The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football franchise based in Oakland, California. The Raiders compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference West division. Founded on January 30, 1960, they played their first regular season game on September 11, 1960, as a charter member of the American Football League which merged with the NFL in 1970; the Raiders' off-field fortunes have varied over the years. The team's first three years of operation were marred by poor on-field performance, financial difficulties, spotty attendance. In 1963, the Raiders' fortunes improved with the introduction of head coach Al Davis. In 1967, after several years of improvement, the Raiders reached the postseason for the first time; the team would go on to win its first AFL Championship that year. Since 1963, the team has won 15 division titles, four AFC Championships, one AFL Championship, three Super Bowl Championships. At the end of the NFL's 2018 season, the Raiders boasted a lifetime regular season record of 466 wins, 423 losses, 11 ties.
The team departed Oakland to play in Los Angeles from the 1982 season until the 1994 season before returning to Oakland at the start of the 1995 season. Al Davis owned the team from 1972 until his death in 2011. Control of the franchise was given to Al's son Mark Davis. On March 27, 2017, NFL team owners voted nearly unanimously to approve the Raiders' application to relocate from Oakland to Las Vegas, Nevada, in a 31–1 vote at the annual league meetings in Phoenix, Arizona; the Raiders plan to remain in the Bay Area through 2019, relocate to Las Vegas in 2020, pending the completion of the team's planned new stadium. The Raiders are known for distinctive team culture; the Raiders have 14 former members. They have played at Kezar Stadium in San Francisco, Candlestick Park in San Francisco, Frank Youell Field in Oakland, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles, the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum in Oakland; the Oakland Raiders were going to be called the "Oakland Señors" after a name-the-team contest had that name finish first, but after being the target of local jokes, the name was changed to the Raiders before the 1960 season began.
Having enjoyed a successful collegiate coaching career at Navy during the 1950s, San Francisco native Eddie Erdelatz was hired as the Raiders' first head coach. On February 9, 1960, after rejecting offers from the NFL's Washington Redskins and the AFL's Los Angeles Chargers, Erdelatz accepted the Raiders' head coaching position. In January 1960, the Raiders were established in Oakland, because of NFL interference with the original eighth franchise owner, were the last team of eight in the new American Football League to select players, thus relegated to the remaining talent available; the 1960 Raiders 42-man roster included 28 rookies and only 14 veterans. Among the Raiders rookies were future Pro Football Hall of Fame inductee center Jim Otto, a future Raiders head coach, quarterback Tom Flores. In their debut year under Erdelatz the Raiders finished with a 6–8 record. Ownership conflicts prevented the team from signing. On September 18, 1961, Erdelatz was dismissed after the Raiders were outscored 77–46 in the first two games of the season.
On September 24, 1961, after the dismissal of Erdelatz, management named Los Angeles native and offensive line coach Marty Feldman as the Raiders head coach. The team finished the 1961 season with a 2–12 record. Feldman began the 1962 season as Raiders head coach but was fired on October 16, 1962 after an 0–5 start. From October 16 through December, the Raiders were coached by Oklahoma native and former assistant coach Red Conkright. Under Conkright, the Raiders went 1–8, finishing the season with 1–13 record. Following the 1962 season the Raiders appointed Conkright to an interim mentor position as they looked for a new head coach. After the 1962 season, Raiders managing general partner F. Wayne Valley hired Al Davis as Raiders head coach and general manager. At 33, he was the youngest person in professional football history to hold the positions. Davis began to implement what he termed the "vertical game", an aggressive offensive strategy inspired by the offense developed by Chargers head coach Sid Gillman.
