United Way of Canada
United Way Centraide Canada is the national organization for the over 90 autonomous, volunteer-based United Ways and Centraides across Canada. The United Way Movement is a federated network of over 90 local United Way offices, each registered as its own non-profit organization and governed by an independent volunteer-led local Board of Directors; each United Way works locally to invest in improving lives in its community. In French, both in Quebec and across Canada, the organization is known as Centraide; the organization uses the United Way and Centraide names together, recognizing the bilingual nature of the country’s culture and people. United Way Centraide Canada is the national office and has a distinct role to provide leadership and support to local United Ways across the country. Together, local United Ways and United Way Centraide Canada form the United Way Movement. Due to donors' generous support, United Ways and Centraides invest every year in local communities across Canada; the over 90 United Way and Centraide offices operating across Canada offer or support more than 6,200 programs supporting those in need, engage over one million donors and volunteers who work to change lives in local communities.
United Way Centraide's work focuses on three key strategies that create opportunities for everyone in our communities: moving people from poverty to possibility, helping kids be all they can be, building strong and healthy communities. The Mission of United Way of Canada is: "To improve lives and build community by engaging individuals and mobilizing collective action." Adopted in 2003, this mission represents a shift in the organization's focus of umbrella fundraising to community impact. United Way Centraide Canada regards community impact as the achievement of positive long-term changes to the quality of life in local communities, brought about by addressing the root causes of social problems, as well as their symptoms; the National Office, founded in 1939, is located in Ottawa, Ontario. As the national organization, United Way Centraide Canada represents local United Ways and Centraides within Canada's voluntary sector and provides services such as leadership training and education opportunities.
The national organization convenes local United Ways and Centraides on a biennial basis at its annual conference, for the purposes of professional development training, the sharing of best practices and learning from leading thinkers. The United Way Centraide movement began in 1917, when charities in Montreal and Toronto started community collectives inspired by similar activities in the United States. In particular, various clergy in Denver were trying to raise money individually to support their community, but started working together in 1887 when they realized that they could have a greater impact if they worked together to raise and distribute funds; this approach began to be adopted in Canada during the turmoil of the First World War period. Other collectives were initiated in other parts of the country under a variety of names, it was not until the 1970s that these organizations took the name of United Centraide. Homelessness in Canada United Way of America Poverty in Canada United Way Centraide Canada United Way Centraide Canada FAQ United Ways and Centraides across Canada
Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake of the five Great Lakes in North America, the eleventh-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area. It is the southernmost and smallest by volume of the Great Lakes and therefore has the shortest average water residence time. At its deepest point Lake Erie is 210 feet deep. Situated on the International Boundary between Canada and the United States, Lake Erie's northern shore is the Canadian province of Ontario the Ontario Peninsula, with the U. S. states of Michigan, Ohio and New York on its western and eastern shores. These jurisdictions divide the surface area of the lake with water boundaries; the lake was named by a Native American people who lived along its southern shore. The tribal name "erie" is a shortened form of the Iroquoian word erielhonan, meaning "long tail". Situated below Lake Huron, Erie's primary inlet is the Detroit River; the main natural outflow from the lake is via the Niagara River, which provides hydroelectric power to Canada and the U.
S. as it spins huge turbines near Niagara Falls at New York and Queenston, Ontario. Some outflow occurs via the Welland Canal, part of the St. Lawrence Seaway, which diverts water for ship passages from Port Colborne, Ontario on Lake Erie, to St. Catharines on Lake Ontario, an elevation difference of 326 ft. Lake Erie's environmental health has been an ongoing concern for decades, with issues such as overfishing, algae blooms, eutrophication generating headlines. Lake Erie has a mean elevation of 571 feet above sea level, it has a surface area of 9,990 square miles with a length of 241 statute miles and breadth of 57 statute miles at its widest points. It is the shallowest of the Great Lakes with an average depth of 10 fathoms 3 feet (63 ft and a maximum depth of 35 fathoms For comparison, Lake Superior has an average depth of 80 fathoms 3 feet (483 ft, a volume of 2,900 cubic miles and shoreline of 2,726 statute miles; because it is the shallowest, it is the warmest of the Great Lakes, in 1999 this became a problem for two nuclear power plants which require cool lake water to keep their reactors cool.
