Unity of the Brethren

The Unity of the Brethren known as the Czech or Bohemian Brethren, is a Protestant movement founded in 1457, whose roots are in the pre-Reformation work of Petr Chelčický and Jan Hus. For the denomination founded by the movement, see Moravian Church; the reforms of Jan Hus, which included providing the Scriptures to the people in their own language and making both elements of communion available to the people, were popular with the Czech people, but met extreme opposition from church authorities. Hus was executed, but his preaching and writings were instrumental in the formation of the Hussite movement; the Hussite movement broke into several strands, one of which became known as the Unity of the Brethren. The roots of this radical and pacifistic stream within the early Hussite movement go back to Petr Chelčický. Official formation is attributed to the year 1457 when the first ordinations took place in a small village called Kunvald near Žamberk and Litice, under the lordship of King George Podiebrad, in northeastern Bohemia.

The original theological foundation for the future Unity of the Brethren was laid by Petr Chelčický and Brother Řehoř, the latter considered one of the main founders. Lukáš Pražský, whose theological ideas shaped the movement after the passing of Chelčický and Řehoř, provided leadership. Another important leader was Jan Augusta; the "last bishop" of Unity of the Brethren, Comenius is known for his reforms in education. During the second half of the 16th century, members of the Unity of the Brethren translated the Bible from the original languages into the Czech; this translation is known as the Bible of Kralice, which until was the most used Czech biblical translation, with an influence similar to the King James Version in the English-speaking world. After 1620, due to a counter-reformation by the Roman Catholic Church, Bohemian Protestants were forced to choose between leaving the country or practicing their beliefs secretly. Descendants of members of the Unity of the Brethren who stayed in Bohemia and Moravia from villages on the Moravian-Silesian border, made up the core of a regrouping a century in Saxony under the influence of Count Nicholas Ludwig von Zinzendorf.

They formed the church, now known as the Moravian Church, Jednota bratrská and the Unity of Brethren. During the Thirty Years War, the Unity of Brethren churches were persecuted, as they were targeted by local counter-reformation nobles; as a result, they were dispersed to other Slavic lands, various German states, as far as the Low Countries, where Comenius attempted to direct a resurgence in manner similar to the secret Jews in Spanish Habsburg and other Roman Catholic lands. Those who stayed in Bohemia and Moravia practiced their beliefs in secret and passed their beliefs from one generation to the next. After Emperor Joseph II proclaimed toleration in 1781, only Lutherans and Calvinists were allowed to practice their faith. Many of the Brethren united with the Calvinists around that time. After the end of World War I and the formation of Czechoslovakia in 1918, Czech Lutherans and Calvinists formed a united church – the Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren. After the imperial edict of 1861, which granted legal rights to Reformed churches, Unity of the Brethren missionaries from Germany were able to restore the church to its original Czech homeland.

The first congregations was founded in 1870 in Potštejn, in Dube in 1872. Before the First World War, eight other churches had been planted; the Unity of the Brethren in the Czech Republic worked among the Czechs and the Germans, started orphanages in Čermná and Duba, conducted missionary work in South Africa. The Czech-originated Unity of the Brethren should not be confused with the Unity of the Brethren Baptists, a Baptist organization in the Czech and Slovak Republics. From about the middle of the 19th century until the outbreak of the First World War, a number of Czech Protestants immigrated to USA. In most of the US they formed Czech churches within the Presbyterian Church; those who settled as farmers in the state of Texas in the United States decided to form their own denomination. Jindřich Juren came to Texas in 1876, from 1881 through 1888 was the only minister to these Brethren congregations. Representatives of these congregations met in 1903 and formed the Evangelical Unity of the Bohemian-Moravian Brethren in North America.

The early churches worshipped in the Czech language. By the 1940s, most of the churches reflected assimilation into the surrounding culture and worshipped in the English language. In 1959, the name Unity of the Brethren was adopted; this body accepts the Apostles' Creed as a valid expression of their beliefs, stresses the ancient motto, "In essentials, unity. They believe the Bible is God's revelation to the sourcebook for all spiritual truth; the Unity practices two sacraments—water baptism and holy communion. Christian parents present their infant children for baptism. All Christians are invited to communicate with them at the Lord's supper or communio

Smith v Hughes

Smith v Hughes LR 6 QB 597 is an English contract law case. In it, Blackburn J set out his classic statement of the objective interpretation of people's conduct when entering into a contract. Rejecting that one should look to what people subjectively intended, he said, "If, whatever a man's real intention may be, he so conducts himself that a reasonable man would believe that he was assenting to the terms proposed by the other party, that other party upon that belief enters into the contract with him, the man thus conducting himself would be bound as if he had intended to agree to the other party's terms." The case stands for the narrow proposition that in a commercial sale by sample where the goods conform to the sample shown, the court will mindful of the principle of caveat emptor look more to objective than subjective consensus ad idem. Its wider proposition, not directly relevant to the facts of the case, substantially reduced, was that a consumer buying an item, such as "a horse", without a representation or warranty making his own assessment which "turns out unsound" cannot avoid, seek to obtain a refund on, the contract — see for example the consolidatory Consumer Rights Act 2015.

