A semi-trailer truck is the combination of a tractor unit and one or more semi-trailers to carry freight. A semi-trailer attaches to the tractor with a fifth-wheel coupling, with much of its weight borne by the tractor; the result is that both the tractor and semi-trailer will have a distinctly different design than a rigid truck and trailer. It is variously known as a transport in Canada; these vehicles have been criticised on safety grounds, including when a study in London found that they caused a disproportionate number of annual cyclist casualties. In North America, the combination vehicles made up of a powered truck and one or more semitrailers are known as "semis", "semitrailers", "tractor-trailers", "big rigs", "semi trucks", "eighteen-wheelers", or "semi-tractor trailers"; the tractor unit has two or three axles. The most common tractor-cab layout has a forward engine, one steering axle, two drive axles; the fifth-wheel trailer coupling on most tractor trucks is movable fore and aft, to allow adjustment in the weight distribution over its rear axle.
Ubiquitous in Europe, but less common in North America since the 1990s, is the cabover engine configuration, where the driver sits next to, or over the engine. With changes in the US to the maximum length of the combined vehicle, the cabover was phased out of North American over-the-road service by 2007. Cabovers were difficult to service; as of 2016, a truck can cost US$100,000. Trucks average from 4 to 8 miles per US gallon, with fuel economy standards requiring better than 7 miles per US gallon efficiency by 2014. Power requirements in standard conditions are 170 hp at 55 mph or 280 hp at 70 mph, somewhat different power usage in other conditions; the cargo trailer has tandem axles at the rear, each of which has dual wheels, or eight tires on the trailer, four per axle. In the US it is common to refer to the number of wheel hubs, rather than the number of tires; the combination of eight tires on the trailer and ten tires on the tractor is what led to the moniker eighteen wheeler, although this term is considered by some truckers to be a misnomer.
Many trailers are equipped with movable tandem axles to allow adjusting the weight distribution. To connect the second of a set of doubles to the first trailer, to support the front half of the second trailer, a converter gear known as a "dolly" is used; this has one or two axles, a fifth-wheel coupling for the rear trailer, a tongue with a ring-hitch coupling for the forward trailer. Individual states may further allow longer vehicles, known as "longer combination vehicles", may allow them to operate on roads other than Interstates. Long combination vehicle types include: Doubles: Two 28.5 ft trailers. Triples: Three 28.5 ft trailers. Turnpike Doubles: Two 48 ft trailers. Rocky Mountain Doubles: One 40 to 53 ft trailer and one 28.5 ft trailer. In Canada, a Turnpike Double is two 53 ft trailers, a Rocky Mountain Double is a 50 ft trailer with a 24 ft "pup". Future long combination vehicles under consideration and study for the U. S. MAP-21 transportation bill are container; these combinations are under study for potential recommendation in November 2014: 40 ft trailer Turnpike Doubles, 148,000 lb GVWR 40 ft and 20 ft trailer Rocky Mountain Doubles, 134,000 lb GVWR Double 20 ft trailers.
The US federal government, which only regulates the Interstate Highway System, does not set maximum length requirements, only minimums. Tractors can pull three trailers if the combination is legal in that state. Weight maximums are 20,000 lb on a single axle, 34,000 lb on a tandem, 80,000 lb total for any vehicle or combination. There is a maximum width of no maximum height. Roads other than the Interstates are regulated by the individual states, laws vary widely. Maximum weight varies depending on the combination. Most states restrict operation of larger tandem trailer setups such as triple units, turnpike doubles and Rocky-Mountain doubles. Reasons for limiting the legal trailer configurations include both safety concerns and the impracticality of designing and constructing roads that can accommodate the larger wheelbase of these vehicles and the larger minimum turning radii associated with them. In general, these configurations are restricted to the Interstates. Except for these units, double setups are not restricted to certain roads any more than a single setup.
They are not restricted by weather conditions or "difficulty of operation". The Canadian province of Ontario, does have weather-related operating restrictions for larger tandem trailer setups; the noticeable difference between tractor units in Euro
International System of Units
The International System of Units is the modern form of the metric system, is the most used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units, which are the ampere, second, kilogram, mole, a set of twenty prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units; the system specifies names for 22 derived units, such as lumen and watt, for other common physical quantities. The base units are derived from invariant constants of nature, such as the speed of light in vacuum and the triple point of water, which can be observed and measured with great accuracy, one physical artefact; the artefact is the international prototype kilogram, certified in 1889, consisting of a cylinder of platinum-iridium, which nominally has the same mass as one litre of water at the freezing point. Its stability has been a matter of significant concern, culminating in a revision of the definition of the base units in terms of constants of nature, scheduled to be put into effect on 20 May 2019.
