SeaWorld is a United States chain headquartered out of Orlando, Florida it is a marine mammal parks, animal theme parks, rehabilitation centers owned by SeaWorld Entertainment. The parks feature orcas, sea lion, dolphin shows and zoological displays featuring various other marine animals. There are operations located within the United States in Orlando, Florida. On March 5, 2007, SeaWorld Orlando announced addition of the Aquatica water park to its adventure park, which includes SeaWorld and Discovery Cove. SeaWorld parks feature thrill rides, including roller coasters like Kraken and Manta at SeaWorld Orlando and Steel Eel and The Great White at SeaWorld San Antonio. Journey to Atlantis, a combination roller coaster and splashdown ride, can be found at all three parks; the parks were owned by Busch Entertainment Corp. the family entertainment division of Anheuser-Busch, best known for brewing beer. In 2009, Busch Entertainment was sold to the Blackstone Group and subsequently renamed SeaWorld Entertainment.
In 2013, Blackstone sold 37% of SeaWorld Entertainment in an initial public offering, sold its remaining 21% holding to Zhonghong Zhuoye in 2017. The parks' marine mammal collections have been the subject of public debate over the years; the 2013 documentary film Blackfish, produced after one SeaWorld Orlando trainer was killed by one of the park's orcas, led to initial decreases in attendance and the company's share price. In 2018, SeaWorld's attendance and revenue began to recover with the addition of new rides and animal exhibits at its parks, as well as increased marketing about the parks' conservation and rescue efforts, it is a major theme park competitor to Six Flags, Cedar Fair, Walt Disney Parks & Resorts, Universal Parks & Resorts. In 2016, SeaWorld announced that they would end their in-park Orca breeding program, phase out their theatrical Orca whale shows altogether starting in San Diego, it was announced in the same year, that SeaWorld would build their first park without killer whales and outside of the United States in Abu Dhabi, UAE.
SeaWorld was founded in 1964 by Milton C. Shedd, Ken Norris, David Demott, George Millay; the four graduates of UCLA set out to build an underwater restaurant and marine life show. When the underwater restaurant concept was deemed unfeasible, they scrapped those plans and decided to build a park instead, SeaWorld San Diego was opened on March 21, 1964. With only a few dolphins, sea lions, 6 attractions and 22 acres, the park proved to be a success and more than 400,000 guests visited in the first 12 months. After considering other locations in the midwest, including the Lake Milton/Newton Falls area west of Youngstown, Ohio, it was decided that Aurora, Ohio would be the new home of a SeaWorld; the Aurora site was 15 miles northwest of the Lake Milton site, 30 miles southeast of Cleveland. By this time, the founders of the company had captured a few more species of animals, including a killer whale, brought to the new facility; the harsh winter climate permitted the park to be open only from mid-May until mid-September.
The Walt Disney World Resort in Orlando, Florida opened near the end of the second operating season of SeaWorld Ohio. The success of Disney in Orlando provided a location, popular with tourists. SeaWorld Orlando opened in 1973. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. purchased the company in 1976 and 12 years they began a venture in Texas. In 1988, SeaWorld San Antonio opened just a few miles outside of San Antonio. Growth has pushed the city outwards, now SeaWorld San Antonio lies in the Westover Hills community in West San Antonio; the park was open year-round like its sister parks in California and Florida in 1988 and 1989 went to a seasonal schedule. The stress and financial resources it took to build and maintain a state-of-the-art marine mammal facility in the late 1980s took its toll on the company. HBJ, whose primary focus was producing school books, needed to reduce its assets in order to avoid a bankruptcy; the Anheuser-Busch Company made an offer to purchase the SeaWorld parks. HBJ owned and operated two other parks, Cypress Gardens and Boardwalk and Baseball, out of fear of not being able to find a buyer for the two other parks, HBJ refused to sell the parks individually.
