The Philadelphia Inquirer
The Philadelphia Inquirer is a morning daily newspaper that serves the Philadelphia metropolitan area of the United States. The newspaper was founded by John R. Walker and John Norvell in June 1829 as The Pennsylvania Inquirer and is the third-oldest surviving daily newspaper in the United States. Owned by Philadelphia Media Network, a subsidiary of The Philadelphia Foundation's nonprofit Institute for Journalism in New Media, The Inquirer has the eighteenth largest average weekday U. S. newspaper has won twenty Pulitzer Prizes. It is the newspaper of record in the Delaware Valley; the paper has fallen in prominence throughout its history. The Inquirer first became a major newspaper during the American Civil War when its war coverage was popular on both sides; the paper's circulation dropped after the war rose by the end of the 19th century. Supportive of the Democratic Party, The Inquirer's political affiliation shifted toward the Whig Party and the Republican Party before becoming politically independent in the middle of the 20th century.
By the end of the 1960s, The Inquirer trailed its chief competitor, the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, lacked modern facilities and experienced staff. In the 1970s, new owners and editors turned the newspaper into one of the country's most prominent, winning 20 Pulitzers; the editor is Gabriel Escobar. Stan Wischnowski is vice president of news operations; the Philadelphia Inquirer was founded as The Pennsylvania Inquirer by printer John R. Walker and John Norvell, former editor of Philadelphia's largest newspaper, the Aurora & Gazette. An editorial in the first issue of The Pennsylvania Inquirer promised that the paper would be devoted to the right of a minority to voice their opinion and "the maintenance of the rights and liberties of the people against the abuses as the usurpation of power." They pledged support to then-President Andrew Jackson and "home industries, American manufactures, internal improvements that so materially contribute to the agricultural and national prosperity." Founded on June 1, 1829, The Philadelphia Inquirer is the third-oldest surviving daily newspaper in the United States.
However, in 1962, an Inquirer-commissioned historian traced The Inquirer to John Dunlap's The Pennsylvania Packet, founded on October 28, 1771. In 1850, The Packet was merged with another newspaper, The North American, which merged with the Philadelphia Public Ledger; the Public Ledger merged with The Philadelphia Inquirer in the 1930s, between 1962 and 1975, a line on The Inquirer's front page claimed that the newspaper is the United States' oldest surviving daily newspaper. Six months after The Inquirer was founded, with competition from eight established daily newspapers, lack of funds forced Norvell and Walker to sell the newspaper to publisher and United States Gazette associate editor Jesper Harding. After Harding acquired The Pennsylvania Inquirer, it was published as an afternoon paper before returning to its original morning format in January 1830. Under Harding, in 1829, The Inquirer moved from its original location between Front and Second Streets to between Second and Third Streets.
When Harding bought and merged the Morning Journal in January 1830, the newspaper was moved to South Second Street. Ten years The Inquirer again was moved, this time to its own building at the corner of Third Street and Carter's Alley. Harding expanded The Inquirer's content and the paper soon grew into a major Philadelphian newspaper; the expanded content included the addition of fiction, in 1840, Harding gained rights to publish several Charles Dickens novels for which Dickens was paid a significant amount. At the time the common practice was to pay little or nothing for the rights of foreign authors' works. Harding retired in 1859 and was succeeded by his son William White Harding, who had become a partner three years earlier. William Harding changed the name of the newspaper to The Philadelphia Inquirer. Harding, in an attempt to increase circulation, cut the price of the paper, began delivery routes and had newsboys sell papers on the street. In 1859, circulation had been around 7,000. Part of the increase was due to the interest in news during the American Civil War.
Twenty-five to thirty thousand copies of The Inquirer were distributed to Union soldiers during the war and several times the U. S. government asked The Philadelphia Inquirer to issue a special edition for soldiers. The Philadelphia Inquirer supported the Union. Confederate generals sought copies of the paper, believing that the newspaper's war coverage was accurate. Inquirer journalist Uriah Hunt Painter was at the First Battle of Bull Run in 1861, a battle which ended in a Confederate victory. Initial reports from the government claimed a Union victory, but The Inquirer went with Painter's firsthand account. Crowds threatened to burn The Inquirer's building down because of the report. Another report, this time about General George Meade, angered Meade enough that he punished Edward Crapsey, the reporter who wrote it. Crapsey and other war correspondents decided to attribute any victories of the Army of the Potomac, Meade's command, to Ulysses S. Grant, commander of the entire Union army. Any defeats of the Army of the Potomac would be attributed to Meade.