The warm summer of 1999 caused lake temperatures to come close to the 85 °F limit necessary to keep the plants cool. Because of its shallowness, in spite of being the warmest lake in the summer, it is the first to freeze in the winter; the shallowest section of Lake Erie is the western basin. The "waves build quickly", according to other accounts. Sometimes fierce waves springing up unexpectedly have led to dramatic rescues. After being trapped for an hour-and-a-half, Baker was back on dry land and battered but alive; this area is known as the "thunderstorm capital of Canada" with "breathtaking" lightning displays. Lake Erie is fed by the Detroit River and drains via the Niagara River and Niagara Falls into Lake Ontario. Navigation downstream is provided by the Welland Canal, part of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Other major contributors to Lake Erie include the Grand River, the Huron River, the Maumee River, the Sandusky River, the Buffalo River, the Cuyahoga River; the drainage basin covers 30,140 square miles.
Point Pelee National Park, the southernmost point of the Canadian mainland, is located on a peninsula extending into the lake. Several islands are found in the western end of the lake. Major cities along Lake Erie include New York. Islands tend to total 31 in number; the island-village of Put-in-Bay on South Bass Island attracts young crowds who sometimes wear "red bucket hats" and are prone to "break off cartwheels in the park" and general merriment. Kelleys Island was depicted by the Chicago Tribune as having charms that were "more subtle" than Put-in-Bay, offers amenities such as beach lounging, biking and "marveling at deep glacial grooves left in limestone." Pelee Island is the largest of Erie's islands, accessible by ferry from Leamington and Sandusky, Ohio. The island has a "fragile and unique ecosystem" with plants found in Canada, such as wild hyacinth, yellow horse gentian and prickly pear cactus, as well as two endangered snakes, the blue racer and the Lake Erie water snake. Songbirds migrate to Pelee in spring, monarch butterflies stop over during the fall.
Lake Erie has a lake retention time of the shortest of all the Great Lakes. The lake's surface area is 9,910 square miles. Lake Erie's water level fluctuates with the seasons as in the other Great Lakes; the lowest levels are in January and February, the highest in June or July, although there have been exceptions. The average yearly level varies depending on long-term precipitation. Short-term level changes are caused by seiches that are high when southwesterly winds blow across the length of the lake during storms; these cause water to pile up at the eastern end of the l
Brian Gallagher is the President and Chief Executive Officer of United Way Worldwide. Gallagher was born in Chicago and raised in Hobart, Indiana. In 1981, he graduated from Ball State University with a degree in social work and started with the United Way as a management trainee. In 1992, he received his MBA from Emory University, in 2003 Ball State University awarded Gallagher an honorary Doctor of Humanities. In 2002, Gallagher was appointed to be the President and CEO of the United Way of America, a position he held until 2009 when United Way of America and United Way International joined to form United Way Worldwide, where he acts as President and CEO, he received total compensation of more than $1.5 million in 2012. In January 2017, he was appointed by then-Governor of Indiana Mike Pence as a trustee of his alma mater Ball State University for a term lasting until December 31, 2020
Whiting Williams was co-founder of the Welfare Federation of Cleveland, a predecessor to the Community Chest and United Way charitable organizations, as well as an author of popular books and articles about labor relations during the early 20th century. He was one of a number of social investigators who gathered information by going "undercover" to live as a worker. Whiting Williams was born Charles Whiting Williams on March 11, 1878 in Shelby, Ohio to Benjamin J. Williams and Ida Whiting, he is best known as the management consultant who went undercover to study various working conditions in the early twentieth century. He disguised himself as a laborer in coal mines, railroad shops and oil refineries in the United States and Central and South America. At the commencement of his research in 1920, he wrote a book, "What's on the Workers Mind, Put On Coveralls To Find Out", followed by several other writings which documented the findings of his research. In 1899, Whiting Williams graduated from Oberlin College after which he continued his education at the University of Berlin for a year, the University of Chicago.