Under Davis the Raiders improved to 10–4 and he was named the AFL's Coach of the Year in 1963. Though the team slipped to 5–7–2 in 1964, they rebounded to an 8–5–1 record in 1965; the famous silver and black Raider uniform debuted at the regular season opening game on September 8, 1963. Prior to this, the team wore a combination of black and white with gold trim on the pants and oversized numerals. In April 1966, Davis left the Raiders after being named AFL Commissioner, promoting assistant coach John Rauch to head coach. Two months the league announced its merger with the NFL; the leagues would retain separate regular seasons until 1970. With the merger, the position of commissioner was no longer needed, Davis entered into discussions with Valley about returning to the Raiders. On July 25, 1966, Davis returned as part-owner of the team, he purchased a 10% interest in the team for $18,000, became the team's third general partner — the partner in charge of football operations. Under Rauch, the Raiders matched their 1965 season's 8–5–1 record in 1966 but missed the pl
Buca di Beppo
Buca di Beppo is an American restaurant chain specializing in Italian-American food. The name translates as "Joe's Hole" from Italian (buca, which means "hole" or "pit", can be a dialectal word in Tuscany for basement or cellar, Beppo is a rare spelling of the nickname of Giuseppe; the chain of 88 establishments is owned by Inc. which in turn is owned by Planet Hollywood. The chain is known for its vintage photographs hung spaced throughout the restaurant. Restrooms feature recorded ambient sounds — women laughing and conversing in Italian in the men's room and vice versa in the women's room; the food at Buca di Beppo is served family style, each item served à la carte and shared among the dining party. Some locations have a lunch menu, featuring individual-sized portions; each room at Buca is themed, all restaurants have a Pope table—the largest single table, round, in a room by itself, with a bust of the Pope as centerpiece. Most locations have a table inset to the wall, directly across from the main kitchen, at which the waiter and chefs will converse with you and allow you to sample many dishes.
In an attempt to boost sales during 2005, Buca introduced a Buca Mia, meaning "My Cellar", menu with less-expensive portions for two. The first restaurant named Buca Little Italy was opened in the basement level of a Minneapolis apartment building in 1993 by Twin Cities restaurant company Parasole Restaurant Holdings. Five years it was spun off and renamed Buca di Beppo. By 1999 there were 20 locations when Inc. began trading on the NASDAQ stock exchange. There are 96 Buca restaurants operating nationwide; the chain began to hit some rough spots a few years later. Business losses mounted, in 2005, the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission began investigating the company over securities laws. Two top executives left the company, three Buca di Beppo sites were closed, the company described those restaurants and the Vinny T's chain as "discontinued operations" in 4th quarter 2005 earnings statements. However, on May 22, 2006, the company announced that it would be keeping the Vinny T's stores, but converting them to Buca di Beppo locations.
On September 25, 2006 Buca, Inc. sold their 11 Vinny T's of Boston restaurants to Bertucci's Corp. for $6.8 million. On June 7, 2006, three former Buca executives were charged with stealing more than US$200,000 from the company. On August 5, 2008, Planet Hollywood's parent company, Planet Hollywood International, Inc. agreed to purchase the Buca chain for US$28.5 million. Under terms of the deal, Buca became a wholly owned subsidiary of Planet Hollywood. In 2011, Buca moved its headquarters from Minneapolis to Orlando, home of its parent company, citing financial incentives. In 2012, Rick Tasman was named President. In 2015, Rich Saultz was named the new CEO & President and is in that position. In 2019, Earl Enterprises announced that a point-of-sale credit card breach affected credit-card users who visited Buca between May 23, 2018 and March 18, 2019. List of Italian restaurants Official website Official website - United Kingdom
Sephora is a Paris, France-based multinational chain of personal care and beauty stores founded in Limoges in 1969. Featuring nearly 300 brands, along with its own private label, Sephora offers beauty products including cosmetics, body, nail color, haircare. Sephora is owned by luxury conglomerate LVMH as of 1997; the name comes from the Greek spelling of wife of Moses. Sephora first launched in Paris on 14 August 1969, it was acquired by Dominique Mandonnaud in 1993, who merged the purchase with his own perfume chain under the Sephora brand. Mandonnaud is credited for founding and implementing Sephora's "assisted self-service" sales experience, which departed from then-typical retail models for cosmetics by encouraging customers to try products in-store before purchasing. Mandonnaud continued to expand the Sephora brand through the 1990s, opening up its flagship store in Champs Élysées in 1997. In July 1997, Mandonnaud and his partners sold Sephora to LVMH, who expanded the stores globally and bolstered the chain's product offerings to include beauty and cosmetic products.