During the war, The Inquirer continued to grow with more staff being added and another move into a larger building on Chestnut Street. However, after the war, economic hits combined with Harding becoming ill, hurt The Inquirer. Despite Philadelphia's population growth, distribution fell from 70,000 during the Civil War to 5,000 in 1888. Beginning in 1889, the paper w
Southwest Airlines Co. is a major United States airline headquartered in Dallas, is the world's largest low-cost carrier. The airline was established in 1967 by Herb Kelleher as Air Southwest Co. and adopted its current name, Southwest Airlines Co. in 1971, when it began operating as an intrastate airline wholly within the state of Texas, first flying between Dallas and San Antonio. The airline has about 58,000 employees as of September 2018 and operates about 4,000 departures a day during peak travel season; as of April 2019, Southwest carries the most domestic passengers of any United States airline. The airline has scheduled services to 100 destinations in the United States and ten additional countries. Service to Hawaii has started in March 2019. Southwest Airlines was founded in 1966 by Herbert Kelleher and Rollin King, in 1967 it was incorporated as Air Southwest Co. Three other airlines took legal action to try to prevent the company from its planned strategy of undercutting their prices by flying only within Texas and thus being exempt from various regulations.
The lawsuits were resolved in 1970, in 1971 the airline began operating scheduled flights between Dallas Love Field and Houston and between Love Field and San Antonio, adopted the name Southwest Airlines Co. In 1975, Southwest began operating flights to various additional cities within Texas, in 1979 it began flying to neighboring states. Service to the East and the Southeast started in the 1990s; as of April 2019, Southwest Airlines has scheduled flights to 102 destinations in 41 states, Puerto Rico, Central America and the Caribbean. It operates crew bases at the following airports: Atlanta, Chicago–Midway, Dallas–Love, Houston–Hobby, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Oakland and Phoenix–Sky Harbor. Southwest does not use the "hub and spoke" system of other major airlines, preferring the "point-to-point" system, combined with a "rolling hub" model in its larger cities. In 2018, Gary Kelly – the airline's chief executive – suggested that the airline may be considering potential route expansions to Canada and Europe.
Southwest does not partner with any other airline. Icelandair: In 1997, Southwest and Icelandair entered into interline and marketing agreements allowing for joint fares, coordinated schedules, transfer of passenger luggage between the two airlines in Baltimore and a place connecting passengers between several U. S. cities and several European cities. The frequent flyer programs were not included in the agreement; this arrangement lasted for several years but ended when Icelandair's service from BWI to KEF ended in January 2007. ATA Airlines: In a departure from its traditional "go it alone" strategy, Southwest entered into its first domestic codesharing arrangement with ATA, which enabled Southwest Airlines to serve ATA markets in Hawaii, Washington, D. C. and New York City. At the time of ATA's demise in April 2008, the airline offered over 70 flights a week to Hawaii from Southwest's focus cities in PHX, LAS, LAX and OAK with connections available to many other cities across the United States.
The ATA/Southwest codeshare was terminated when ATA filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on April 3, 2008. Southwest acquired the operating certificate and some of the landing rights of ATA in the ensuing proceedings. WestJet: On July 8, 2008, Southwest Airlines signed a codeshare agreement with WestJet of Canada, giving the two airlines the ability to sell seats on each other's flights; the partnership was to be finalized by late 2009, but had been postponed due to economic conditions. On April 16, 2010, Southwest and WestJet airlines amicably agreed to terminate the implementation of a codeshare agreement between the two airlines. Volaris: Southwest signed its second international codeshare agreement on November 10, 2008, with Mexican low-cost carrier Volaris; the agreement allowed Southwest to sell tickets on Volaris flights. However, on February 22, 2013, the connecting agreement was terminated, it was said to be mutual between the airlines. Most industry experts believe that the expansion of the subsidiary of Southwest, AirTran Airways, into more Mexican markets, was a main reason for the termination of the agreement.
