Education in Canada
Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly and overseen by federal and local governments. Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province. Education in Canada is divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Within the provinces under the ministry of education, there are district school boards administering the educational programs. Education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in every province in Canada, except for Manitoba and New Brunswick, where the compulsory age is 18, or as soon as a high school diploma has been achieved. In some provinces early leaving exemptions can be granted under certain circumstances at 14. Canada has 190 school days in the year starting from September to the end of June. In British Columbia secondary schools, there are 172 school days during a school year.. In Alberta, high school students get an additional four weeks off to accommodate for exam break. Classes end on the 15th of those two months.
Elementary, intermediate and post-secondary education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and there are many variations between the provinces. The federal government's responsibilities in education are limited to the Royal Military College of Canada, funding the education of indigenous peoples. In 2016, 8.5% of men and 5.4% of women aged 25 to 34 had less than a high school diploma. In many places, publicly funded high school courses are offered to the adult population; the ratio of high school graduates versus non diploma-holders is changing partly due to changes in the labour market that require people to have a high school diploma and, in many cases, a university degree. Nonetheless, more than 54.0% of Canadians have a college or university degree, the highest rate in the world. The majority of schools, 67%, are co-educational. Canada spends about 5.4% of its GDP on education. The country invests in tertiary education. Recent reports suggest that from 2006 the tuition fees of Canadian universities have increased by 40 percent.
Since the adoption of section 23 of the Constitution Act, 1982, education in both English and French has been available in most places across Canada, although French Second Language education/French Immersion is available to anglophone students across Canada. According to an announcement of Canadian Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Canada is introducing a new, fast-track system to let foreign students and graduates with Canadian work experience become permanent eligible residents in Canada. Most schools have introduced one or more initiatives such as programs in Native studies, Aboriginal cultures and crafts. Although these classes are offered, most appear to be limited by the area or region in which students reside. "The curriculum is designed to elicit development and quality of people's cognition through the guiding of accommodations of individuals to their natural environment and their changing social order"Subjects that get assessed assume greater importance than non-assessed subjects or facets of the curriculum.
Some scholars view academics as a form of "soft power" helping to educate and to create positive attitudes, although there is criticism that educators are telling students what to think, instead of how to think for themselves, using up a large proportion of classroom time in the process. Efforts to keep students happy and correct come at the expense of academic achievement. Social promotion policies, grade inflation, lack of corrective feedback for students, teaching methods that slow the development of basic skills compared to past decades, reform mathematics, the failure to objectively track student progress have forced high schools and colleges to lower their academic standards; the Constitution of Canada provides constitutional protections for some types of publicly funded religious-based and language-based school systems. The Constitution Act, 1867 contains a guarantee for publicly funded religious-based separate schools, provided the separate schools were established by law prior to the province joining Confederation.
Court cases have established that this provision did not apply to Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, since those provinces did not provide a legal guarantee for separate schools prior to Confederation. The provision did apply to Ontario, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland and Labrador, since these provinces did have pre-existing separate schools; this constitutional provision was repealed in Quebec by a constitutional amendment in 1997, for Newfoundland and Labrador in 1998. The constitutional provision continues to apply to Ontario and Alberta. There is a similar federal statutory provision. Section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees the right of citizens who were educated in the minority language in a particular province to have their children educated in the minority language in
Snowdon is a neighbourhood located in Montreal, Canada. It is part of the Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grâce borough; the area is centred on the intersection of the Décarie Queen Mary Road. Snowdon is bordered by Macdonald Street in the west, Victoria Avenue in the east, Côte-Saint-Luc Road to the south and Vezina Street and the railway tracks to the north. Furthermore, the northwest end borders the southeast end borders Westmount; the neighbourhood is served by the Snowdon Metro, which has access to the Metro's Orange Line and Blue Line. Notable buildings in the neighbourhood include the former Snowdon Theatre; the district was named for James Snowdon, who owned a farm where the neighbourhood now stands
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Mile End, Montreal
Mile End is a neighbourhood and municipal electoral district in the city of Montreal, Canada. It is part of the Plateau-Mont-Royal borough in terms of Montreal's municipal politics. Since the 1980s Mile End has been known for its culture as an artistic neighbourhood, home to artists, musicians and filmmakers such as Arcade Fire, Adam Gollner, Bran Van 3000, Ariane Moffatt, Sean Michaels and Plants and Animals, etc. Many art galleries, designers' workshops and cafés are found in the neighbourhood, which have played a large role in Mile End being included on numerous lists outlining the world's most cool and unique neighbourhoods; the comic book company Drawn & Quarterly was founded in the Mile End in 1989, in 2007 opened up a flagship store on Bernard, now regarded as the literary hub of the neighbourhood. In 1993 a former Anglican church was transformed into the Mile End Library; this opened the door for a community artistic movement that first hosted exhibitions from Images de Femmes in 1994–present, a variety of other exhibits.
