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Universal Disk Format

Universal Disk Format is a profile of the specification known as ISO/IEC 13346 and ECMA-167 and is an open vendor-neutral file system for computer data storage for a broad range of media. In practice, it has been most used for DVDs and newer optical disc formats, supplanting ISO 9660. Due to its design, it is well suited to incremental updates on both recordable and writable optical media. UDF is maintained by the Optical Storage Technology Association. Authoring software will master a UDF file system in a batch process and write it to optical media in a single pass, but when packet writing to rewritable media, such as CD-RW, UDF allows files to be created and changed on-disc just as a general-purpose filesystem would on removable media like floppy disks and flash drives. This is possible on write-once media, such as CD-R, but in that case the space occupied by the deleted files cannot be reclaimed. Multi-session mastering is possible in UDF, though some implementations may be unable to read disks with multiple sessions.

The Optical Storage Technology Association standardized the UDF file system to form a common file system for all optical media: both for read-only media and for re-writable optical media. When first standardized, the UDF file system aimed to replace ISO 9660, allowing support for both read-only and writable media. After the release of the first version of UDF, the DVD Consortium adopted it as the official file system for DVD-Video and DVD-Audio. Multiple revisions of UDF have been released: Revision 1.00. Original Release. Revision 1.01. Added DVD made a few minor changes. Revision 1.02. This format is used by DVD-Video discs. Revision 1.50. Added support for rewritability on CD-R/DVD-R media by introducing the VAT structure. Added sparing tables for defect management on rewritable media such as CD-RW, DVD-RW and DVD+RW. Revision 2.00. Added support for real-time files and simplified directory management. VAT support was extended. Revision 2.01 is a bugfix release to UDF 2.00. Many of the UDF standard's ambiguities were resolved in version 2.01.

Revision 2.50. Added the Metadata Partition facilitating metadata clustering, easier crash recovery and optional duplication of file system information: All metadata like nodes and directory contents are written on a separate partition which can optionally be mirrored; this format is used by most HD-DVD discs. Revision 2.60. Added Pseudo OverWrite method for drives supporting pseudo overwrite capability on sequentially recordable media. Has read-only compatibility with UDF 2.50 implementations. UDF Revisions are internally encoded as binary-coded decimals. In addition to declaring its own revision, compatibility for each volume is defined by the minimum read and minimum write revisions, each signalling the requirements for these operations to be possible for every structure on this image. A "maximum write" revision additionally records the highest UDF support level of all the implementations that has written to this image. For example, a UDF 2.01 volume that does not use Stream Files but uses VAT created by a UDF 2.60-capable implementation may have the revision declared as 0x0201, the minimum read revision set to 0x0150, the minimum write to 0x0150, the maximum write to 0x0260.

The UDF standard defines three file system variations, called "builds". These are: Plain; this is the original format supported in all UDF revisions Virtual Allocation Table a.k.a. VAT. Used for writing to write-once media Spared. Used for writing to rewritable media Introduced in the first version of the standard, this format can be used on any type of disk that allows random read/write access, such as hard disks, DVD+RW and DVD-RAM media. Metadata and file data is addressed more or less directly. In writing to such a disk in this format, any physical block on the disk may be chosen for allocation of new or updated files. Since this is the basic format any operating system or file system driver claiming support for UDF should be able to read this format. Write-once media such as DVD-R and CD-R have limitations when being written to, in that each physical block can only be written to once, the writing must happen incrementally, thus the plain build of UDF can only be written to CD-Rs by pre-mastering the data and writing all data in one piece to the media, similar to the way an ISO 9660 file system gets written to CD media.