AirTran Airways: After acquiring AirTran Airways in 2011, Southwest Airlines and AirTran Airways took the first step in connecting their networks on January 26, 2013, by offering a small number of shared itineraries in five markets. The agreement ended after AirTran became integrated into Southwest on December 28, 2014. Southwest Airlines has only operated Boeing 737 jetliner models, except for a period from 1979 to 1987 when it leased and operated several Boeing 727-200s from Braniff International Airways. Southwest is the largest operator of the Boeing 737 worldwide, with 750 in service, each averaging six flights per day. While most U. S. airlines now charge passengers for checked luggage, Southwest continues to permit 2 free checked bags per passenger. Regarding last-minute itinerary changes, Southwest does not charge any change fees. In the event of a cancellation, passengers are refunded a travel credit in the amount spent on their ticket, the credit may be used toward any other Southwest Airlines or Southwest Vacations purchase within a year of the original ticket purchase.
Southwest offers free in-flight non-alcoholic beverages and offers alcoholic beverages for sale for $6–7/beverage, with Rapid Rewards members eligible to receive drinks vouchers with their tickets. Free alcoholic drinks are offered on popular holidays su
Chrysler is one of the "Big Three" automobile manufacturers in the United States, headquartered in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The original Chrysler Corporation was founded in 1925 by Walter Chrysler from the remains of the Maxwell Motor Company. In 1998, it was acquired by Daimler-Benz, the holding company was renamed DaimlerChrysler. After Daimler divested Chrysler in 2007, the company existed as Chrysler LLC and Chrysler Group LLC before merging in 2014 with Fiat S.p. A. and becoming a subsidiary of its successor Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. In addition to the Chrysler brand, FCA sells vehicles worldwide under the Dodge and Ram nameplates. Furthermore, the subsidiary includes Mopar, its automotive parts and accessories division, SRT, its performance automobile division. After founding the company, Walter Chrysler used the General Motors brand diversification and hierarchy strategy that he had seen working for Buick, acquired Fargo Trucks and Dodge Brothers, created the Plymouth and DeSoto brands in 1928.
Facing postwar declines in market share and profitability, as GM and Ford were growing, Chrysler borrowed $250 million in 1954 from Prudential Insurance to pay for expansion and updated car designs. Chrysler expanded into Europe by taking control of French and Spanish auto companies in the 1960s; the company struggled to adapt to changing markets, increased U. S. import competition, safety and environmental regulation in the 1970s. It began an engineering partnership with Mitsubishi Motors, began selling Mitsubishi vehicles branded as Dodge and Plymouth in North America. On the verge of bankruptcy in the late 1970s, it was saved by $1.5 billion in loan guarantees from the U. S. government. New CEO Lee Iacocca was credited with returning the company to profitability in the 1980s. In 1985, Diamond-Star Motors was created. In 1987, Chrysler acquired American Motors Corporation, which brought the profitable Jeep brand under the Chrysler umbrella. In 1998, Chrysler merged with German automaker Daimler-Benz to form DaimlerChrysler AG.
As a result, Chrysler was sold to Cerberus Capital Management and renamed Chrysler LLC in 2007. Like the other Big Three automobile manufacturers, Chrysler was impacted by the automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010; the company remained in business through a combination of negotiations with creditors, filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization on April 30, 2009, participating in a bailout from the U. S. government through the Troubled Asset Relief Program. On June 10, 2009, Chrysler emerged from the bankruptcy proceedings with the United Auto Workers pension fund, Fiat S.p. A. and the U. S. and Canadian governments as principal owners. The bankruptcy resulted in Chrysler defaulting on over $4 billion in debts. By May 24, 2011, Chrysler finished repaying its obligations to the U. S. government five years early, although the cost to the American taxpayer was $1.3 billion. Over the next few years, Fiat acquired the other parties' shares while removing much of the weight of the loans in a short period.
On January 1, 2014, Fiat S.p. A announced a deal to purchase the rest of Chrysler from the United Auto Workers retiree health trust; the deal was completed on January 2014, making Chrysler Group a subsidiary of Fiat S.p.. A. In May 2014, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles was established by merging Fiat S.p. A. into the company. This was completed in August 2014. Chrysler Group LLC remained a subsidiary until December 15, 2014, when it was renamed FCA US LLC, to reflect the Fiat-Chrysler merger; the Chrysler company was founded by Walter Chrysler on June 6, 1925, when the Maxwell Motor Company was re-organized into the Chrysler Corporation. Chrysler had arrived at the ailing Maxwell-Chalmers company in the early 1920s, hired to overhaul the company's troubled operations. In late 1923 production of the Chalmers automobile was ended. In January 1924, Walter Chrysler launched the well-received Chrysler automobile; the 6-cylinder Chrysler was designed to provide customers with an advanced, well-engineered car, was an automobile at an affordable price.
