40.42% 53.07% 3.83% 1.18% 0.49% 0.62% 0.36% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 98,689 129,584 9,359 2,887 1,199 1,522 891 27 3 2 244,163
Kings percent 40.15% 53.35% 3.95% 1.21% 0.34% 0.74% 0.27% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 13,617 18,093 1,338 411 115 251 90 0 0 0 33,915
Lake percent 46.93% 43.27% 4.47% 3.80% 0.89% 0.42% 0.22% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 11,496 10,599 1,095 930 219 103 53 1 0 0 24,496
Lassen percent 21.13% 71.97% 4.49% 1.00% 0.49% 0.44% 0.45% 0.01% 0.02% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 2,224 7,574 473 105 52 46 47 1 2 0 10,524
Los Angeles percent 71.76% 22.41% 2.59% 2.23% 0.22% 0.64% 0.13% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 2,464,364 769,743 88,968 76,465 7,724 21,993 4,607 274 155 15 3,434,308
Madera percent 39.50% 54.18% 3.61% 1.49% 0.42% 0.43% 0.34% 0.02% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 17,029 23,357 1,558 644 183 187 145 9 0 0 43,112
Marin percent 78.05% 15.63% 3.00% 2.23% 0.64% 0.25% 0.18% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 108,707 21,771 4,180 3,109 896 351 249 4 6 0 139,273
Mariposa percent 35.17% 58.41% 3.67% 2.13% 0.00% 0.62% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 3,122 5,185 326 189 0 55 0 0 0 0 8,877
Mendocino percent 58.91% 29.05% 3.55% 5.62% 2.11% 0.40% 0.33% 0.01% 0.01% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 22,079 10,888 1,331 2,108 789 151 124 4 3 0 37,477
Merced percent 52.72% 40.58% 3.40% 1.71% 0.71% 0.64% 0.23% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 37,317 28,725 2,410 1,209 506 454 162 6 0 0 70,789
Modoc percent 23.15% 71.17% 3.22% 1.32% 0.50% 0.34% 0.29% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 877 2,696 122 50 19 13 11 0 0 0 3,788
Mono percent 52.56% 40.01% 4.21% 2.69% 0.04% 0.44% 0.06% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 2,773 2,111 222 142 2 23 3 0 0 0 5,276
Monterey percent 66.78% 26.16% 3.41% 2.12% 0.77% 0.50% 0.27% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 89,088 34,895 4,547 2,823 1,025 661 358 8 2 1 133,408
Napa percent 63.87% 28.37% 4.16% 2.06% 0.95% 0.34% 0.25% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 39,199 17,411 2,551 1,262 585 207 154 3 0 0 61,372
Nevada percent 47.43% 42.53% 4.33% 3.98% 1.25% 0.15% 0.33% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 26,053 23,365 2,378 2,189 685 85 179 0 0 1 54,935
Orange percent 50.94% 42.35% 3.85% 1.51% 0.52% 0.41% 0.41% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 609,961 507,148 46,128 18,068 6,239 4,898 4,917 131 27 4 1,197,521
Placer percent 40.20% 52.03% 5.06% 1.37% 0.62% 0.13% 0.56% 0.02% 0.01% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 73,509 95,138 9,245 2,501 1,132 238 1,032 33 10 1 182,839
Plumas percent 35.75% 56.01% 4.25% 1.92% 1.24% 0.30% 0.53% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 3,459 5,420 411 186 120 29 51 0 0 0 9,676
Riverside percent 49.73% 44.35% 3.21% 1.51% 0.45% 0.46% 0.29% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 373,695 333,243 24,089 11,320 3,387 3,433 2,168 49 4 3 751,391
Sacramento percent 58.29% 33.93% 4.36% 1.76% 0.79% 0.46% 0.39% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 326,023 189,789 24,412 9,846 4,429 2,556 2,205 65 5 0 559,330
San Benito percent 57.11% 35.76% 3.72% 1.66% 0.72% 0.63% 0.39% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 12,521 7,841 815 364 158 138 86 0 1 0 21,924
San Bernardino percent 52.12% 41.48% 3.22% 1.62% 0.70% 0.58% 0.29% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 340,833 271,240 21,050 10,604 4,551 3,786 1,877 37 5 0 653,983
San Diego percent 56.30% 36.57% 3.95% 1.75% 0.78% 0.26% 0.37% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 735,476 477,766 51,663 22,820 10,255 3,353 4,851 152 42 22 1,306,400