Thereafter, he managed the Bureau of University Travel, became the Assistant to the President at Oberlin College. In the meantime, he earned a master's degree in 1909. Williams career started, he held this job until 1904, when he wrote a letter to the President of Oberlin College, Henry C. King, during his trip to Europe. In this, he suggested that a college president needed a full-time assistant to look after the less academic problems facing a school. In November of that same year Williams received a reply to his letter in which he was appointed assistant to the President, he held this position until 1912, within this time period he met and married his first wife, Caroline Harter. In 1912, Williams moved to Cleveland, Ohio to co-found the Cleveland Federation for Charity and Philanthropy; this organization was based on the premise that the competition of charitable organizations with each other for contributions was detrimental to their best interests. In response to this, the Cleveland Federation proposed that a single organization conduct a single massive fund drive and disburse the contributions among the various charitable groups in the city.
The Federation was groundbreaking in this attempt, provided the foundation for what are known as Community Chest, United Fund, United Way. In 1917, the organizations name changed to the Welfare Federation of Cleveland and Williams title became executive secretary within the Federation, he pioneered more than 2,400 United Appeals. In 1916, Williams obtained a group promoting and selling group insurance as a special representative for the Equitable Life Assurance Society. A position as such was a novice concept at the time. Amidst the transitions he underwent in terms of his career, Williams grew concerned that his name was too popular, fearing that people might not be able to distinguish him among so many. Therefore, in June 1917 he had his name changed from Charles Williams to Whiting Williams. In 1918, Williams moved to industrial world, to become Vice President and Personnel Director of Cleveland Hydraulic Pressed Steel Co. Williams took a leave of absence in 1920 to study working conditions and workers' attitudes firsthand, first in the United States, in various countries.
Speaking multiple languages, German and Italian, enabled Williams to work as laborer in coal mines, railroad shops and oil refineries in the U. S. Europe, Central and South America. Based on his research, he gave wrote several books such as. Based on his work as a common laborer in the steel mills and in a rolling mill, as a coal miner in two towns, as a shipbuilder, as an oil man in a refinery, as a worker in the iron mines, Williams wrote a 1920 book entitled "What's on the Worker's Mind, subtitled By One Who Put On Overalls To Find Out. Much of these experiences are presented in a journal-like format throughout the book. In the preface, Williams argues that "the daily job as the axle of the entire world"; the book is divided into two parts. In part 1, these topics are explored within the following chapters: "Hunting a Job", "In a Ten-Thousand-Man-Power Steel Plant", "In a Rolling-Mill", "Steel Slow-Miner's Wanted", "A Second Coal Town", "The Circle of the Hiring Gates", "With the Builders of Ships", "In an Oil Refinery", "In The Iron Mines", "Among the Ignonts and Billets Again".
The latter portion, "Findings," includes "Some Outstanding Impressions", "Some Deeper Factors", "The Way Out-and Management", "The Way Out and The Public." While conducting his research, Williams adopted the idea that "no half measures in the manner of disguise." Moreover, he presented himself with "a different name, a slim pocketbook, rough clothes, an unshaven face and a grammerless lingo". He claimed that his research "cheated no employer" as he worked tirelessly in order to derive the ruptured relations between "Labor and the Public -- the investors in brawn and bullion, the bourgeoisie". Williams refrained from including any explicit details about companies within his book, including their geographic locations "because neither commendation nor criticism of communities or companies is intended or desired". Williams did not offer conclusions or prescriptions but pointed out the most prominent concern among workers: terrible foremen. Williams transformed his approach in 1931 from working for a single co
Hurricane Rita was the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane recorded and the most intense tropical cyclone observed in the Gulf of Mexico. Part of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, which included three of the top ten most intense Atlantic hurricanes recorded, Rita was the seventeenth named storm, tenth hurricane, fifth major hurricane of the 2005 season. Rita formed near The Bahamas from a tropical wave on September 18, 2005 that developed off the coast of West Africa, it moved westward, after passing through the Florida Straits, Rita entered an environment of abnormally warm waters. Moving west-northwest, it intensified to reach peak winds of 180 mph, achieving Category 5 status on September 21st. However, it weakened to a Category 3 hurricane before making landfall in Johnson's Bayou, between Sabine Pass and Holly Beach, with winds of 115 mph. Weakening over land, Rita degenerated into a large low-pressure area over the lower Mississippi Valley by September 26th. In Louisiana, Rita's storm surge inundated low-lying communities along the entire coast, worsening effects caused by Hurricane Katrina less than a month prior, such as topping the hurriedly-repaired Katrina-damaged levees at New Orleans.