Derived units may be defined in terms of other derived units. They are adopted to facilitate measurement of diverse quantities; the SI is intended to be an evolving system. The most recent derived unit, the katal, was defined in 1999; the reliability of the SI depends not only on the precise measurement of standards for the base units in terms of various physical constants of nature, but on precise definition of those constants. The set of underlying constants is modified as more stable constants are found, or may be more measured. For example, in 1983 the metre was redefined as the distance that light propagates in vacuum in a given fraction of a second, thus making the value of the speed of light in terms of the defined units exact; the motivation for the development of the SI was the diversity of units that had sprung up within the centimetre–gram–second systems and the lack of coordination between the various disciplines that used them. The General Conference on Weights and Measures, established by the Metre Convention of 1875, brought together many international organisations to establish the definitions and standards of a new system and standardise the rules for writing and presenting measurements.
The system was published in 1960 as a result of an initiative that began in 1948. It is based on the metre–kilogram–second system of units rather than any variant of the CGS. Since the SI has been adopted by all countries except the United States and Myanmar; the International System of Units consists of a set of base units, derived units, a set of decimal-based multipliers that are used as prefixes. The units, excluding prefixed units, form a coherent system of units, based on a system of quantities in such a way that the equations between the numerical values expressed in coherent units have the same form, including numerical factors, as the corresponding equations between the quantities. For example, 1 N = 1 kg × 1 m/s2 says that one newton is the force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at one metre per second squared, as related through the principle of coherence to the equation relating the corresponding quantities: F = m × a. Derived units apply to derived quantities, which may by definition be expressed in terms of base quantities, thus are not independent.
Other useful derived quantities can be specified in terms of the SI base and derived units that have no named units in the SI system, such as acceleration, defined in SI units as m/s2. The SI base units are the building blocks of the system and all the other units are derived from them; when Maxwell first introduced the concept of a coherent system, he identified three quantities that could be used as base units: mass and time. Giorgi identified the need for an electrical base unit, for which the unit of electric current was chosen for SI. Another three base units were added later; the early metric systems defined a unit of weight as a base unit, while the SI defines an analogous unit of mass. In everyday use, these are interchangeable, but in scientific contexts the difference matters. Mass the inertial mass, represents a quantity of matter, it relates the acceleration of a body to the applied force via Newton's law, F = m × a: force equals mass times acceleration. A force of 1 N applied to a mass of 1 kg will accelerate it at 1 m/s2.
This is true whether the object is floating in space or in a gravity field e.g. at the Earth's surface. Weight is the force exerted on a body by a gravitational field, hence its weight depends on the strength of the gravitational field. Weight of a 1 kg mass at the Earth's surface is m × g. Since the acceleration due to gravity is local and varies by location and altitude on the Earth, weight is unsuitable for precision
Public transport is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, that charge a posted fee for each trip. Examples of public transport include city buses, trolleybuses and passenger trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport systems run along fixed routes with set embarkation/disembarkation points to a prearranged timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway. However, most public transport trips include other modes of travel, such as passengers walking or catching bus services to access train stations. Share taxis offer on-demand services in many parts of the world, which may compete with fixed public transport lines, or compliment them, by bringing passengers to interchanges. Paratransit is sometimes used for people who need a door-to-door service.
Urban public transit differs distinctly among Asia, North America, Europe. In Asia, profit-driven, privately-owned and publicly traded mass transit and real estate conglomerates predominantly operate public transit systems In North America, municipal transit authorities most run mass transit operations. In Europe, both state-owned and private companies predominantly operate mass transit systems, Public transport services can be profit-driven by use of pay-by-the-distance fares or funded by government subsidies in which flat rate fares are charged to each passenger. Services can be profitable through high usership numbers and high farebox recovery ratios, or can be regulated and subsidised from local or national tax revenue. Subsidised, free of charge services operate in some towns and cities. For geographical and economic reasons, differences exist internationally regarding use and extent of public transport. While countries in the Old World tend to have extensive and frequent systems serving their old and dense cities, many cities of the New World have more sprawl and much less comprehensive public transport.