Despite a long negotiation, Anheuser-Busch bought all six parks in 1989: SeaWorld in San Diego, Aurora and San Antonio as well as Cypress Gardens in Winter Haven and Boardwalk and Baseball in Haines City. Soon after the sale was final, Busch sold Cypress Gardens to the park's management and closed Boardwalk and Baseball. Anheuser-Busch put millions of dollars back into the parks to revive and to prolong their longevity. SeaWorld is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. In 2009, Busch Entertainment was sold to the Blackstone Group and subsequently renamed SeaWorld Entertainment. In 2013, Blackstone sold 37% of Entertainment in an initial public offering. In 2016, SeaWorld admitted that it had been sending its employees to pose as activists to spy on animal rights organization PETA. Following an investigation by an outside law firm, SeaWorld's Board of Directors directed management to end the practice. SeaWorld San Diego, the first SeaWorld park, opened on March 21, 1964; the park features shows such as Sea Lions Live, a comedic show with sea lions and otters, "Dolphin Days", a dolphin show, Pets Rule, a show with dogs, cats, a
Universal Studios Singapore
Universal Studios Singapore is a theme park located within Resorts World Sentosa on Sentosa Island, Singapore. It features 28 rides and attractions in seven themed zones, it was a key component of Genting's bid for the right to build Singapore's second integrated resort. On 8 December 2006, the Singapore government announced. Construction of the theme park and the rest of the resort started on 19 April 2007, it is the second Universal Studios theme park to open in Asia, the first in Southeast Asia. The official plans for the park were unveiled to the public when Universal Studios Singapore released a park map to the public on 20 October 2009. Universal Studios Singapore has since attracted more than 2 million visitors in the 9 months from its opening; the park has been marketed by Universal Parks & Resorts as a "one-of-its-kind theme park in Asia" and promised that the park would be the only one of its kind in Southeast Asia for the next 30 years. The construction of Resorts World Sentosa and Universal Studios Singapore began on 19 April 2008.
After two years of construction, the park opened on 18 March 2010. Universal Studios Singapore was opened for "sneak peek week" in view of the Chinese New Year Celebrations, from 5 pm to 9 pm every night between 14 and 21 February 2010. Though visitors had to pay SGD$10 to enter the park even-though rides were not operating, tickets for the week were sold out in 2 days. On 5 March 2010, it was announced that the park will open its doors at 8:28 am on 18 March 2010, for a soft-opening phase. From 13 March 2010, the team members of Resorts World Sentosa and their families had a chance to visit the park before the public has a chance to do so; the park had its soft opening period from 18 March 2010 to 26 October 2010. The official grand opening of the park was held on 28 May 2011, along with the "grand opening gala" being held on 27 May 2011 evening, it had Asian personalities Jet Li, Maggie Cheung, Zhao Wei, former "American Idol" judge Paula Abdul making an appearance at the gala event, along with some 1,600 guests.
In October 2011, Universal Studios Singapore began their Halloween Horror Nights events. On 3 April 2019, Genting Group announced the expansion of Universal Studios Singapore with two new themed areas, Minion Park and Super Nintendo World, with the former replacing Madagascar. Universal Studios Singapore is 20 hectares in size, occupying the easternmost part of the 49-hectare Resorts World Sentosa. There are a total of 24 attractions; the park consists of seven themed zones surrounding a lagoon. Each zone is based on movies and/or television, featuring their own attractions and greet locations, over 30 restaurants and food carts, 20 retail stores and carts located around the park. Hollywood is the main entrance area of the park, its only attraction, a broadway-style theatre, is accompanied by several restaurants and a variety of shopping locations. The zone is filled with Hollywood-inspired architecture and palm trees, including a replica of the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Attractions & Entertainment Sesame Street Show - Elmo's TV Time Lake Hollywood Spectacular Turntables Hollywood China ArcadeMeet & Greets Hollywood Walk of Fame (including Woody and Winnie Woodpecker, Minions from Despicable Me, Marilyn Monroe, Charlie Chaplin, Frankenstein's Monster, Betty Boop, Po the Panda and Tigress from Kung Fu Panda and Astrid from How to Train Your Dragon and Poppy and Branch from TrollsRestaurants & Refreshments Mel's Drive-In® StarbucksGifts & Retail Universal Studios Store Silver Screen Minion Mart The Dark Room The Brown Derby - A Sesame Street Shop That's a Wrap New York City is based on the original New York City, during the era of post-modernisation.