San Francisco percent 85.04% 9.29% 2.19% 2.44% 0.50% 0.44% 0.09% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 345,084 37,688 8,883 9,904 2,021 1,799 373 22 13 5 405,792
San Joaquin percent 54.03% 39.67% 3.59% 1.40% 0.61% 0.40% 0.28% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 121,124 88,936 8,049 3,134 1,372 903 617 26 5 0 224,166
San Luis Obispo percent 49.71% 41.60% 4.79% 2.11% 0.94% 0.31% 0.52% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 67,107 56,164 6,473 2,848 1,273 425 702 13 3 1 135,009
San Mateo percent 75.67% 18.43% 3.01% 1.62% 0.69% 0.33% 0.24% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 237,882 57,929 9,464 5,102 2,159 1,047 760 23 15 3 314,384
Santa Barbara percent 60.61% 31.88% 3.82% 2.10% 0.77% 0.39% 0.41% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 107,142 56,365 6,748 3,719 1,366 693 733 18 1 1 176,786
Santa Clara percent 72.71% 20.58% 3.60% 1.80% 0.58% 0.39% 0.33% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 511,684 144,826 25,325 12,664 4,066 2,759 2,296 61 25 3 703,709
Santa Cruz percent 73.94% 17.42% 3.36% 3.48% 1.08% 0.49% 0.22% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 95,249 22,438 4,325 4,485 1,395 627 283 10 4 5 128,821
Shasta percent 27.86% 64.68% 4.22% 1.62% 0.65% 0.41% 0.55% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 22,301 51,778 3,382 1,300 520 329 439 2 2 0 80,053
Sierra percent 32.84% 57.27% 5.36% 2.30% 1.09% 0.82% 0.33% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 601 1,048 98 42 20 15 6 0 0 0 1,830
Siskiyou percent 35.30% 55.34% 4.27% 2.81% 1.31% 0.43% 0.51% 0.02% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 7,234 11,341 875 575 269 88 104 5 1 0 20,492
Solano percent 61.62% 31.26% 3.76% 1.67% 0.87% 0.48% 0.34% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 102,360 51,920 6,254 2,771 1,437 804 557 10 0 0 166,113
Sonoma percent 69.38% 22.23% 3.89% 3.18% 0.79% 0.29% 0.23% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 160,435 51,408 8,987 7,347 1,835 679 543 9 8 2 231,253
Stanislaus percent 47.43% 45.60% 3.87% 1.49% 0.69% 0.57% 0.33% 0.03% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 81,647 78,494 6,662 2,562 1,184 986 563 46 2 0 172,146
Sutter percent 39.01% 54.22% 4.29% 1.14% 0.36% 0.59% 0.40% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 13,076 18,176 1,437 382 120 198 134 0 0 0 33,523
Tehama percent 28.48% 64.81% 3.99% 1.21% 0.58% 0.58% 0.34% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 6,809 15,494 953 290 139 138 82 3 0 0 23,908
Trinity percent 38.94% 49.45% 5.31% 4.20% 1.41% 0.37% 0.32% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 2,214 2,812 302 239 80 21 18 0 0 0 5,686
Tulare percent 42.36% 51.90% 3.38% 1.44% 0.20% 0.57% 0.15% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 47,585 58,299 3,800 1,620 226 636 163 5 0 0 112,334
Tuolumne percent 35.74% 57.00% 4.31% 1.50% 0.92% 0.25% 0.28% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 9,123 14,551 1,101 384 236 63 71 0 0 0 25,529
Ventura percent 55.27% 37.62% 3.89% 1.80% 0.58% 0.42% 0.40% 0.02% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 194,402 132,323 13,679 6,315 2,031 1,481 1,422 60 9 4 351,726
Yolo percent 66.70% 25.26% 4.08% 2.17% 1.03% 0.44% 0.31% 0.01% 0.01% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 54,752 20,739 3,346 1,779 844 358 256 11 5 0 82,090
Yuba percent 34.39% 57.27% 4.62% 1.90% 0.60% 0.73% 0.48% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 7,910 13,170 1,063 438 138 168 111 0 0 0 22,998
Total percent 61.73% 31.62% 3.37% 1.96% 0.56% 0.47% 0.28% 0.01% 0.00% 0.00% 100.00%
votes 8,753,788 4,483,810 478,500 278,657 79,341 66,101 39,596 1,316 402 84 14,181,595