Mr Hughes was a racehorse trainer. Mr Smith, a farmer, brought him a sample of his oats, of which Hughes ordered forty to fifty quarters at a fixed price. Sixteen quarters were sent to start with, but when they arrived, Hughes said. He had wanted old oats, he was getting new oats. In fact, Smith's sample was of green oats. Hughes refused to pay and Smith sued for damages for breach of contract, for the amount of oats delivered and still to be delivered. Questions were put in this civil matter to jury; the jury convened locally at Epsom. They found for Mr Hughes that there was a mistake on his part, they were directed by the judge that if Mr Hughes was under a mistake about the oats and Mr Smith had known it, they should find in Mr Hughes' favour. They therefore did so. Mr Smith appealed; the Court of the Queen's Bench found that the jury had been ordered a retrial. Leaning in Mr Smith's favour, they held that the question was not whether the parties were at consensus ad idem, but what they had communicated by their conduct and words to one another.

Mr Smith was held to be under no duty to inform Mr Hughes of his possible mistake about the kind of oats, reaffirming the old idea of caveat emptor. A unilateral mistake is therefore in principle no ground for rescission of a contract. Cockburn CJ gave the first judgment. Blackburn J, who came to be known as one of the great 19th century judges, gave his decision on the issue. Hannen J delivered a concurring judgment. Investors' Compensation Scheme Ltd v West Bromwich Building Society UKHL 28 Hotchkiss v National City Bank of New York, 200 F 287, 293, per Learned Hand J, "A contract has speaking, nothing to do with the personal, or individual, intent of the parties. A contract is an obligation attached by the mere force of law to certain acts of the parties words, which ordinarily accompany and represent a known intent. If, however, it were proved by twenty bishops that either party, when he used the words, intended something else than the usual meaning that the law imposes upon them, he would still be held, unless there were some mutual mistake or something else of the sort."

Hillas & Co Ltd v Arcos Ltd UKHL 2 Hartog v Colin & Shields 3 All ER 566 Frederick E Rose Ltd v William H Pim Junior & Co Ltd 2 QB 450 References Notes

Nabokov House

Nabokov House is a house in Saint Petersburg with the modern street number of 47 Great Morskaya Street, 190000. In 1897, the mansion became the property of the liberal statesman and jurist Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov, as such the house hosted many important political meetings, including the final session of the National Congress of Zemstvos, it was in this mansion that novelist Vladimir Nabokov was born in 1899. The first floor of the house contains the Nabokov Museum, dedicated to the author's life, it is a medium to large townhouse, built during the 19th century in the Neo-Renaissance style for the Polovtsev family. Between 1897 and the October Revolution, the house was the property of the liberal statesman and jurist Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov, who had obtained it as a dowry of Elena Rukavishnikova; as such, it became host to many political meetings in the lead up and following the first Russian Revolution of 1905. It was in this house that the final session of the National Congress of Zemstvos was hosted in 1904.

The house is notable for being the home of Vladimir Vladimirovich, who lived in the house until November 1917. The house is meticulously described in his autobiography Memory. For Vladimir, the house remained the only house in the world. Subsequently when he grew rich, he never acquired any other house and preferred to live in hotels. A close childhood friend of Olga Nabokova was Ayn Rand; as children, the two would engage in endless political debates in this house. The house was broken into by Bolshevik revolutionaries during the October Revolution. Since April 1998, the first floor of the house is occupied by the Nabokov Museum and the upper two stories are occupied by the offices of the newspaper Nevskoe Vremya. In the museum space are the Phone room, Dining room, Committee Room and the Kitchen. Little has remained from the Nabokov family’s life in the house. Time and history spared nothing except the interiors of several rooms on the first and second floors of the building and the old stained-glass window above the flight of stairs leading to the third floor.

Nabokov memorabilia, including Vladimir Nabokov's personal effects, as well as books and other objects connected to his life and art, form the core of the museum's collection. The museum is dedicated to fostering Nabokov's memory and his artistic legacy and cultural values, both within Russia and internationally; the museum houses exhibits related to Nabokov's life and milieu and provides a research library for Nabokov scholars, holds many events and activities inspired by Nabokov: readings of works by Nabokov and those he admired, international or single-nation conferences, an annual international Nabokov summer school, exhibitions and installations related to Nabokov. Its activities have the regular support of leading Nabokov scholars from around the world. A series of threatening letters were sent to the museum, threatening staff whether'they are afraid of the wrath of God for the promotion of the pedophile Nabokov'. On the night of January 10, 2013, unknown vandals broke the windows of the Museum, throwing into the house a bottle with a note containing threats and insults.

A few days Artyom Suslov, the organizer of the play'Lolita', was severely beaten up in Saint Petersburg, with a video released on the internet of the beating, in which Suslov was made to confess to promoting pedophilia. On the night of 29 January 2013, vandals defaced the wall of the Museum with the word "pedophile". Law enforcement authorities initiated a criminal case under Art. 214 of the Russian Criminal Code to investigate the defacement of the museum. On the 20 February 2013, vandals attacked the Nabokov Rozhdestveno Memorial Estate 190000, St. Petersburg # 47 Bol'shaya MorskayaThe museum is open daily from 11 a.m. to 6 p.m. Saturday and Sunday from 12 p.m. to 5 p.m. and closed Monday. Booklet Saint Petersburg Museum of V. V. Nabokov Website of the museum