The International Association of Public Transport is the international network for public transport authorities and operators, policy decision-makers, scientific institutes and the public transport supply and service industry. It has 3,400 members from 92 countries from all over the globe. Conveyances designed for public hire are as old as the first ferries, the earliest public transport was water transport: on land people walked or rode an animal. Ferries appear in Greek mythology—corpses in ancient Greece were buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman Charon to take them to Hades; some historical forms of public transport include the stagecoach, traveling a fixed route between coaching inns, the horse-drawn boat carrying paying passengers, a feature of European canals from their 17th-century origins. The canal itself as a form of infrastructure dates back to antiquity – ancient Egyptians used a canal for freight transportation to bypass the Aswan cataract – and the Chinese built canals for water transportation as far back as the Warring States period which began in the 5th century BCE.
Whether or not those canals were used for for-hire public transport remains unknown. The omnibus, the first organized public transit system within a city, appears to have originated in Paris, France, in 1662, although the service in question failed a few months after its founder, Blaise Pascal, died in August 1662; the omnibus was introduced to London in July 1829. The first passenger horse-drawn railway opened in 1806: it ran between Swansea and Mumbles in southwest Wales in the United Kingdom. In 1825 George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in northeast England, the first public steam railway in the world; the first successful electric streetcar was built for 12 miles of track for the Union Passenger Railway in Richmond, Virginia in 1888. Electric streetcars could carry heavier passenger loads than predecessors, which reduced fares and stimulated greater transit use. Two years after the Richmond success, over thirty two thousand electric streetcars were operating in America.
Electric streetcars paved the way for the first subway system in America. Before electric streetcars, steam powered subways were considered. However, most people believed that riders would avoid the smoke filled subway tunnels from the steam engines. In 1894, Boston built the first subway in the United States, an electric streetcar line in a 1.5 mile tunnel under Tremont Street’s retail district. Other cities such as New York followed, constructing hundreds of miles of subway in the following decades. Aerial lift Aerial tramway Funifor Chairlift Detachable chairlift Funitel Gondola lift Maritime transport Ferry Cable ferry Reaction ferry Water taxi Land transport Personal public transport Bicycle-sharing system Carsharing Personal rapid transit Rail transport Inter-city rail High-speed rail Maglev Urban rail transit Airport rail link Atmospheric railway Automated guideway transit Cable car Cable railway Commuter rail Elevated railway Funicular Inclined elevator Light rail Medium-capacity rail system Mono
The kilogram or kilogramme is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units. Until 20 May 2019, it remains defined by a platinum alloy cylinder, the International Prototype Kilogram, manufactured in 1889, stored in Saint-Cloud, a suburb of Paris. After 20 May, it will be defined in terms of fundamental physical constants; the kilogram was defined as the mass of a litre of water. That was an inconvenient quantity to replicate, so in 1799 a platinum artefact was fashioned to define the kilogram; that artefact, the IPK, have been the standard of the unit of mass for the metric system since. In spite of best efforts to maintain it, the IPK has diverged from its replicas by 50 micrograms since their manufacture late in the 19th century; this led to efforts to develop measurement technology precise enough to allow replacing the kilogram artifact with a definition based directly on physical phenomena, now scheduled to take place in 2019. The new definition is based on invariant constants of nature, in particular the Planck constant, which will change to being defined rather than measured, thereby fixing the value of the kilogram in terms of the second and the metre, eliminating the need for the IPK.
The new definition was approved by the General Conference on Weights and Measures on 16 November 2018. The Planck constant relates a light particle's energy, hence mass, to its frequency; the new definition only became possible when instruments were devised to measure the Planck constant with sufficient accuracy based on the IPK definition of the kilogram. The gram, 1/1000 of a kilogram, was provisionally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic centimetre of water at the melting point of ice; the final kilogram, manufactured as a prototype in 1799 and from which the International Prototype Kilogram was derived in 1875, had a mass equal to the mass of 1 dm3 of water under atmospheric pressure and at the temperature of its maximum density, 4 °C. The kilogram is the only named SI unit with an SI prefix as part of its name; until the 2019 redefinition of SI base units, it was the last SI unit, still directly defined by an artefact rather than a fundamental physical property that could be independently reproduced in different laboratories.