Analysis[edit]

California has voted Democratic in every presidential election after Republican George H.W. Bush won the state in 1988.[original research?] Hillary Clinton easily continued the Democratic tradition in California, winning the state with 61.73% of the vote, Clinton's second highest vote percentage of any state, behind Hawaii. Donald Trump received 31.62% of the vote, a Democratic victory margin of 30.11 points.[13] California was one of eleven states where Hillary Clinton performed stronger than President Obama in 2012, and contributed to Clinton's national popular vote victory.[12]

The California state result was historically one of the most successful for the Democratic Party nominee by several measures, as Hillary Clinton carried California by the largest margin of any Democratic candidate since Franklin D. Roosevelt swept the state by 35.25% in his 1936 re-election landslide.[14]

Clinton was also the first Democrat since 1936 to win traditionally Republican Orange County,[15] the heavily and densely populated county won by the Democratic Party increasingly came to dominate urban areas and coastal California.

Clinton received nearly 72% of the vote in Los Angeles County, making her the first presidential candidate in history to receive over 70% of the vote in Los Angeles County,[not in citation given] the most heavily populated county in the United States.[16][17]

Election watcher Richard Winger said that California's Secretary of State made a technical error in assigning Electors to Trump, that could have made a difference in certain hypothetical electoral college outcomes, but in this case made no difference.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://elections.cdn.sos.ca.gov/sov/2016-general/sov/17-presidential-formatted.pdf
  2. ^ a b "Frequently Asked Questions | California Secretary of State". Sos.ca.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-13. 
  3. ^ "County Clerk/Registrar of Voters (CC/ROV) Memorandum #16036" (PDF). Elections.cdn.sos.ca.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-13. 
  4. ^ a b "June 7, 2016, Presidential Primary Election | California Secretary of State". Sos.ca.gov. 2016-06-07. Retrieved 2016-11-13. 
  5. ^ "Presidential Primary Election - Statement of Vote, June 7, 2016". Office of the Secretary of State of California. Government of California. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  6. ^ "President Green - Statewide Results | Primary Election | California Secretary of State". vote.sos.ca.gov. Retrieved 2016-06-19. 
  7. ^ "President American Independent - Statewide Results". Office of the Secretary of State of California. Government of California. 8 June 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2016. 
  8. ^ Myers, John. "Donald Trump will be the nominee of two parties on California's November ballot". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 27 November 2016. 
  9. ^ Winger, Richard (July 8, 2016). "Donald Trump Probably Won American Independent Party Presidential Primary". Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 14, 2016. 
  10. ^ "President Peace and Freedom - Statewide Results". Office of the Secretary of State of California. Government of California. 8 June 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2016. 
  11. ^ "California, your official presidential write-in options include Bernie Sanders and Evan McMullin". Los Angeles Times. 2016-10-28. Retrieved 2016-11-13. 
  12. ^ a b General Election - Statement of Vote, November 8, 2016. Final results certified by Alex Padilla, California Secretary of State. December 16, 2016
  13. ^ "California Election Results 2016 – The New York Times". Retrieved November 10, 2016. 
  14. ^ "West Coast Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-11-13. 
  15. ^ Krishnakumar, Priya; Schleuss, Jon; Fox, Joe (November 11, 2016), "For the first time since Franklin D. Roosevelt, a majority in Orange County voted for a Democrat", Los Angeles Times 
  16. ^ "Presidential Election Results Los Angeles County". Los Angeles Almanac. Retrieved 14 Jan 2017. 
  17. ^ "The 25 largest counties in the United States in 2016, by population (in millions)". Statista. Retrieved March 31, 2017. 
  18. ^ Winger, Richard (December 20, 2016), California Certificate of Ascertainment Says 108 Presidential Elector Candidates Pledged to Donald Trump Each Received 4,483,810, retrieved March 31, 2017 

External links[edit]