Sephora extended its operation to the Middle Eastern markets in 2007 and has opened over 44 Sephora UAE and KSA stores as well as an eCommerce store. It extends its partnership with its exclusive brands in the region. On 1 January 2014, Calvin McDonald replaced David Suliteanu as president and chief executive officer of Sephora Americas. Suliteanu was named CEO of another business in the LVMH portfolio. Sephora opened its first United States store in New York City in 1998 and its first Canadian store in Toronto in 2004, its North American headquarters is located in San Francisco, with corporate offices in New York City and Montréal. Sephora operates over 430 stores across North America. In 26 August 2016, Sephora opened its 400th location in North America on the Magnificent Mile in Chicago; the store is the city's new flagship location. On 31 March 2017, Sephora opened its largest retail location in North America near Herald Square; the store is 11,380 square feet and features over 13,000 products.
It's one of six Sephora TIP Workshop locations, with interactive services and tools, in North America. On 19 November 2018, Sephora signed a long-term lease at Thor Equities’ Town Square Metepec, a new retail and entertainment center in Mexico totaling 1.7 million square feet. Sephora launched its online store to the U. S. in 1999 and into Canada in 2003. The Canadian head office was opened in February 2007 by Marie-Christine Marchives, a former Sephora U. S. and Sephora France employee. Marie-Christine Marchives returned to France in July 2010 to become the general manager of Sephora France, she was replaced in Canada by Klaus Ryum-Larsen. Sephora operates over 2,300 stores in 33 countries worldwide generating over an estimated $4 billion in revenue as of 2013; as of September 2013, the Sephora at Champs Élysées in Paris, attracts over six million people a year. Sephora features a variety of beauty products from more than 300 brands, including NARS Cosmetics, Make Up For Ever, Too Faced Cosmetics, Anastasia Beverly Hills, Urban Decay, Benefit Cosmetics, Amazing Cosmetics, First Aid Beauty, Lancôme Cosmetics, Sunday Riley Skincare, philosophy, Jo Malone London, Atelier Cologne, YSL Beauty by Yves Saint Laurent, Huda Beauty, Kat Von D, Bobbi Brown Cosmetics.
Sephora features its own make-up, beauty tools and accessories. Packaging for the line features the company's elongated flame logo in standard black print. In 2010, the company debuted fragrance collections with Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen, known as Elizabeth and James, a makeup line with Marc Jacobs. In October 2006, Sephora began opening stores inside JCPenney. Sephora inside JCPenney features some of the same makeup and fragrance brands as well as its own product line found in stand alone stores nationwide. Sephora inside JCPenney stores are much smaller than a normal store 1,500 sq ft in size. There are more than 600 Sephora locations in JCPenney stores across the US. In 2017, JC Penney announced the closing of 138 stores nationwide. In August 2015 it was announced that Sephora would launch a subscription service: Play! By Sephora; the monthly subscription service offers boxes containing sample size products for a monthly fee. Boston and Cincinnati were the only three cities to test the initial service launch in September 2015.
The service launched throughout the US in 2016. As of 2018, the subscription service is still only available in the US. For $10 USD billed monthly, each month’s box is a collectible bag that changes each month with five deluxe skin care, makeup, or hair care samples; each box includes a selection of products based on answers provided by customer in PLAY! profile. Sephora UAE and KSA are regional subdivisions of Sephora; the Middle East head office was opened in February 2006 by Pierre Fayard. Since 2007, over 30 separate Sephora stores have opened across the Middle East region. Sephora UAE and KSA provide make up and skincare products from notable brands such as Christian Dior, Laura Mercier and Kat Von D in a high tech contemporary retail environment. Sephora’s first Middle East store opened at Seef Mall in Bahrain on 7th January 2007 followed by Festival City, UAE on 1 March 2007 with a further 30 stores opening across the region since; the Sephora store in the Dubai Mall opened in December 2008 and is now ranked as the company’s number two store worldwide after the Paris Flagship store.
