Schechter Day School Network
The Schechter Day School Network the Solomon Schechter Day School Association, located at 820 Second Avenue, New York, New York, is the organization of Jewish day schools that identify with Conservative Judaism. The network provides guidance and resources for its member schools in the United States and Canada; the express mission of the network is to promote: the continued growth and vitality of its member schools, which serve a broad Jewish population and are characterized by Conservative thought and practice and social responsibility, in a culture of joyous spiritual engagement and community. The Association of Solomon Schechter Day Schools dates back to 1965, created as part of an effort to create standards and promote cooperation between the existing Conservative day schools and promote the establishment of new schools. Among the network's major achievements is the publication, in conjunction with the Melton Research Center, of the MaToK curriculum for the teaching of Torah in elementary schools that combines the commitment to tradition, Hebrew language, inquiry.
The network provides mentoring for new school heads. The first Conservative day school, Beth El Day School in Rockaway Park, opened in 1951. During the 1950s and 1960s, additional schools opened throughout the country as parents began to seek schools that combined high general academic standards, authentic Jewish study and life, open intellectual inquiry in all areas of study; the first school to adopt the name of Rabbi Solomon Schechter, the founder of Conservative Judaism in its 20th century form, was the Solomon Schechter School of Queens, New York City, which opened in 1956. In 1966, Solomon Schechter School of Westchester opened in New York; the Hillel Day School in Farmington Hills, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit, celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2007. The first Schechter school on the West Coast of the United States was Akiba Academy in Los Angeles, brought into existence in 1968 by a loose coalition of rabbis and leaders of several congregations; as additional day schools opened in Los Angeles, it merged with its host congregation, Sinai Temple, became known as Sinai Akiba Academy.
In 2017 the school was renamed as "Alice and Nahum Lainer School" in honor of the Lainers' "transformative" donation to the school's endowment. Well known are the Solomon Schechter Day School of Greater Boston. By 1968, a high school in Brooklyn, New York was opened. Today there are 50 Solomon Schechter Day Schools, including several high schools. Despite the dropping numbers of Conservative Jews worldwide, some of the Solomon Schechter Schools have continued to increase their number of students. One such school is the Solomon Schechter Day School of Essex and Union which has over 800 students enrolled and has grown since its founding in 1965; the school is one of the largest, consisting of two campuses, an Upper and Lower School, both located in West Orange, New Jersey. Solomon Schechter School of Westchester opened a new upper school campus in Hartsdale, New York, in 2001; the school now has two campuses, both in Westchester, with more than 900 students in grades K-12. From 1993 to 2012 the network lost a third of its schools, as total enrollment dropped from 17,500 to 11,300 over the two decades.
As of 2012, the Schechter Day School Network announced that it was considering seeking independence from the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism so that the network and its 45 schools would be able to raise funds independently, with options of joining the RAVSAK network considered as an option. In 2016 the Schechter Day School Network became part of Prizmah: Center for Jewish Day Schools, a new organization encompassing five day school groups from different Jewish denominations. Torah Umesorah-National Society for Hebrew Day Schools Official website
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah. The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era, when learned teachers assembled to codify Judaism's written and oral laws; the first sage for whom the Mishnah uses the title of rabbi was Yohanan ben Zakkai, active in the early-to-mid first century AD. In more recent centuries, the duties of a rabbi became influenced by the duties of the Protestant Christian minister, hence the title "pulpit rabbis", in 19th-century Germany and the United States rabbinic activities including sermons, pastoral counseling, representing the community to the outside, all increased in importance. Within the various Jewish denominations there are different requirements for rabbinic ordination, differences in opinion regarding, to be recognized as a rabbi. For example, Orthodox Judaism does not ordain women as rabbis. Non-Orthodox movements have chosen to do so for what they view as halakhic reasons as well as ethical reasons; the Hebrew word "master" רב rav, which means "great one", is the original Hebrew form of the title.
The form of the title in English and many other languages derives from the possessive form in Hebrew of rav: רַבִּי rabbi, meaning "My Master", the way a student would address a master of Torah. The word Rav in turn derives from the Semitic root ר-ב-ב, which in biblical Aramaic means "great" in many senses, including "revered", but appears as a prefix in construct forms. Although the usage rabbim "many" "the majority, the multitude" occurs for the assembly of the community in the Dead Sea scrolls there is no evidence to support an association with the title "Rabbi." The root is cognate to Arabic ربّ rabb, meaning "lord". As a sign of great respect, some great rabbis are called "The Rav". Rabbi is not an occupation found in the Hebrew Bible, ancient generations did not employ related titles such as Rabban, Ribbi, or Rab to describe either the Babylonian sages or the sages in Israel; the titles "Rabban" and "Rabbi" are first mentioned in the Mishnah. The term was first used for Rabban Gamaliel the elder, Rabban Simeon his son, Rabban Johanan ben Zakkai, all of whom were patriarchs or presidents of the Sanhedrin in the first century.