Parishes in Southwest Louisiana and counties in Southeast Texas where Rita made landfall suffered from severe to catastrophic flooding and wind damage. According to an October 25, 2005 Disaster Center report, 4,526 single-family dwellings were destroyed in Orange and Jefferson counties located in Southeast Texas. Major damage was sustained by 14,256 additional single-family dwellings, another 26,211 single-family dwellings received minor damage. Mobile homes and apartments sustained significant damage or total destruction. In all, nine Texas counties and five Louisiana Parishes were declared disaster areas after the storm. Electric service was disrupted in some areas of both Louisiana for several weeks. Texas reported the most deaths from the hurricane, where 113 deaths were reported, 107 of which were associated with the evacuation of the Houston metropolitan area. Moderate to severe damage was reported across the lower Mississippi Valley. Rainfall from the storm and its associated remnants extended from Louisiana to Michigan.
Rainfall peaked at 16.00 in in Central Louisiana. Several tornadoes were associated with the hurricane and its subsequent remnants. Throughout the path of Rita, damage totaled about $18.5 billion. As many as 120 deaths in four U. S. states were directly related to the hurricane. On September 7, 2005, a tropical wave emerged off the west coast of Africa and moved westward into the Atlantic Ocean. Failing to produce organized, deep atmospheric convection, the disturbance was not monitored by the National Hurricane Center for tropical cyclogenesis. Convection associated with the system increased late on September 13 before dissipating shortly thereafter. At the same time, a remnant surface trough had developed from a dissipating stationary front and began to drift westward north of the Lesser Antilles. Meanwhile, the tropical wave became better organized and was first noted in the NHC's Tropical Weather Outlooks on September 15 while northeast of Puerto Rico; the wave merged with the surface trough two days triggering an increase in convective activity and organization.
A subsequent decrease in wind shear enabled for additional organization, at 0000 UTC on September 18, the NHC estimated that the storm system had organized enough to be classified as a tropical depression, the eighteenth disturbance during the hurricane season to do so. At the time, the disturbance, classified as Tropical Depression Eighteen, was 80 mi east of Grand Turk Island in the Turks and Caicos and had developed banding features. In favorable conditions for tropical development, the depression organized, attained tropical storm strength at 1800 UTC that day based on data from reconnaissance flights and nearby ships and weather buoys; as a result, the tropical storm was named Rita. However, an increase in moderate southerly vertical wind shear as the result of a nearby upper-level low subdued continued intensification and displaced convective activity to the north of Rita's center of circulation. Once the upper-level low weakened, Rita's center of circulation reformed to the north, compensating for the disorganization that resulted from the wind shear.
The tropical storm resumed its previous strengthening trend as it was steered westward across The Bahamas along the south periphery of a ridge. Upon entering the Straits of Florida on September 20, Rita strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane by 1200 UTC, while maintaining a minimum barometric pressure of 985 mbar. Six hours Rita intensified further into Category 2 before subsequently passing 45 mi south of Key West, Florida. Aided by a favorable outflow pattern and anomalously warm sea surface temperatures, the trend of rapid deepening continued, Rita reached Category 3 status upon entering the Gulf of Mexico by 0600 UTC on September 21, making it a major hurricane. Once in the Gulf of Mexico, Rita passed over the warm Loop Current during the midday hours of September 21, enabling continued strengthening; as a result, the hurricane's wind field expanded and the storm's barometric pressure fell. By 1800 UTC that day, Rita attained Category 5 hurricane intensity, the highest category on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale.
Favorable conditions allowed for additional development, at 0300 UTC on September 22, Rita reached its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of
Alvin Ray "Pete" Rozelle was an American businessman and executive. Rozelle served as the commissioner of the National Football League for nearly thirty years, from January 1960 until his retirement in November 1989, he is credited with making the NFL into one of the most successful sports leagues in the world. Born in South Gate, Rozelle grew up in neighboring Lynwood during the Great Depression, he graduated from Compton High School in 1944, with Duke Snider, lettering in baseball and basketball. He was drafted into the U. S. Navy in 1944 and served 18 months in the Pacific on an oil tanker. Rozelle entered Compton Community College in 1946. While there he worked as the student athletic news director and worked part-time for the Los Angeles Rams as a public relations assistant. Pete Newell, head coach for the University of San Francisco Dons basketball team, came to Compton in 1948 for a recruiting visit. Impressed by Rozelle, Newell helped arrange for him to get a full scholarship to work in a similar capacity at USF.