The zone features various landmarks portrayed in movies including the city skyline, neon lights and sidewalks. This zone has a replica of the New York Public Library. Special Sesame Street character appearances include: Elmo, Big Bird, Count von Count, Abby Cadabby, Ernie, Cookie Monster and Oscar the Grouch. Entertainment A Date with Marilyn Boop'n Around Rhythm Truck Sci-Fi City is themed to a supposed metropolis of the future, it is the home of a pair of dueling roller coasters. Ancient Egypt is based on the historical adaptation of Ancient Egypt during the 1930s Golden Age of Egyptian Exploration, it features pyramids which are typical of Ancient Egypt. Featured are Pharaohs' tombs which were commonly discovered during that era; this zone relies on the depictions made in the popular film franchise, The Mummy, starring Brendan Fraser. The Lost World contains many traditional attractions present in most Universal Studios parks around the world and is divided into two sub areas: Jurassic Park and Waterworld.
Jurassic Park, based on the popular film franchise by Steven Spielberg and novels by Michael Crichton, features the newly redesigned Jurassic Park Rapids Adventure, based on the water rides in other Universal Studios parks. Waterworld, based on the film Waterworld starring Kevin Costner, is a stadium that features a live show performance. Far Far Away is inspired by DreamWorks Animation's Shrek franchise; the zone consists of many locations from the film series, with a landmark in the form of "Far Far Away Castle". Character appearances include Shrek, Puss in Boots, Princess Fiona and Prince Charming. Madagascar is inspired by the DreamWorks Animation franchise of the same name; the zone features a tropical jungle theming as well as two rides. Character appearances include: Alex, King Julien, Kowalski and Rico. DreamWorks Experience, a collection of themed areas at Drea
An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes. A theme park is a type of amusement park that bases its structures and attractions around a central theme featuring multiple areas with different themes. Unlike temporary and mobile funfairs and carnivals, amusement parks are stationary and built for long-lasting operation, they are more elaborate than city parks and playgrounds providing attractions that cater to a variety of age groups. While amusement parks contain themed areas, theme parks place a heavier focus with more intricately-designed themes that revolve around a particular subject or group of subjects. Amusement parks evolved from European fairs, pleasure gardens and large picnic areas, which were created for people's recreation. World's fairs and other types of international expositions influenced the emergence of the amusement park industry. Lake Compounce opened in 1846 and is considered the oldest continuously-operating amusement park in North America.
The first theme parks emerged in the mid-twentieth century with the opening of Santa Claus Land in 1946, Santa's Workshop in 1949, Disneyland in 1955. The amusement park evolved from three earlier traditions: traveling or periodic fairs, pleasure gardens and exhibitions such as world fairs; the oldest influence was the periodic fair of the Middle Ages - one of the earliest was the Bartholomew Fair in England from 1133. By the 18th and 19th centuries, they had evolved into places of entertainment for the masses, where the public could view freak shows, acrobatics and juggling, take part in competitions and walk through menageries. A wave of innovation in the 1860s and 1870s created mechanical rides, such as the steam-powered carousel, its derivatives, notably from Frederick Savage of King's Lynn, Norfolk whose fairground machinery was exported all over the world; this inaugurated the era of the modern funfair ride, as the working classes were able to spend their surplus wages on entertainment.
The second influence was the pleasure garden. An example of this is the world's oldest amusement park, opened in mainland Europe in 1583, it is located north of Copenhagen in Denmark. Another early garden was the Vauxhall Gardens, founded in 1661 in London. By the late 18th century, the site had an admission fee for its many attractions, it drew enormous crowds, with its paths noted for romantic assignations. Although the gardens were designed for the elites, they soon became places of great social diversity. Public firework displays were put on at Marylebone Gardens, Cremorne Gardens offered music and animal acrobatics displays. Prater in Vienna, began as a royal hunting ground, opened in 1766 for public enjoyment. There followed coffee-houses and cafés, which led to the beginnings of the Wurstelprater as an amusement park; the concept of a fixed park for amusement was further developed with the beginning of the world's fairs. The first World fair began in 1851 with the construction of the landmark Crystal Palace in London, England.