In 2007 the late Sephora CEO, Jacques Levy expressed a desire to have 100 stores open across the region by 2010
Taco Bell is an American chain of fast food restaurants based out of Irvine, California and a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, Inc; the restaurants serve a variety of Tex-Mex foods that include tacos, quesadillas, nachos and specialty items, a variety of "value menu" items. As of 2018, Taco Bell serves more than 2 billion customers each year at 7,072 restaurants, more than 93 percent of which are owned and operated by independent franchisees and licensees. Taco Bell was founded by Glen Bell, an entrepreneur who first opened a hot dog stand called Bell's Drive-In in San Bernardino, California in 1948. Bell watched long lines of customers at a Mexican restaurant called the Mitla Cafe, located across the street, which became famous among residents for its hard-shelled tacos. Bell attempted to reverse-engineer the recipe, the owners allowed him to see how the tacos were made, he took what he had learned and opened a new stand under the name of Taco-Tia in late 1951 or early 1952, which sold tacos. Over the years, Bell owned and operated a number of El Taco restaurants in southern California.
Bell would sell the El Tacos to his partner and built the first Taco Bell in Downey in 1962. The first Taco Bell franchise opened in Torrance in 1964, by 1967, the company expanded, opening its 100th restaurant in the same year. PepsiCo purchased Taco Bell in 1978, spun off its restaurants division as Tricon Global Restaurants, which changed its name to Yum! Brands. Taco Bell was founded by Glen Bell, who first opened a hot dog stand called Bell's Drive-In in San Bernardino, California in 1948 when he was 25 years old. In 1950, he opened Bell's Hamburgers and Hot Dogs in San Bernardino's West Side barrio. According to Gustavo Arellano, author of Taco USA: How Mexican Food Conquered America, Bell watched long lines of customers at a Mexican restaurant called the Mitla Cafe, located across the street, which attracted a dedicated customer base for its hard-shelled tacos. Bell began eating there attempting to reverse-engineer the recipe, won the confidence of the proprietors such that they allowed him to see how the tacos and other foods were prepared.
In late 1951 or early 1952, he took what he had learned and opened a new stand, this time selling tacos under the name of Taco-Tia. Over the next few years, Bell owned and operated a number of restaurants in southern California including four called El Taco. Bell sold the El Tacos to his partner and built the first Taco Bell in Downey in 1962. Kermit Becky, a former Los Angeles police officer, bought the first Taco Bell franchise from Glen Bell in 1964, located it in Torrance; the company grew and by 1967, the 100th restaurant opened at 400 South Brookhurst in Anaheim. Original Taco Bell's featured walk-up windows only, with drive-thru service. In 1968, its first franchise location east of the Mississippi River opened in Ohio. In 1970, Taco Bell went public with 325 restaurants. In 1978, PepsiCo purchased Taco Bell from Glen Bell. On the night of November 19, 2015, the original Taco Bell building in Downey was moved to the Taco Bell Corporate Headquarters in Irvine, California. Several locations in the Midwestern United States were converted from Zantigo, a Minneapolis, Minnesota-based Mexican chain which PepsiCo acquired in 1986.