The title "Rabbi" occurs in the books of Matthew and John in the New Testament, where it is used in reference to "Scribes and Pharisees" as well as to Jesus. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word רִבִּי ribbī. Other variants are rəvī and, in Yiddish, rebbə; the word could be compared to the Syriac word ܪܒܝ rabi. In ancient Hebrew, rabbi was a proper term of address while speaking to a superior, in the second person, similar to a vocative case. While speaking about a superior, in the third person one could say rabbo; the term evolved into a formal title for members of the Patriarchate. Thus, the title gained an irregular plural form: רַבָּנִים rabbanim, not רַבָּי rabbay; the governments of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah were based on a system that included the Jewish kings, the Jewish prophets, the legal authority of the high court of Jerusalem, the Great Sanhedrin, the ritual authority of the priesthood. Members of the Sanhedrin had to receive their ordination in an uninterrupted line of transmission from Moses, yet rather than being referred to as rabbis they were called priests or scribes, like Ezra, called in the Bible "Ezra, the priest, the scribe, a scribe of the words of God's commandments and of His statutes unto Israel."
"Rabbi" as a religious title does not appear in the Hebrew Bible. All of the above personalities would have been expected to be steeped in the wisdom of the Torah and the commandments, which would have made them "rabbis" in the modern sense of the word; this is illustrated by a two-thousand-year-old teaching in the Mishnah, Ethics of the Fathers, which observed about King David, "One who learns from their companion a single chapter, a single halakha, a single verse, a single Torah statement, or a single letter, must treat them with honor. For so we find with David King of Israel, who learned nothing from Ahitophel except two things, yet called him his teacher, his guide, his intimate, as it is said:'You are a man of my measure, my guide, my intimate'. One can derive from this the following: If David King of Israel who learned nothing from Ahitophel except for two things, called him his teacher, his guide, his intimate, one who learns from their companion a single chapter, a single halakha, a single verse, a single statement, or a single letter, how much more must they treat them with honor.
And honor is due only for Torah, as it is said:'The wise shall inherit honor','and the perfect shall inherit good'. And only Torah is good, as it is said:'I have given you a good teaching, do not forsake My Torah'." With the destruction of the two Temples in Jerusalem, the end of the Jewish monarchy, the decline of the dual institutions of prophets and the priesthood, the focus of scholarly and spiritual leadership within the Jewish people shifted to the sages of the Men of the Great Assembly. This assembly was composed of the earliest group of "rabbis" in the mor
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Masorti on Campus
Masorti on Campus is a student organization for Conservative Judaism on North American college and university campuses. MoC connects students and Jewish professionals from different campuses through a range of forums to share ideas for building and strengthening progressive Jewish communities. Masorti on Campus was launched in July 2013 by Eric Leiderman and Douglas Kandl in response to the closing of Koach by the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism. Gaining the support of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, MoC began its campaign to create a network for existing campus communities. In February 2014 the Seminary, along with Columbia University, hosted a student leadership conference. In order to further connect students and build new communities Masorti on Campus announced a second conference with an expanded reach. One of the first campus communities to join was Rutgers University. Ramah Camping Movement Mechon Hadar Nativ College Leadership Program in Israel United Synagogue Youth Orthodox Jewish student groups Official website
President (corporate title)
The President is a leader of an organization, community, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between the president and the Chief Executive Officer varies, depending on the structure of the specific organization. In a similar vein to the Chief Operating Officer, the title of corporate President as a separate position is loosely defined; the powers of the president vary across organizations and such powers come from specific authorization in the bylaws like Robert's Rules of Order. The term "president" was used to designate someone who presided over a meeting, was used in the same way that "foreman" or "overseer" is used now, it has now come to mean "chief officer" in terms of administrative or executive duties. In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the president has the duties of presiding over meetings; such duties at meetings include: calling the meeting to order determining if a quorum is present announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up recognition of members to have the floor enforcing the rules of the group putting all questions to a vote adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the president should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group.
In committees or small boards, the president votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the president should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the president only has one vote; the powers of the president vary across organizations. In some organizations the president has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the president only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the president has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the president depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself. If the president exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform the duties, the president may face disciplinary procedures; such procedures may include suspension, or removal from office. The rules of the particular organization would provide details on who can perform these disciplinary procedures and the extent that they can be done.