Rozelle enrolled at USF that year and worked as a student publicist for the USF Dons athletic department. In addition to promoting the school's football team he was able to draw national attention to the Dons' 1949 National Invitation Tournament championship basketball team. After graduating from USF in 1950 he was hired by the school as the full-time athletic news director. In 1952, he re-joined the Rams as a PR specialist. Leaving after three years, he held a series of public relations jobs in southern California, including marketing the 1956 Olympics in Melbourne, Australia for a Los Angeles based company. In 1957, he returned to the Rams, a disorganized, unprofitable team, lost in the growing L. A. market, as their general manager. In spite of continued struggles on the field, including a league-worst 2–10 record in 1959, he turned them into a business success in just three years. After Bert Bell's death in October 1959, the 33-year-old Rozelle was the surprise choice for his replacement as NFL commissioner.
According to Howard Cosell in his book I Never Played the Game, the owners took 23 ballots before settling on Rozelle as NFL Commissioner at a January 26, 1960 meeting. When he took office following the 1959 season, there were twelve teams in the NFL playing a twelve-game schedule to half-empty stadiums, only a few teams had television contracts; the NFL in 1960 was following a business model. One of Rozelle's early accomplishments was helping the league adopt profit-sharing of gate and television revenues; the revenue-sharing was a major factor in stabilizing the NFL and guaranteeing the success of its small-market teams. Another important contribution was Rozelle's success in negotiating large television contracts to broadcast every NFL game played each season. In doing so he deftly played one television network against the other. In 1962, Rozelle was re-elected to a five-year contract to remain as commissioner. After the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, Rozelle wrestled with the decision of whether to cancel that Sunday's games.
Rozelle and White House press secretary Pierre Salinger had been classmates at the University of San Francisco, so Rozelle consulted with him. Salinger urged Rozelle to play the games, so he agreed for the schedule to proceed. Rozelle felt that way, saying: "It has been traditional in sports for athletes to perform in times of great personal tragedy. Football was Mr. Kennedy's game, he thrived on competition." After their win over the Philadelphia Eagles in Philadelphia, players on the Washington Redskins asked Coach Bill McPeak to send the game ball to the White House, thanking Rozelle for allowing the games to be played that weekend, saying that they were "playing...for President Kennedy and in his memory." There were players and news outlets that disagreed with the decision, Rozelle subsequently thought it might have been wiser to cancel those games. Citing his "aptitude for conciliation" with the league's owners, his work in expanding the NFL, his crackdown on player gambling, Sports Illustrated named Rozelle the magazine's 1963 "Sportsman of the Year".
By 1965, the rival American Football League obtained a new NBC-TV contract and had signed a new superstar in Joe Namath. As the leagues battled to sign top talent and salaries grew especially after a series of "raids" on each other's talent, both signed and unsigned; the leagues agreed to a merger in 1966. Among the conditions were a common draft and a championship game played between the two league champions first played in early 1967, the AFL-NFL World Championship Game, which would become known as the Super Bowl. Rozelle led negotiations with NFL executives to merge the two leagues. In October 1966, he convinced them to allow the merger. Rozelle played an important role in making the Super Bowl the most watched sporting event in the United States. Due to television contracts, the AFL and NFL operated as separate leagues until 1970, with separate regular season schedules, but they met in the preseason and in the championship game. Although Rozelle nominally remained the NFL commissioner, he was given broad authority over both leagues after AFL Commissioner Al Davis was forced to resign and replaced by an AFL President subordinate to the NFL Commissioner.