In 1990, the Hot'n Now chain was acquired. Taco Bell sold Hot'n Now to a Connecticut company in 1997. In 1991, Taco Bell opened the first Taco Bell Express in San Francisco; this concept is a reduced-size restaurant with a limited menu, meant to emphasize volume. Taco Bell Express locations operate inside convenience stores, truck stops, shopping malls, airports. Taco Bell began co-branding with KFC in 1995 when the first such co-brand opened in Clayton, North Carolina; the chain has since co-branded with Pizza Hut and Long John Silver's as well. In 1997, PepsiCo experimented with a new "fresh grill" concept, opening at least one Border Bell restaurant in Mountain View, California on El Camino Real. In addition to a subset of the regular Taco Bell menu, Border Bell offered Mexican-inspired items like those available from Chevys Fresh Mex restaurants, such as Chevys signature sweet corn tamalito pudding and a fresh salsa bar. Close to the time that PepsiCo spun off its restaurant business in 1997, the Border Bell in Mountain View was closed and converted to a Taco Bell restaurant, still open in 2018.
In September 2000, up to $50 million worth of Taco Bell-branded shells were recalled from supermarkets. The shells contained a variety of genetically modified corn called StarLink, not approved for human consumption. StarLink was approved only for use in animal feed because of questions about whether it can cause allergic reactions in people, it was the first-ever recall of genetically modified food. Corn was not segregated at grain elevators and the miller in Texas did not order that type. In 2001, Tricon Global announced a $60 million settlement with the suppliers, they stated that it would go to Taco Bell franchisees and TGR would not take any of it. PepsiCo spun out Taco Bell and its other restaurant chains in late 1997 in Tricon Global Restaurants. With the purchased of two other chains, Tricon changed its name to Yum! Brands on May 16, 2002. Taco Bell began experimenting with fast-casual and urban concepts when it created U. S. Taco Co. and Urban Taproom in 2014. The menu consists of tacos with American fillings, did not sell food sold in Taco Bell restaurants such as burritos.
It was launched in Huntington Beach, California in August 2014. U. S. Taco Co. closed on September 15, 2015 so the company could focus on its new similar Taco Bell Cantina concept, which featured special menu items a
Guess is an American clothing brand and retailer. In addition to clothing for both men and women, Guess markets other fashion accessories such as watches, jewelry and shoes. Guess began in 1981 as a book of styles by Georges Marciano. Maurice, Georges' brother, was first sought by Georges to help with product development. Armand and Paul Georges' brothers, were in charge of distribution and advertising, respectively. Armand ran distribution. Paul created all of it in-house. Georges designed the clothes, burnishing Guess' signature style: stonewashed denim, lighter in color and more form-fitting than the competitors; this initial chain of command led to the earlier break-up of the brothers' cooperation with Georges selling his share of the Guess company to his other brothers due to a disagreement in a choice of product distribution strategy. Georges wanted to keep Guess such as Bloomingdales; the remaining brothers in the disagreement wanted a larger distribution in KMart. Georges hated the idea. Different camps formed within the company, with each pledging allegiance to either Georges or the other three.
Georges gave in and sold his stake to his brothers in September, 1993 for $214.2 million. To finance the purchase, they had to borrow $210 million, $105 million was still outstanding three years later. To raise money, the brothers decided to take Guess public. Paul was the only remaining brother to lead Guess on his own; when Georges Marciano and his brothers were much younger, they opened a series of stores in France under the name MGA before launching Guess in America in 1981, after Georges Marciano first came to America in 1977. Their top seller: unisex jeans. Georges Marciano and his brothers moved to Los Angeles to see if they could pull off a similar feat, borrowing a mottled wash Georges had noticed on jeans in an Italian laundromat he had taken note of; the founder, Georges Marciano, his brothers moved to Los Angeles in 1981 and opened the first store in upscale Beverly Hills area. Armand and Paul joined his brother in California. Georges came up with the company name after driving past a McDonald's billboard asking drivers to "guess" which eatery had the biggest cheeseburger.