Whoever appointed or elected the president has the power to discipline this officer. Some organizations may have a position of President-Elect in addition to the position of President; the membership of the organization elects a President-Elect and when the term of the President-Elect is complete, that person automatically becomes President. Some organizations may have a position of Immediate Past President in addition to the position of President. In those organizations, when the term of the President is complete, that person automatically fills the position of Immediate Past President; the organization can have such a position. The duties of such a position would have to be provided in the bylaws. Bennett, Nathan. Riding Shotgun: The Role of the COO. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-5166-8. National Association of Parliamentarians®, Education Committee. Spotlight on You the President. Independence, MO: National Association of Parliamentarians®. ISBN 1-884048-15-3
Conservative Judaism is a major Jewish denomination which views Jewish law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development. It regards the authority of Jewish law and tradition as emanating from the assent of the people and the community through the generations, more than from divine revelation; the Conservative rabbinate therefore employs modern historical-critical research, rather than only traditional methods and sources, lends great weight to its constituency when determining its stance on matters of practice. The movement considers its approach as the authentic and most appropriate continuation of halakhic discourse, maintaining both fealty to received forms and flexibility in their interpretation, it eschews strict theological definitions, lacking a consensus in matters of faith and allowing great pluralism. While regarding itself as the heir of Rabbi Zecharias Frankel's 19th-century Positive-Historical School in Europe, Conservative Judaism institutionalized as a denomination only in the United States during the mid-20th century.
Its largest center today is in North America, where its main congregational arm is the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism and the New York–based Jewish Theological Seminary of America operates as rabbinic seminary. Globally, affiliated communities are united within the umbrella organization Masorti Olami. Conservative Judaism is the third-largest Jewish denomination worldwide, estimated to represent close to 1.1 million people, both over 600,000 registered adult congregants and many non-member identifiers. Conservative Judaism, from its earliest stages, was marked by ambivalence and ambiguity in all matters theological. Rabbi Zecharias Frankel, considered its intellectual progenitor, believed the notion of theology was alien to traditional Judaism, he was accused of obscurity on the subject by his opponents, both Reform and Orthodox. The American movement espoused a similar approach, its leaders avoided the field. Only in 1985 did a course about Conservative theology open in the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.
The hitherto sole major attempt to define a clear credo was made in 1988, with the Statement of Principles Emet ve-Emunah and issued by the Leadership Council of Conservative Judaism. The introduction stated that "lack of definition was useful" in the past but a need to articulate one now arose; the platform provided many statements citing key concepts such as God and Election, but acknowledged that a variety of positions and convictions existed within denominational ranks, eschewing strict delineation of principles and expressing conflicting views. In a 1999 special edition of Conservative Judaism dedicated to the matter, leading rabbis Elliot N. Dorff and Gordon Tucker clarified that "the great diversity" within the movement "makes the creation of a theological vision shared by all neither possible nor desirable". Conservative Judaism upholds the theistic notion of a personal God. Emet ve-Emunah stated that "we affirm our faith in God as the Governor of the universe, his power called the world into being.
Concurrently, the platform noted that His nature was "elusive" and subject to many options of belief. A naturalistic conception of divinity, regarding it as inseparable from the mundane world, once had an important place within the denomination represented by Mordecai Kaplan. After Kaplan's Reconstructionism coalesced into an independent movement, these views were marginalized. A inconclusive position is expressed toward other precepts. Most theologians adhere to the Immortality of the Soul, but while references to the Resurrection of the Dead are maintained, English translations of the prayers obscure the issue. In Emet, it was stated. Relating to the Messianic ideal, the movement rephrased most petitions for the restoration of the Sacrifices into past tense, rejecting a renewal of animal offerings, though not opposing a Return to Zion and a new Temple; the 1988 platform announced that "some" believe in classic eschathology, but dogmatism in this matter was "philosophically unjustified". The notions of Election of Israel and God's covenant with it were retained as well.
Conservative conception of Revelation encompasses an extensive spectrum. Zecharias Frankel himself applied critical-scientific methods to analyze the stages in the development of the Oral Torah, pioneering modern study of the Mishnah, he regarded the Beatified Sages as innovators who added their own, original contribution to the canon, not as expounders and interpreters of a legal system given in its entirety to Moses on Mount Sinai. Yet he vehemently rejected utilizing these disciplines on the Pentateuch, maintaining it was beyond human reach and wholly celestial in origin. Frankel never elucidated his beliefs, the exact correlation between human and divine in his thought is still subject to scholarly debate. A similar negative approach toward Higher Criticism, while accepting an evolutionary understanding of Oral Law, defined Rabbi Alexander Kohut, Solomon Schechter and the early generation of American Conservative Judaism; when JTS faculty began to embrace Biblical criticism in the 1920s, they adapted a theological view consistent with it: an original, verbal revelation did occur at Sinai, but the text itself was composed by authors.