To enable a CD-R to be used like a hard disk, whereby the user can add and modify files on a CD-R at will, OSTA added the VAT build to the UDF standard in its revision 1.5. The VAT is an additional structure on the disc. For write-once media, the entire disc is virtualized, making the write-once nature transparent for the user; the write-once nature of CD-R or DVD-R media means that when a file is deleted on the disc, the file's data still remains on the disc. It does not appear in the directory any more, but it still occupies the original space where it was stored. After using this scheme for some time, the disc will be full, as free space cannot be recovered by deleti

John Jordan (diplomat)

Sir John Newell Jordan was a British diplomat. Jordan was born in Balloo, County Down, the son of John Jordan, a wealthy Presbyterian farmer, his wife Mary, he never lost his Ulster accent. He was educated at the Royal Belfast Academical Institution, Queen's College and Queen's College, Cork. In 1876 he joined the Chinese Consular Service as a student interpreter, he held various posts in South China before being appointed Chinese Secretary at the British Legation in Peking in 1891. In 1896 he was appointed Consul-General at Seoul, becoming Chargé d'affaires in 1898 and Minister-Resident in August 1901, he remained there until November 1905, being appointed Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1904. Jordan received the Queen Victoria Jubilee Medal in 1897 followed by the King Edward VII Coronation Medal in 1902. In 1906 he was appointed HM Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to China as the successor to Sir Ernest Satow and remained in the post until his retirement in 1920.

He was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in the 1909 Birthday Honours and in 1910 received the Freedom of the City of Belfast at the same ceremony as the Scottish-American industrialist Andrew Carnegie. Jordan was appointed Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire in 1911, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 1920 Birthday Honours shortly after his retirement, he was appointed to the Privy Council in 1915, entitling him to the style "The Right Honourable". In 1920, Jordan became a director of the Chartered Bank of India and China. Jordan, despite his retirement, was a delegate to the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–1922. In 1885, Jordan married Annie Howe Cromie, the eldest child of Dr Robert Cromie JP, the ruling elder of Clough Presbyterian church, a general practitioner and the local registrar of births and deaths, his wife Ann Jane of Ballyhosset, near Ardglass, they had four children: a daughter. Dr John Herbert Jordan MC was head of the Department of Public Health in Shanghai.

Edith Mary Jordan was married in 1911 to Lieutenant-General Sir Travers Clarke. Robert Cromie "Bob" Jordan worked as a young man in the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank in Shanghai, before contracting polio. Sir John and Lady Jordan were keen collectors. Part of their extensive collection of ornate oriental carvings, silver, textiles, porcelain and teapots was bequeathed to Bangor Borough Council by their son Bob and now form part of the collections of the North Down Museum. At his death he left estate valued at £39,409. Jordan Road in Hong Kong's Kowloon District is named after him. Biography, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

Palisade (disambiguation)

A palisade is a steel or wooden fence or wall of variable height used as a defensive structure. Palisade, palisades or palisading may refer to: Columnar basalt, a common extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or near the surface of a planet List of places with columnar jointed volcanicsUnited StatesThe Palisades, cliffs along the Hudson River in the US states of New York and New Jersey Palisades Sill, an intrusive igneous body that forms the cliffs following the southern portion of the Hudson River Palisades, a group of peaks in the Sierra Nevada range of east-central California Palisade Glacier, California The Palisades, a mountain range in the northern San Francisco Bay Area, California The Palisade, a butte in Mesa County, Colorado Palisade Head, a headland on the North Shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota Mississippi Palisades State Park, encompassing cliffs along the Mississippi River in northwestern Illinois Kentucky River Palisades, cliffs along the Kentucky River in central KentuckyCanadaJasper Palisade, a mountain formation in Jasper National Park, Alberta CanadaPalisade, SaskatchewanUnited StatesPacific Palisades, Los Angeles, California Palisade, Colorado Palisade, Minnesota Palisade, Nebraska Palisade, Nevada Palisades, New York Palisades Park, New Jersey The Palisades, Washington, D.

C. a neighborhood Palisade cell, a type of cell found in plant leaves Palisade, a single layer of long cells Palisades Amusement Park, former amusement park in Bergen County, New Jersey Palisades Park, a hit song by Freddy Cannon Palisades Park, a song by Counting Crows Palisade Avenue in Hudson and Bergen, New Jersey Palisades Center, a major shopping center in West Nyack, New York Palisades Charter High School, in Los Angeles, California Palisades Dam, Idaho Palisades Interstate Parkway, a highway in New York and New Jersey Palisades, a former live music venue in Bushwick, Brooklyn Palisades Nuclear Generating Station, in Van Buren County, Michigan Palisades School District, in northeastern Bucks County, Pennsylvania Palisades Toys, a company that produced action figures and other collectibles Palisades, an American post-hardcore/hardcore band from Iselin, New Jersey "Palisades", a song by Puressence from the album Don't Forget to Remember "The Palisades", a song by Childish Gambino on his STN MTN / Kauai EP Hyundai Palisade, an SUV manufactured by Hyundai