Maurice Marciano said, "Georges said, ` I think I found our name. Guess.' " Maurice Marciano tossed up ideas until he got exasperated, his brother, clarified himself. The Guess name was born. Guess, with its red triangle patch, stonewashed denim and signature zipper sliding up each ankle, was launched in late 1981. In just one year, sales through Bloomingdale's and Guess's Beverly Hills store hit $6 million. Guess soon began advertising, in 1985, introduced some black-and-white ads; the ads have won numerous Clio Awards. Their fashion models have included a number of supermodels, many of whom, such as Claudia Schiffer, Anna Nicole Smith, Eva Herzigova, Valeria Mazza, Kate Upton, Julia Lescova, Laetitia Casta, first achieved prominence via these ad campaigns. In the 1985 Robert Zemeckis movie, Back to the Future, Marty McFly wore distinctive Guess denim clothing, designed for the film. During the 1980s, Guess was one of the most popular brands of denim jeans; the company was one of the first companies to create designer jeans.
While the first jeans were for women, a men's line debuted in 1983. In 1984, Guess introduced its new line of watches known as "Guess", "Guess Steel", the "Guess Collection"; the watch line is still in existence today and has been joined by a number of other accessory sidelines. In 1984, they introduced a line of baby's clothes, called "Baby Guess"; the line is now incorporated with clothing for kids called GUESS kids. In the 1990s, Milica and Milos had a division called Guess Home, which featured youthful, upscale bedding collections as well as a number of towel collections. By the end of the decade, sales Guess discontinued their home division. In the 2000s, the controversy that surrounded the company during the nineties was forgotten; the clothing and accessories company has redesigned itself, offering several new aspects. Since Guess was looking to make its impact once again on the fashion market, the Marciano brothers called upon random celebrity Paris Hilton to feature in a new series of ads back in 2009.
On January 26, 2001, Guess Inc. restated previous results for fiscal 2000 after deciding to write down impaired inventory. In 2004, Guess celebrated the 20th anniversary of its watch collection, issuing a special-edition Guess watch; the accessories department was greatly expanded and several stores across the United States were redesigned. Guess created a lower priced collection sold through its outlet locations. Guess introduced its first brand extension, the up-scale female line of clothing and accessories, named Marciano. In 2005, Guess began marketing perfume; the company introduced Guess for Women in the spring of 2005. Guess introduced the Guess for Men line in the spring of 2006. Guess has continued its Guess Kids clothing line into the 2000s, in 2006, Guess began promoting the clothing line for girls and boys through its factory retail stores. Guess continued to be guided as co-chairmen and co-CEOs. Maurice Marciano has overseen the design and its sales growth, while Paul managed the image and ad
Orlando is a city in the U. S. state of Florida and the county seat of Orange County. Located in Central Florida, it is the center of the Orlando metropolitan area, which had a population of 2,509,831, according to U. S. Census Bureau figures released in July 2017; these figures make it the 23rd-largest metropolitan area in the United States, the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States, the third-largest metropolitan area in Florida. As of 2015, Orlando had an estimated city-proper population of 280,257, making it the 73rd-largest city in the United States, the fourth-largest city in Florida, the state's largest inland city; the City of Orlando is nicknamed "The City Beautiful," and its symbol is the fountain at Lake Eola. Orlando is known as "The Theme Park Capital of the World" and in 2016 its tourist attractions and events drew more than 72 million visitors; the Orlando International Airport is the thirteenth-busiest airport in the United States and the 29th-busiest in the world.
As one of the world's most visited tourist destinations, Orlando's famous attractions form the backbone of its tourism industry. The two most significant of these attractions are Walt Disney World, opened by the Walt Disney Company in 1971, located 21 miles southwest of Downtown Orlando in Bay Lake. With the exception of Walt Disney World, most major attractions are located along International Drive with one of these attractions being the Orlando Eye; the city is one of the busiest American cities for conferences and conventions. Like other major cities in the Sun Belt, Orlando grew from the 1980s up into the first decade of the 21st century. Orlando is home to the University of Central Florida, the largest university campus in the United States in terms of enrollment as of 2015. In 2010, Orlando was listed as a "Gamma−" level global city in the World Cities Study Group's inventory. Orlando ranks as the fourth-most popular American city based on where people want to live according to a 2009 Pew Research Center study.