In 1998 the Mile End art gallery and co-op Ame Art were formed with the assistance of the Park YMCA. The computer graphics software house Discreet Logic made a mark on the area by renovating part of an old clothing factory in 1993. In 1997, this space became the new Montreal studios of computer game developer Ubisoft, expanded since to take over the remainder of the building. Mile End became noticeably gentrified during the 1980s and 90s, rents continue to increase while shops become more upscale – notably the Laurier West strip; these factors have subsequently moved much of the artist community and poorer residents of the Mile End further away from Downtown Montreal to Park Extension and other adjacent neighbourhoods. The writer Mordecai Richler grew up on Saint Urbain Street in the 1930s and 40s, wrote about the neighbourhood in several of his novels. Wilensky's Light Lunch, still open on Fairmount at Clark, features memorably in The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz and the film based on it.
The independent comics publisher Drawn and Quarterly maintains its head office and flagship store in the Mile End. William Shatner grew up in the Mile End until he moved to Notre-Dame-de-Grâce during his high school years. In 2005, Mile End was described in several music magazines, notably Spin and Pitchfork Media, as the heart of the city's independent music scene; the neighbourhood continues to be a thriving centre for musicians. Several venues on Saint Lawrence Boulevard and Park Avenue have contributed to the development of the local scene, including popular medium-sized venues Casa del Popolo, La Sala Rossa, Mile End Cabaret. In the 1980s there were Checkers and Club Soda on Park Avenue. Many indie labels such as Arbutus Records, Dare to Care Records / Grosse Boîte, Indica Records, Constellation Records, The Treatment Room Studios, the famous hotel2tango recording studio are located in the Mile End. Independent record label Mile End Records is named after the neighbourhood as one of the founders once lived there.
The area is home to the city's two most famous bagel bakeries, Fairmount Bagel and St. Viateur Bagel. Branches of the popular vegetarian restaurants Green Panther, Lola Rosa and Crudessence are located in the area, as is the first branch of the Montreal supermarket chain PA Supermarché. Various local entrepreneurs immortalized the area with their products. Well-known examples are the famous brewpub Dieu du Ciel! Offering an English-style mild ale called "Mild End" and a Belgian-style saison called "Saison St-Louis", named after the former village of Saint Louis du Mile End, brewpub HELM that named all of its beers after the neighbourhood and its streets; the district has become so popular as a stand-in for New York City on such American productions as Quantico and Brooklyn that in November 2016, the borough announced restrictions on new film and TV shoots, in an area described as "heart" of Mile End, between Parc Avenue, Bernard Street, Saint-Urbain Street and Fairmount Street. The boundaries of Mile End are unofficially Mount Royal Avenue to the south, Van Horne Avenue to the north, Hutchison Street to the west, Saint Denis Street to the east.
The municipal electoral district of Mile End is one of the three in the borough of Plateau Mont Royal, along with Jeanne Mance and De Lorimier, returns one city councillor and one borough councillor. The main streets running through Mile End from north to south are Saint-Laurent Boulevard, Clark Street, Saint Urbain Street, Waverly Street, Esplanade Street, Jeanne-Mance Street, Park Avenue. Running east to west are Mount Royal Avenue, Villeneuve Street, St Joseph, Fairmount, Saint Viateur and Van Horne. Nineteenth-century maps and other documents show the name Mile End as the crossroads at Saint-Laurent Road and what is now Mont-Royal Avenue; this road was Côte Sainte-Catherine Road and Tanneries Road. It is probable. Contrary to popular belief, the place is not a mile away from any official marker, it is, however, a mile north along Saint-Laurent from Sherbrooke Street, which in the early 19th century marked the boundary between the urban area and open countryside. Mile End was the first important crossroads north of the tollgate set up in 1841 at the city limits of 1792.
From the crossroads to t
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Paul Edgar Philippe Martin known as Paul Martin Jr. is a Canadian politician who served as the 21st prime minister of Canada from December 12, 2003, to February 6, 2006. Martin served as the Member of Parliament for the riding of LaSalle—Émard in Montreal from his election in the 1988 election to his retirement in 2008, he served as minister of Finance from 1993 to 2002. He oversaw many changes in the financial structure of the Canadian government, his policies had a direct effect on eliminating the country's chronic fiscal deficit by reforming various programs including social services. On November 14, 2003, Martin succeeded Jean Chrétien as leader of the Liberal Party and became prime minister on December 12, 2003. After the 2004 election, his Liberal Party retained power. Forced by a confidence vote to call the 2006 general election, which he lost, Martin stepped down as parliamentary leader, handing the reins to Bill Graham; the Liberals assumed the role of official opposition to a Conservative government, led by Stephen Harper.