Elements of this car are traceable to a prototype, under development at Willys during Chrysler's tenure The original 1924 Chrysler included a carburetor air filter, high compression engine, full pressure lubrication, an oil filter, features absent from most autos at the time. Among the innovations in its early years were the first practical mass-produced four-wheel hydraulic brakes, a system nearly engineered by Chrysler with patents assigned to Lockheed, rubber engine mounts to reduce vibration. Chrysler developed a wheel with a ridged rim, designed to keep a deflated tire from flying off the wheel; this wheel was adopted by the auto industry worldwide. The Maxwell brand was dropped after the 1925 model year, with the new, lower-priced four-cylinder Chryslers introduced for the 1926 year being badge-engineered Maxwells; the advanced engineering and testing that went into Chrysler Corporation cars helped to push the company to the second-place position in U. S. sales by 1936, which it held until 1949.
In 1928, the Chrysler Corporation began dividing its vehicle offerings by price function. The Plymouth brand was introduced at the low-priced end of the market. At the same time, the DeSoto brand was introduced in the medium-price field. In 1928, Chrysler bought the Dodge Brothers automobile and
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Penn's Landing is a waterfront area of Center City Philadelphia along the Delaware River. Its name commemorates the landing of William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania in 1682; the actual landing site is further south in Pennsylvania. The city of Philadelphia purchased the right to use the name. Penn's Landing is bounded by Front Street to the west, the Delaware River to the east, Spring Garden Street to the north, Washington Avenue to the south, is focused on the Christopher Columbus Boulevard corridor. Development of the area is handled by the Delaware River Waterfront Corporation; the corporation is a non-profit, established in 2009 to manage the publicly owned land on the central waterfront on behalf of the City of Philadelphia and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Penn's Landing serves as the site for several summertime events in the city; the main public space at Penn's Landing is The Great Plaza, a concrete labyrinth located along the Delaware River at Christopher Columbus Boulevard and Chestnut Street.
During the summer months, Festival Pier at Spring Garden Street serves as a venue for outdoor concerts and has a capacity of approx. 6,500 people. Several historic ships are moored at Penn's Landing; the barque Moshulu is a floating restaurant. The RiverLink Ferry links Penn's Landing with the Camden Waterfront across the river in Camden, New Jersey; the Blue Cross RiverRink is outdoor event facility located at Penns Landing. During the winter months it operates as an ice skating rink, hosts the Blue Cross RiverRink WinterFest, featuring winter-themed decorations, fire pits, an outdoor beer garden; the first Winterfest was held in 2013, concepted by Avram Hornik of FCM Hospitality, who owns the neighboring outdoor waterfront restaurant, Morgan's Pier. During the summer months, the ice rink is converted into a roller skating rink under the name SummerFest. Sterling Helicopter operates the only public-use heliport in Philadelphia at Pier 36. Spruce Street Harbor Park is one of the main attractions at Penn's Landing.
It is an urban beach park. The park has boardwalk along the Delaware River with a beachfront atmosphere with chairs and hammocks; the park is only open seasonally in the summer or warm months, closed during the winter. There are many statues and monuments located in Penn's Landing: The Irish Memorial, history of the Great Famine and subsequent Irish immigration to America, dedicated in 2003, sculpted by Glenna Goodacre Monument to Scottish Immigrants, dedicated in 2011, honors the contributions of Scottish immigrants to the United States Vietnam Veterans Memorial, dedicated in 1987 and designed by Perry M. Morgan Korean War Memorial dedicated in 2002 Christopher Columbus Memorial, dedicated in 1992, an obelisk designed by Venturi Scott Brown to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Columbus' landing in the Americas A bronze plaque monument marking the 250th anniversary of the 1747 creation of the "Associators", the predecessor of the Pennsylvania National Guard. From 1982 until 1995 a heritage trolley line operated in Penn's Landing, on weekends and holidays from about April to October each year.
Intended to attract tourists and help spur redevelopment of the area, the trolley line was established along a 1.1-mile section of disused ex-Philadelphia Belt Line Railroad freight railroad track, from the Benjamin Franklin Bridge to Pier 51. Grants from the city and Fidelity Bank funded the installation of overhead trolley wire and supporting poles, along with an electrical substation to provide power. Operation began on September 5, 1982, was run by volunteers from the Buckingham Valley Trolley Association; the service used historic trolley cars on loan from museums. When not in use, the cars were stored in a building on city-owned Pier 51; the service ran for the last time on December 17, 1995, the trolley wire and poles were removed by March 1996. The Delaware River Port Authority has considered re-opening the Franklin Square PATCO Speedline station and with a connection to a new trolley route on Delaware Avenue/Columbus Road operated by PATCO. Samuel Carpenter bought a lot extending from King Street to Front Street and on to Second Street in 1683.