Fort Gatlin, as the Orlando area was once known, was established at what is now just south of the city limits by the 4th U. S. Artillery under the command of Ltc. Alexander C. W. Fanning on November 9, 1838, during the construction of a series of fortified encampments across Florida during the Second Seminole War; the fort and surrounding area were named for Dr. John S. Gatlin, an Army physician, killed in Dade's Massacre on December 28, 1835; the site of construction for Fort Gatlin, a defensible position with fresh water between three small lakes, was chosen because the location was on a main trail and is less than 250 yards from a nearby Council Oak tree where Native Americans had traditionally met. King Phillip and Coacoochee frequented this area and the tree was alleged to be the place where the previous 1835 ambush that had killed over 100 soldiers had been planned; when the U. S. military abandoned the fort in 1839, the surrounding community was built up by settlers. Prior to being known by its current name, Orlando was once known as Jernigan.
This name originates from the first permanent settlers and Aaron Jernigan, cattlemen who acquired land two miles northwest of Fort Gatlin along the west end of Lake Holden in July 1843 by the terms of the Armed Occupation Act. Aaron Jernigan became Orange County's first State Representative in 1845 but his pleas for additional military protection went unanswered. Fort Gatlin was reoccupied by the military for a few weeks during October and November 1849 and subsequently a volunteer militia was left to defend the settlement. A historical marker indicates that by 1850 the Jernigan homestead served as the nucleus of a village named Jernigan. According to an account written years by his daughter, at that time, about 80 settlers were forced to shelter for about a year in "a stockade that Aaron Jernigan built on the north side of Lake Conway". One of the county's first records, a grand jury's report, mentions a stockade where it states homesteaders were "driven from their homes and forced to huddle together in hasty defences."
Aaron Jernigan led a local volunteer militia during 1852. A Post Office opened at Jernigan in 1850. Jernigan appears on an 1855 map of Florida and by 1856 the area had become the county seat of Orange County. In 1857, the Post Office was removed from Jernigan, opened under the name of Orlando at a new location in present-day downtown Orlando. During the American Civil War, the Post Office closed, but reopened in 1866; the move is believed to be sparked, in part, by Aaron Jernigan's fall from grace after he was relieved of his militia command by military officials in 1856. His behavior was so notorious that Secretary of War Jefferson Davis wrote, "It is said they are more dreadful than the Indians." In 1859, Jernigan and his sons were accused of committing a murder at the town's post office. They were transported to Ocala, but escaped. There are at least five stories as to; the most common stories are that the name Orlando originated from the tale of a man who died in 1835 during a attack by Native Americans in the area during the Second Seminole War.
Several of the stories relay an oral history of the marker for a person named Orlando, the double entendre, "Here lies Orlando." One variant includes a man named Orlando, passing by on his way to Tampa with a herd of oxen and was buried in a marked grave. At a meeting in 1857, debate had grown concerning the name of the town. Pioneer William B. Hull recalled
Blaze Pizza LLC is a Pasadena, California-based chain within the fast-casual dining restaurants category. Founded in 2011 by Elise and Rick Wetzel of Wetzel's Pretzels, Blaze Pizza was modeled after the Chipotle concept as a made-to-order approach to serving customers. NBA player LeBron James is one of the original investors in the chain, touted by Bloomberg "as the next Chipotle". Blaze Pizza was ranked as the #2 brand in the 2015 Fast Casual Top 100. Besides competing against traditional pizza restaurants, such as Pizza Hut and Sbarro, quick service fast casual, such as Chipotle Mexican Grill and Panda Express, Blaze Pizza competes directly with similar sized MOD Pizza, Pieology & Pizza Rev and with much smaller quick service pizza restaurant chains such as Azzip Pizza, Pie Five, Pizza Studio, Uncle Maddio's Pizza Joint, Chipotle-backed Pizzeria Locale. In a June 2018 article in Restaurant Business Magazine, Blaze Pizza and MOD Pizza were reported as the top two companies in the fast-casual pizza sector at the end of 2017 with both companies out pacing all other rivals.