Cannonsville Reservoir

The Cannonsville Reservoir is a reservoir in the New York City water supply system in Delaware County, New York. It was formed by construction of the Cannonsville Dam on its west end, which empounded over half of the West Branch of the Delaware River. Lying on the western part of the Delaware Watershed, it is the westernmost of New York City's reservoirs, it was placed in service in 1964, is the most constructed New York City-owned reservoir. The town of Cannonsville was destroyed to make room for the reservoir, which lies within the towns of Tompkins and Deposit, its 455 square mile drainage basins is the largest of all of the NYC reservoirs. Capacity is 95.7 billion US gallons. Water from the reservoir flows into the 44-mile West Delaware Tunnel in New York, it flows through the aqueduct into the Rondout Reservoir, before joining the 85-mile Delaware Aqueduct, which provides New York City with about 50% of its drinking water. The Delaware Aqueduct crosses beneath the Hudson River and continues on to the West Branch Reservoir in Putnam County, New York the Kensico Reservoir in Westchester County, both north of the City.

It continues further south to the Hillview Reservoir in Yonkers, where it joins the flows of the Catskill and New Croton aqueducts for distribution through the New York City tunnel system. The Cannonsville Dam is being considered as a site for a 14.08MW hydroelectric generating station. Johnny Brook Dry Brook Sherruck Brook Trout Creek Loomis Brook Chamberlain Brook Dryden Brook Maxwell Brook Fish Brook List of reservoirs and dams in New York Final Environmental Assessment for Hydropower License

Christmas Island (Jimmy Buffett album)

Christmas Island is Jimmy Buffett's first Christmas album and is his twenty-first studio album overall. It features covers of popular Christmas songs in Buffett's musical stylings as well as two tracks which Buffett wrote for the album. "Twas the Night Before Christmas" is a hidden track. It was his last release with MCA Records. Reviews tend to be mixed for the album. In a positive review, a reviewer states that " will have you on your feet all through the holidays." Rob O'Connor states writes that "this may not be the traditional Christmas fare of chestnuts roasting on an open fire, but for those who enjoy ocean breezes and'wasting away' to this most successful beach bum, Christmas Island is what the cruise director ordered." Thom Owens presents a more negative view of the album, describing Buffett as being "relaxed and entertaining" though, "few of his new Christmas songs are remarkable and his rearrangements of classic carols are rather forced." However, several tracks remain popular around the Christmas season.

"Ho Ho Ho & A Bottle Of Rum" was the track chosen to be played live for promoting the album when first released, seems to remain the most popular off the album. Although no singles were released, "Jingle Bells", "Mele Kalikimaka", "Ho Ho Ho & a Bottle of Rum", "Merry Christmas, Alabama" and the title track get considerable amount of radio airplay during the season. Another Buffett song, "Christmas in the Caribbean" is known to be a favorite on radio stations. Adapted from AllMusic. Vocals and musicians Production and design

Fifth Avenue (film)

Fifth Avenue is a lost 1926 American silent drama film directed by Robert G. Vignola and starring Marguerite De La Motte, Allan Forrest and Louise Dresser. Marguerite De La Motte as Barbara Pelham Allan Forrest as Neil Heffner Louise Dresser as Claudine Kemp William V. Mong as Peter Heffner Crauford Kent as Allan Trainor Lucille Lee Stewart as Natalie Van Loon Anna May Wong as Nan Lo Lillian Langdon as Mrs. Van Loon Josephine Norman as Greenwich Village Girl Sally Long as Greenwich Village Girl Flora Finch as Mrs. Pettygrew Munden, Kenneth White; the American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States, Part 1. University of California Press, 1997. Fifth Avenue on IMDb Fifth Avenue at AllMovie