Three other base units and 17 derived units in the SI system are defined in relation to the kilogram, thus its stability is important. The definitions of only eight other named SI units do not depend on the kilogram: those of temperature and frequency, angle; the IPK is used or handled. Copies of the IPK kept by national metrology laboratories around the world were compared with the IPK in 1889, 1948, 1989 to provide traceability of measurements of mass anywhere in the world back to the IPK; the International Prototype Kilogram was commissioned by the General Conference on Weights and Measures under the authority of the Metre Convention, in the custody of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures who hold it on behalf of the CGPM. After the International Prototype Kilogram had been found to vary in mass over time relative to its reproductions, the International Committee for Weights and Measures recommended in 2005 that the kilogram be redefined in terms of a fundamental constant of nature.
At its 2011 meeting, the CGPM agreed in principle that the kilogram should be redefined in terms of the Planck constant, h. The decision was deferred until 2014. CIPM has proposed revised definitions of the SI base units, for consideration at the 26th CGPM; the formal vote, which took place on 16 November 2018, approved the change, with the new definitions coming into force on 20 May 2019. The accepted redefinition defines the Planck constant as 6.62607015×10−34 kg⋅m2⋅s−1, thereby defining the kilogram in terms of the second and the metre. Since the second and metre are defined in terms of physical constants, the kilogram is defined in terms of physical constants only; the avoirdupois pound, used in both the imperial and US customary systems, is now defined in terms of the kilogram. Other traditional units of weight and mass around the world are now defined in terms of the kilogram, making the kilogram the primary standard for all units of mass on Earth; the word kilogramme or kilogram is derived from the French kilogramme, which itself was a learned coinage, prefixing the Greek stem of χίλιοι khilioi "a thousand" to gramma, a Late Latin term for "a small weight", itself from Greek γράμμα.
The word kilogramme was written into French law in 1795, in the Decree of 18 Germinal, which revised the older system of units introduced by the French National Convention in 1793, where the gravet had been defined as weight of a cubic centimetre of water, equal to 1/1000 of a grave. In the decree of 1795, the term gramme thus replaced gravet, kilogramme replaced grave; the French spelling was adopted in Great Britain when the word was used for the first time in English in 1795, with the spelling kilogram being adopted in the United States. In the United Kingdom both spellings are used, with "kilogram" having become by far the more common. UK law regulating the units to be used when trading by weight or measure does not prevent the use of either spelling. In the 19th century the French word kilo, a shortening of kilogramme, was imported into the English language where it has been used to mean both kilogram and kilometre. While kilo is acceptable in many generalist texts
Fuel economy in automobiles
The fuel economy of an automobile relates distance traveled by a vehicle and the amount of fuel consumed. Consumption can be expressed in terms of volume of fuel to travel a distance, or the distance travelled per unit volume of fuel consumed. Since fuel consumption of vehicles is a significant factor in air pollution, since importation of motor fuel can be a large part of a nation's foreign trade, many countries impose requirements for fuel economy. Different methods are used to approximate the actual performance of the vehicle; the energy in fuel is required to overcome various losses encountered while propelling the vehicle, in providing power to vehicle systems such as ignition or air conditioning. Various strategies can be employed to reduce losses at each of the conversions between the chemical energy in the fuel and the kinetic energy of the vehicle. Driver behavior can affect fuel economy. Electric cars do not directly burn fuel, so do not have fuel economy per se, but equivalence measures, such as miles per gallon gasoline equivalent have been created to attempt to compare them.
Fuel economy is the relationship between fuel consumed. Fuel economy can be expressed in two ways: Units of fuel per fixed distance Generally expressed as liters per 100 kilometers, used in most European countries, South Africa and New Zealand. British and Canadian law allow for the use of either liters per 100 kilometers or miles per imperial gallon; the window sticker on new US cars displays the vehicle's fuel consumption in US gallons per 100 miles, in addition to the traditional MPG number. A lower number means more efficient. Units of distance per fixed fuel unit Miles per gallon is used in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada. Kilometers per liter is more used elsewhere in the Americas, parts of Africa and Oceania. In Arab countries km/20 L, known as kilometers per tanaka is used, where tanaka is a metal container which has a volume of twenty liters; when the mpg unit is used, it is necessary to identify the type of gallon used: the imperial gallon is 4.54609 liters, the U. S. gallon is 3.785 liters.