Although MOD had 297 locations while Blaze had 230 locations at the end of 2017, Blaze generated $271.4 million in total system sales while MOD generated $270 million during the same period. These figures gave Blaze a higher per unit sales. Blaze Pizza's name was derived from how a create-your-own pizza can be "Fast Fire'd" in a high-temperature open-flame oven – an average cook time is 3 minutes. Customers begin by choosing; as customers work their way down the service line, staff assemble a pizza based on customer instructions. When they arrive at the end of the line, their custom-built pizza is ready to be cooked; the Blaze ovens are "7 foot -wide gas-fired unit operated at average temperatures of 700 °F to 800 °F" according to the company's executive chef. Since the high-temperature gas-fired pizza oven is the only piece of cooking equipment inside each of the restaurants, the same oven is used to roast the chicken, cook the Italian sausage and meatballs, bake some of the desserts. Blaze Pizza was founded in Pasadena, California by Rick and Elise Wetzel in 2011.
The fast-fired, customizable pizza concept debuted with their first location in Irvine, California in August 2012, followed two months by the opening of their second, flagship, location in October 2012 in Pasadena. In 2014, Zagat noted Blaze Pizza as “One of 10 innovative restaurants around Los Angeles.” During the first year of operation, the Irvine location grossed about $1.8 million and the Pasadena location grossed about $2.5 million. The concept's popularity has been fueled by its obsessive attention to food and its unique service culture; the 10 Blaze locations open throughout 2014 posted $1.55 million average unit volume. By the end of 2014 Blaze had 50 locations in 15 states. Of those 50 locations, only three were company-owned with the rest being owned by franchise operators. Blaze opened its first Chicago location in December 2013; the company opened its first East Coast location in New York in July 2014. In July 2015 the company announced its 80th location and said that it operates in 20 states including the major metropolitan areas of Los Angeles, New York City, Chicago, San Francisco, Miami & Washington D.
C. The company's first Northern California location was opened in San Francisco in March 2015. By December 2015, the company opened its 100th location in Indianapolis. In April 2016, the company announced. In August 2016, the 150th location was opened at Walt Disney World in Florida. During the first half of 2016, a new Blaze Pizza location was opened every five days, while a new opening occurred once every seven days during the previous year. In July 2017, the 200th location was opened in Ohio. By November 2018, the company had 300 locations in five countries; the company established locations for the first time in the states of Wisconsin in November 2013, Illinois in December 2013, Indiana in February 2014, Ohio in May 2014, Kentucky in June 2014, New York in July 2014, South Dakota in August 2014, Maryland in August 2014, Michigan in September 2014, New Jersey in November 2014, Florida in November 2014, Idaho in November 2014, Tennessee in November 2014, North Carolina in December 2014, Texas in March 2015, Louisiana in April 2015, Nevada in May 2015, Oregon in June 2015, Minnesota in July 2015, Washington in September 2015, Oklahoma in October 2015, Arkansas in October 2015, Virginia in November 2015, Connecticut in December 2015, South Carolina in January 2016, Pennsylvania in February 2016, Arizona in April 2016, Utah in May 2016, Massachusetts in May 2016, Colorado in June 2016, Iowa in July 2016, New Mexico in July 2017, Georgia in September 2017, Kansas in September 2017, North Dakota in October 2017, West Virginia in January 2018, Alabama in February 2018, Nebraska in February 2018, Missouri in July 2018, Montana in October 2018. and Rhode Island in December 2018.
In 2016, the company had signed several deals to open restaurants in non-traditional locations such as inside airport terminals, on college campuses, inside sports/entertainment centers. Some of the on campus college locations may participate in the dorm resident meal plans. Access to sports/entertainment centers locations may be restricted to event ticket holders. In May 2017, president and chief operating officer Jim Mizes was given the additional duties of chief executive officer. Mizes had been with the company as COO since 2012. By the end of 2014, Blaze had become the first fast-casual pizza restaurant to achieve 50 opened units. At that