The latter, classified by Dorff as a moderate metamorphosis of the old one, is still espoused by few traditionalist right-wing Conservative rabbis, though it is marginalized among senior leadership. A small but influential segment within the JTS an
Camp Ramah is a network of Jewish summer camps affiliated with the Conservative Movement. The camps operate in the United States and Israel. Ramah camps are Shabbat-observant. During the 1940s, the Jewish Theological Seminary established Camp Ramah as a tool for furthering Jewish education; the founders, including Rabbi Ralph Simon of Chicago, envisioned an informal camp setting where Jewish youth would reconnect with the synagogue and Jewish tradition, a new cadre of American-born Jewish leadership could be cultivated. The founders of Ramah camps were inspired by Camp Cejwin; the first camp opened in Conover, Wisconsin in 1947. The program was drawn up by Sylvia Ettenberg of the JTS Teachers' Institute. In October 2007, Ettenberg was awarded Pras Ramah as part of Ramah's 60th anniversary celebrations. Many of the early staff were ex-Camp Massad people and JTS students. In 1950, the second Ramah camp opened in the Poconos and in 1953, the third Ramah camp opened in Connecticut. Today, Ramah camps are attended by over 6,500 campers, ranging in age from 7–16, with a staff of 1,500 counselors, co-counselors and teachers.
In addition to typical summer camp activities, Ramah camps offer an educational program focusing on Judaism and Hebrew-language instruction on different levels. Camp Ramah offers sleep-away camps with an option to stay for either 4 or 8 weeks, day camps with busing, an Israel summer tour program for teenagers, a day camp in Jerusalem for American and Israeli children, a variety of high school programs in Israel; the camps operate under the aegis of the National Ramah Commission, the camping arm of Conservative Judaism, which provides oversight and educational planning. The mission of Ramah is to create summer camps and Israel programs which inspire commitment to Jewish life and cultivate a new generation of Jewish communal leaders. In addition to its university-aged American counselors, the staff of each camp is joined by a corps of emissaries from Israel known as the "mishlachat/מישלחת". Ramah operates overnight camps in the Berkshires; the three day camps include Nyack. Ramah Outdoor Adventure in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, Ramah’s first specialty camp, opened in the summer of 2010.
Additionally, Ramah runs summer and high school semester programs in Israel, partners with summer camp programming in the Ukraine and Israel. A Trinity College researcher, Ariella Keysar, documented a significant impact of Ramah on college students: She found that Ramah graduates were three time more to date only Jews, four times more to attend synagogue services, three times as as the general Jewish population to spend significant time in Israel. According to the Jewish Agency for Israel, Camp Ramah "is not just a camp, it’s a lifestyle." Among North American olim, one finds communities of former Americans who attended Camp Ramah and reconnected in life. Many spiritual leaders, social justice advocates and community board members in North America trace their strong Jewish values and commitment to Judaism to their summers at Ramah. An educational initiative by Camp Ramah produced Siddur Lev Yisrael, one of the only Conservative siddurim without an English translation; this is done in support of Ramah's educational mission to spread the use of Hebrew.
Camp Ramah in the Berkshires is located on Lake Ellis, 90 minutes north of New York City by car. It serves the metropolitan New York/New Jersey area. Camp Ramah in California is located in the hills of Ojai, California, 90 minutes north of Los Angeles by car, it serves California and much of the western United States. Camp Ramah in Canada is located in the Muskoka Region of Ontario, 2 hours north of Toronto, on Skeleton Lake, it serves Canada and parts of the northern United States. Camp Ramah Darom is located in 122 acres in the Appalachian Valley near Clayton, Georgia, 2 hours north of Atlanta, it serves the southern United States. Camp Ramah in New England known as Ramah Palmer, is located 1½ hours west of Boston and 45 minutes east of Amherst and Northampton, it opened in 1953 as Camp Ramah Connecticut and serves the New England area as well as DC, parts of New York. Camp Ramah New England operates the Ramah Day Camp of Greater Washington, DC, a day camp located in Germantown, MD. Camp Ramah in Northern California known as Ramah NorCal, is the newest Ramah camp, opening in 2016.
Ramah NorCal is a specialty camp with three tracks, ocean exploration, performing arts, adventure sports. Camp Ramah in Northern California will host a Tikvah program for campers with special needs. Camp Ramah in the Poconos is located in the mountain region of Wayne County in Northeastern Pennsylvania, 3 hours driving time from both New York City and Philadelphia, it serves parts of the northeast United States. Ramah in the Rockies is located in the Rocky Mountains, a 360-acre camp site 1½–2 hours by car from Denver and Colorado Springs. Ramah Rockies opened in 2010 and is the first Ramah specialty camp, focusing its program on outdoors and environmental education. Ramah Sports Academy is located in Connecticut; the camp is located on the campus of Fairfield University. Our location offer