This lot extends to Ton Alley. On the east side of this lot he built a wharf, or "a fair key" as mentioned by William Penn, the first wharf built in Philadelphia, it could handle ships of 500 tons or more. Over the years it was expanded and would now be under Interstate-95 where the highway passes Penn's Landing. Penn's Landing Corporation Penn's Landing at US History.org Blue Cross RiverRink Sippin By The River Jam on the River
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Benjamin Franklin Parkway
Benjamin Franklin Parkway abbreviated to Ben Franklin Parkway, is a scenic boulevard that runs through the cultural heart of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Named for Founding Father Benjamin Franklin, the mile-long Parkway cuts diagonally across the grid plan pattern of Center City's Northwest quadrant, it starts at Philadelphia City Hall, curves around Logan Circle, ends before the Philadelphia Museum of Art. The Parkway is the spine of Philadelphia's Museum District; some of the city's most famous sights are here: Cathedral Basilica of Saints Paul. From its northern end, the Parkway provides access to Fairmount Park through Kelly Drive, Martin Luther King Drive, the Schuylkill River Trail, the Schuylkill Expressway; the Parkway is an outdoor sculpture garden. Works include: The Thinker by Auguste Rodin. In a city famous for its urban planning, the Parkway represents one of the earliest examples of urban renewal in the United States; the road was constructed to ease heavy industrial congestion in Center City and to restore Philadelphia's natural and artistic beauty, as part of the City Beautiful movement.
Preliminary proposals for the Parkway had been produced and added to the City Plan by 1906, but the first comprehensive plan for the Parkway was commissioned in 1907 by the Fairmount Park Art Association. The Association commissioned architects Horace Trumbauer, Clarence Zantzinger, Paul Philippe Cret, who created a detailed parkway design, formally added to the City Plan in 1909. Construction on the Parkway did not begin until 1917, when French landscape architect Jacques Gréber submitted a revised plan to the Commissioners of Fairmount Park. Gréber designed the Parkway in 1917 to emulate the Champs-Élysées in France; the route was determined by an axis drawn from City Hall Tower to a fixed point on the hill that William Penn called "Fairmount", now the site of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. The Champs-Élysées terminates at the Arc de Triomphe, the Parkway's terminating at the Art Museum gives the notion of "a slice of Paris in Philadelphia." The Parkway has an international flavor by being lined with flags of countries from around the world.
The traffic rotary on the western end of the Parkway, at the foot of the Art Museum's Rocky Steps, is named Eakins Oval after Philadelphia painter Thomas Eakins. The traffic lanes around Eakins Oval formed a regular oval; because of its central location, the Parkway is the site for many parades. On July 2, 2005, the steps of the museum played host to the Philadelphia venue of Live 8, where artists such as Dave Matthews Band, Linkin Park and Maroon 5 performed; the Parkway was the site of Jay-Z's Made in America Festival on September 1-2, 2012 featuring Jay-Z, Pearl Jam and Calvin Harris, among others. On September 26th and 27th, 2015, Pope Francis visited Philadelphia and the Parkway was flooded with over a million visitors both weekend days, a Celebration of Families on Saturday, a Holy Mass on Sunday. In recent years, there has been concern that the original plan of a wide, multi-sectioned, multi-laned, tree-lined boulevard, while beautiful to travel on, is not engaging for pedestrian or other public use.
Traffic along the Parkway has decreased because of the completion of Interstate 676, linking the Schuylkill Expressway with the Benjamin Franklin Bridge. In response, the roadway has been narrowed somewhat and the sidewalks expanded around Logan Circle. Various plans for the rest of the Parkway, some of which would insert shops and other smaller structures into the long stretches between museums, have been proposed, but none so far have been thought feasible or financially sound. A new museum for the Barnes Foundation collection of Impressionist art on the site between the Free Library and the Rodin Museum opened in Spring 2012. Rocky Steps Cradle of Liberty Council Academy of Harry; the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Arcadia Publishing. Parkway Museums District Ben Franklin Parkway rehabilitation project The Philadelphia Museum of Art Center City Parks District - supports parks along the Parkway