Martin stayed on as party leader until he resigned on March 18. He was succeeded by Stéphane Dion. Now seen as a global diplomat, Martin continues to contribute on the international arena through a variety of initiatives such as Incentives for Global Health, the not-for-profit behind the Health Impact Fund, where he serves as a member of the Advisory Board. Martin sits as an advisor to Canada's Ecofiscal Commission. Martin was born at Hôtel-Dieu of St. Joseph Hospital in Ontario, his father, Paul Martin Sr. a Franco-Ontarian of Irish and French descent, served 33 years as a member of the House of Commons of Canada, was a Cabinet minister in the Liberal governments of Prime Ministers W. L. Mackenzie King, Louis St. Laurent, Lester B. Pearson, Pierre E. Trudeau, his mother, Eleanor "Nelly" Alice, was of Irish descent. He has one sister, Mary-Anne Bellamy, diagnosed with Crohn's disease at a young age, she died on July 20, 2011. Martin contracted polio in 1946 at the age of eight, he grew up in Ottawa.
To give him the opportunity to improve his French, his parents enrolled him in a private French-language middle school, École Garneau, in Ottawa. Martin briefly attended the University of Ottawa before transferring and graduating from St. Michael's College at the University of Toronto with a B. A. in history and philosophy in 1961. He was a member of Psi Upsilon fraternity and the U of T Young Liberals during his time at the University of Toronto, he attended the University of Toronto Faculty of Law, where he received a LL. B. in 1964. He was called to the Ontario bar in 1966. On September 11, 1965, Martin married Sheila Ann Cowan, with whom he has three sons: Paul and David. In 1969, Power Corporation took a controlling share in Canada Steamship Lines. On December 2, 1970, Paul Martin, the 32-year-old executive assistant to Power Corporation Chief Executive Officer Maurice Strong, was appointed to the CSL board of directors. In 1971 CSL minority shareholders sold outstanding shares to Power Corporation, making CSL a Power Corporation subsidiary.
CSL suffered losses in 1972 when forced to cover unexpected cost overruns in the construction of three 80,000-ton ocean-going tankers at Davie Shipbuilding. On November 22, 1973, Paul Martin was appointed CEO of the CSL Group. In 1974, CSL earnings were further hurt by an eight-week strike on the Great Lakes. In 1976, Power Corporation reversed itself and took over the investment portfolio, sold to CSL five years earlier. CSL reverted to an operating division of Power Corporation. In November 1993, the newly reelected Paul Martin was appointed to the cabinet and named Minister of Finance. On February 1, 1994, he placed his shares in CSL Group Inc. under a "Supervisory Agreement" to be managed by lawyers and financial advisers, although he would be allowed to intervene in company decision-making should events warrant. In June 2002, Martin was dismissed from the cabinet as Minister of Finance and subsequently pursued a bid for leadership of the Liberal Party of Canada. On March 11, 2003, Martin bowed to public and media pressure on his interest in CSL Group Inc. and announced that he would sell his interests in the company to his three sons, saying that his ownership would "provide an unnecessary distraction during the leadership race."
On December 12, 2003, Martin became the Prime Minister of Canada. In 1984, the Liberal Party was defeated under the leadership of John Turner, falling to just 40 seats. Many Liberals looked to replace Turner with a political newcomer. A group of young Liberals approached Martin as a possible candidate, while he did not take part in an attempt to overthrow Turner, he did prepare to succeed him in the leadership should the position open. Martin was considered by many to be Turner's ideological successor, as Jean Chrétien was to Pierre Trudeau. In 1988, Martin was elected as the Member of Parliament for the Western Montreal riding of LaSalle-Émard, he was reelected at every election since without much difficulty. He was a candidate at the 1990 Liberal leadership convention, losing to Jean Chrétien in a bitter race that resulted in lasting animosity between the two men and their supporters. A key moment in that race took place at an all-candidates debate in Montreal, where the discussion turned to the Meech Lake Accord.
Martin, favouring Meech, attempted to force Chrétien to abandon his nuanced position on the deal and declare for or against it. When Chrétien refused to endorse the deal, young Liberal delegates crowding the hall began to chant "Vendu" – and "Judas" at Chrétien. Chrétien blamed Martin for