When using a measure expressed as distance per fuel unit, a higher number means more efficient, while a lower number means less efficient. Conversions of units: Note that when expressed as units of fuel per fixed distance, a lower number means more efficient, while a higher number means less efficient. While the thermal efficiency of petroleum engines has increased since the beginning of the automotive era to a current maximum of 36.4% this is not the only factor in fuel economy. The design of automobile as a whole and usage pattern affects the fuel economy. Published fuel economy is subject to variation between jurisdiction due to variations in testing protocols. One of the first studies to determine fuel economy in the United States was the Mobil Economy Run, an event that took place every year from 1936 to 1968, it was designed to provide real fuel efficiency numbers during a coast to coast test on real roads and with regular traffic and weather conditions. The Mobil Oil Corporation sponsored it and the United States Auto Club sanctioned and operated the run.
In more recent studies, the average fuel economy for new passenger car in the United States improved from 17 mpg in 1978 to more than 22 mpg in 1982. The average fuel economy in 2008 for new cars, light trucks and SUVs in the United States was 26.4 mpgUS. 2008 model year cars classified as "midsize" by the US EPA ranged from 11 to 46 mpgUS However, due to environmental concerns caused by CO2 emissions, new EU regulations are being introduced to reduce the average emissions of cars sold beginning in 2012, to 130 g/km of CO2, equivalent to 4.5 L/100 km for a diesel-fueled car, 5.0 L/100 km for a gasoline -fueled car. The average consumption across the fleet is not affected by the new vehicle fuel economy: for example, Australia's car fleet average in 2004 was 11.5 L/100 km, compared with the average new car consumption in the same year of 9.3 L/100 km Fuel economy at steady speeds with selected vehicles was studied in 2010. The most recent study indicates greater fuel efficiency at higher speeds than earlier studies.
The proportion of driving on high speed roadways varies from 4% in Ireland to 41% in the Netherlands. When the US National Maximum Speed Law's 55 mph speed limit was mandated, there were complaints that fuel economy could decrease instead of increase; the 1997 Toyota Celica got better fuel-efficiency at 105 km/h than it did at 65 km/h, although better at 60 mph than at 65 mph, its best economy
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans and goods from one location to another. In other words the action of transport is defined as a particular movement of an organism or thing from a point A to the Point B. Modes of transport include air, water, cable and space; the field can be divided into infrastructure and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between people, essential for the development of civilizations. Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations, including roads, airways, waterways and pipelines and terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stations, trucking terminals, refueling depots and seaports. Terminals may be used both for maintenance. Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles, buses, trucks, watercraft and aircraft. Operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, the procedures set for this purpose, including financing and policies. In the transport industry and ownership of infrastructure can be either public or private, depending on the country and mode.
Passenger transport may be public. Freight transport has become focused on containerization, although bulk transport is used for large volumes of durable items. Transport plays an important part in economic growth and globalization, but most types cause air pollution and use large amounts of land. While it is subsidized by governments, good planning of transport is essential to make traffic flow and restrain urban sprawl. Humans' first means of transport involved walking and swimming; the domestication of animals introduced a new way to lay the burden of transport on more powerful creatures, allowing the hauling of heavier loads, or humans riding animals for greater speed and duration. Inventions such as the wheel and the sled helped make animal transport more efficient through the introduction of vehicles. Water transport, including rowed and sailed vessels, dates back to time immemorial, was the only efficient way to transport large quantities or over large distances prior to the Industrial Revolution.
The first forms of road transport involved animals, such as horses, oxen or humans carrying goods over dirt tracks that followed game trails. Many early civilizations, including those in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, constructed paved roads. In classical antiquity, the Persian and Roman empires built stone-paved roads to allow armies to travel quickly. Deep roadbeds of crushed stone underneath kept such roads dry; the medieval Caliphate built tar-paved roads. The first watercraft were canoes cut out from tree trunks. Early water transport was accomplished with ships that were either rowed or used the wind for propulsion, or a combination of the two; the importance of water has led to most cities that grew up as sites for trading being located on rivers or on the sea-shore at the intersection of two bodies of water. Until the Industrial Revolution, transport remained slow and costly, production and consumption gravitated as close to each other as feasible; the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century saw a number of inventions fundamentally change transport.
With telegraphy, communication became independent of the transport of physical objects. The invention of the steam engine followed by its application in rail transport, made land transport independent of human or animal muscles. Both speed and capacity increased allowing specialization through manufacturing being located independently of natural resources; the 19th century saw the development of the steam ship, which sped up global transport. With the development of the combustion engine and the automobile around 1900, road transport became more competitive again, mechanical private transport originated; the first "modern" highways were constructed during the 19th century with macadam. Tarmac and concrete became the dominant paving materials. In 1903 the Wright brothers demonstrated the first successful controllable airplane, after World War I aircraft became a fast way to transport people and express goods over long distances. After World War II the automobile and airlines took higher shares of transport, reducing rail and water to freight and short-haul passenger services.