During this time, the NFL Commissioner's office came to resemble that of the Commissioner of Baseball and Rozelle unofficially became known as the Football Commissioner although, never an official title. Meanwhile, the AFL expanded, adding the Miami Dolphins in 1966, the Cincinnati Bengals in 1967. During this period, the NFL added the Atlanta Falcons in 1966, the New Orleans Sain
Columbus is the state capital of and the most populous city in the U. S. state of Ohio. With a population of 879,170 as of 2017 estimates, it is the 14th-most populous city in the United States and one of the fastest growing large cities in the nation; this makes Columbus the third-most populous state capital in the US and the second-most populous city in the Midwest. It is the core city of the Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses ten counties. With a population of 2,078,725, it is Ohio's second-largest metropolitan area. Columbus is the county seat of Franklin County; the municipality has annexed portions of adjoining Delaware and Fairfield counties. Named for explorer Christopher Columbus, the city was founded in 1812 at the confluence of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers, assumed the functions of state capital in 1816; the city has a diverse economy based on education, insurance, defense, food, logistics, energy, medical research, health care, hospitality and technology.
Columbus Region is home to the Battelle Memorial Institute, the world's largest private research and development foundation. As of 2018 the city has the headquarters of four corporations in the U. S. Fortune 500: American Electric Power, Cardinal Health, L Brands and Big Lots, just out of the top 500. In 2016, Money Magazine ranked Columbus as one of "The 6 Best Big Cities", calling it the best in the Midwest, citing a educated workforce and excellent wage growth. In 2012, Columbus was ranked in BusinessWeek's 50 best cities in the United States. In 2013, Forbes gave Columbus an "A" grade as one of the top cities for business in the U. S. and that year included the city on its list of Best Places for Business and Careers. Columbus was ranked as the No. 1 up-and-coming tech city in the nation by Forbes in 2008, the city was ranked a top-ten city by Relocate America in 2010. In 2007, fDi Magazine ranked the city no. 3 in the U. S. for cities of the future, the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium was rated no. 1 in 2009 by USA Travel Guide.
The area including modern-day Columbus once comprised the Ohio Country, under the nominal control of the French colonial empire through the Viceroyalty of New France from 1663 until 1763. In the 18th century, European traders flocked to the area, attracted by the fur trade; the area found itself caught between warring factions, including American Indian and European interests. In the 1740s, Pennsylvania traders overran the territory. In the early 1750s, the Ohio Company sent George Washington to the Ohio Country to survey. Fighting for control of the territory in the French and Indian War became part of the international Seven Years' War. During this period, the region suffered turmoil and battles; the 1763 Treaty of Paris ceded the Ohio Country to the British Empire. After the American Revolution, the Virginia Military District became part of Ohio Country as a territory of Virginia. Colonists from the East Coast moved in, but rather than finding an empty frontier, they encountered people of the Miami, Wyandot and Mingo nations, as well as European traders.
The tribes resisted expansion by the fledgling United States. The decisive Battle of Fallen Timbers resulted in the Treaty of Greenville, which opened the way for new settlements. By 1797, a young surveyor from Virginia named Lucas Sullivant had founded a permanent settlement on the west bank of the forks of the Scioto River and Olentangy River. An admirer of Benjamin Franklin, Sullivant chose to name his frontier village "Franklinton"; the location was desirable for its proximity to navigable rivers—but Sullivant was foiled when, in 1798, a large flood wiped out the new settlement. He persevered, the village was rebuilt. After Ohio achieved statehood in 1803, political infighting among prominent Ohio leaders led to the state capital moving from Chillicothe to Zanesville and back again. Desiring to settle on a location, the state legislature considered Franklinton, Dublin and Delaware before compromising on a plan to build a new city in the state's center, near major transportation routes rivers.
Named in honor of Christopher Columbus, the city was founded on February 14, 1812, on the "High Banks opposite Franklinton at the Forks of the Scioto most known as Wolf's Ridge." At the time, this area was a dense forestland, used only as a hunting ground. The "Burough of Columbus" was established on February 10, 1816. Nine people were elected to fill the various positions of Mayor and several others. In 1816-1817, Jarvis W. Pike would serve as the 1st Mayor. Although the recent War of 1812 had brought prosperity to the area, the subsequent recession and conflicting claims to the land threatened the new town's success. Early conditions were abysmal with frequent bouts of fevers and an outbreak of cholera in 1833; the National Road reached Columbus from Baltimore in 1831, which complemented the city's new link to the Ohio and Erie Canal and facilitated a population boom. A wave of European immigrants led to the creation of two ethnic enclaves on the city's outskirts. A large Irish population settled in the north along Naghten Street, while the Germans took advantage of the cheap land to the south, creating a community that came to be known as t