Scientific spaceflight began in the 1950s, with rapid growth until the 1970s, when interest dwindled. In the 1950s the introduction of containerization gave massive efficiency gains in freight transport, fostering globalization. International air travel became much more accessible in the 1960s with the commercialization of the jet engine. Along with the growth in automobiles and motorways and water transport declined in relative importance. After the introduction of the Shinkansen in Japan in 1964, high-speed rail in Asia and Europe started attracting passengers on long-haul routes away from the airlines. Early in U. S. history, private joint-stock corporations owned most aqueducts, canals, railroads and tunnels. Most such transport infrastructure came under government control in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, culminating in the nationalization of inter-city passenger rail-service with the establishment of Amtrak. However, a movement to privatize roads and other infrastructure has gained some ground and adherents.
A mode of transport is a solution that makes use of a particular type of vehicle and operation. The transport of a person or of cargo may invol
Twenty-foot equivalent unit
The twenty-foot equivalent unit is an inexact unit of cargo capacity used to describe the capacity of container ships and container terminals. It is based on the volume of a 20-foot-long intermodal container, a standard-sized metal box which can be transferred between different modes of transportation, such as ships and trucks; the container is defined by its length though there is a lack of standardisation in regard to height, ranging between 4 feet 3 inches and 9 feet 6 inches, with the most common height being 8 feet 6 inches. It is common to designate 45-foot containers as 2 TEU, rather than 2.25 TEU. The standard intermodal container is designated as 8 feet wide. Additionally there is a standard container with the same width but a doubled length of forty feet called a 40-foot container, which equals one forty-foot equivalent unit in cargo transportation. In order to allow stacking of these types a forty-foot intermodal container has an exact length of 40 feet, while the standard twenty-foot intermodal container is shorter having an exact length of 19 feet 10.5 inches.
The twistlocks on a ship are put at a distance so that two standard twenty-foot containers have a gap of three inches which allows a single forty-foot container to be put on top. The forty-foot containers have found wider acceptance; the length of such a combination is within the limits of national road regulations in many countries, requiring no special permission. As some road regulations allow longer trucks, there are variations of the standard forty-foot container — in Europe and most other places a container of 45 feet may be pulled as a trailer. Containers with a length of 48 feet or 53 feet are restricted to road transport in the United States. Although longer than 40 feet, these variants are put in the same class of forty-foot equivalent units; as the TEU is an inexact unit, it cannot be converted into other units. The related unit forty-foot equivalent unit, however, is defined as two TEU; the most common dimensions for a 20-foot container are 20 feet long, 8 feet wide, 8 feet 6 inches high, for a volume of 1,360 cubic feet.
However, both 9-foot-6-inch-tall High cube and 4-foot-3-inch half height containers are reckoned as 1 TEU. This gives a volume range of 680 to 1,520 cubic feet for one TEU. While the TEU is not itself a measure of mass, some conclusions can be drawn about the maximum mass that a TEU can represent; the maximum gross mass for a 20-foot dry cargo container is 24,000 kilograms. Subtracting the tare mass of the container itself, the maximum amount of cargo per TEU is reduced to 21,600 kilograms; the maximum gross mass for a 40-foot dry cargo container is 30,480 kilograms. After correcting for tare weight, this gives a cargo capacity of 26,500 kilograms. Twenty-foot, "heavy tested" containers are available for heavy goods such as heavy machinery; these containers allow a maximum weight of 67,200 pounds, an empty weight of 5,290 pounds, a net load of 61,910 pounds. Container ship Container terminal Containerization List of unusual units of measurement Panama Canal toll system Shipping ton Maersk Shipping.
"Maersk Container Brochure". Maersk. Archived from the original on 2008-11-15. Retrieved 2008-10-25. CIRCA. "Glossary: TEU". The European Commission. Archived from the original on 2008-04-14. Retrieved 2008-03-20. Rowlett, Russ. "How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement". University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 2008-03-20. Bohlman, Michael. "ISO's container standards are nothing but good news". ISO Bulletin. International Organisation for Standardisation: 15. Archived from the original on 2014-10-16. Retrieved 2008-03-20. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. "Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit". Glossary of Statistical Terms. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 2008-03-20