The purpose of the exposition was to celebrate the industrial achievement of the nations of the world and it was designed to educate and entertain the visitors. American cities and business saw the world's fair as a way of demonstrating economic and industrial success; the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago, Illinois was an early precursor to the modern amusement park. The fair was an enclosed site, that merged entertainment and education to entertain the masses, it set out to bedazzle the visitors, did so with a blaze of lights from the "White City." To make sure that the fair was a financial success, the planners included a dedicated amusement concessions area called the Midway Plaisance. Rides from this fair captured the imagination of the visitors and of amusement parks around the world, such as the first steel Ferris wheel, found in many other amusement areas, such as the Prater by 1896; the experience of the enclosed ideal city with wonder, rides and progress, was based on the creation of an illusory place.
The "midway" introduced at the Columbian Exposition would become a standard part of most amusement parks, fairs and circuses. The midway contained not only the rides, but other concessions and entertainments such as shooting galleries, penny arcades, games of chance and shows. Many modern amusement parks evolved from earlier pleasure resorts that had become popular with the public for day-trips or weekend holidays, for example, seaside areas such as Blackpool, United Kingdom and Coney Island, United States. In the United States, some amusement parks grew from picnic groves established along rivers and lakes that provided bathing and water sports, such as Lake Compounce in Connecticut, first established as a picturesque picnic park in 1846, Riverside Park in Massachusetts, founded in the 1870s along the Connecticut River; the trick was getting the public to the resort location. For Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York, on the Atlantic Ocean, a horse-drawn streetcar line brought pleasure seekers to the beach beginning in 1829.
In 1875, a million passengers rode the Coney Island Railroad, in 1876 two million visited Coney Island. Hotels and amusements were built to accommodate both the upper classes and the working class at the beach; the first carousel was installed in the 1870s, the first roller coaster, the "Switchback Railway", in 1884. In England, Blackpo
The Universal Orlando Resort known as Universal Orlando Universal Studios Escape, is an American theme park and entertainment resort complex based in Orlando, Florida. The resort is operated by Universal Resorts, it is wholly owned by a division of Comcast. Universal Orlando is the second-largest resort in Greater Orlando, after the Walt Disney World resort, covering 541 acres of land. Universal Orlando consists of two theme parks, a water park, a night-time entertainment complex, six Loews Hotels. All of the hotel resorts offer Early Park Admission into The Wizarding World of Harry Potter and Universal’s Volcano Bay. Additionally, the Loews Portofino Bay Hotel, Hard Rock Hotel and Loews Royal Pacific Resort offer free unlimited Universal Express Pass for use at participating rides at Universal Studios Florida and Universal’s Islands of Adventure; this benefit is not valid at Halloween Horror Nights or Rock the Universe. Universal Orlando is one of the most visited resorts in the world with an annual attendance of 21 million in 2017.
Universal Orlando is the flagship resort of Universal Parks & Resorts due to the competitive nature between the resort and Walt Disney World. Universal Orlando opened on June 1990 as the theme park Universal Studios Florida, it was opened as a joint venture between The Blackstone Group. The park was in direct competition with Disney MGM Studios. In 1994, executives started planning the expansion of the resort into a multi-day vacation destination. In late 1995, construction began on Islands of Adventure; the Islands of Adventure Preview Center opened in May 1997 replacing the Screen Test Home Video Adventure. During this time, several new attractions were being built and opened at Universal Studios Florida, including Woody Woodpecker's KidZone, which opened in 1998, Men in Black: Alien Attack and Animal Actors On Location!. On May 28, 1999, Universal’s Islands of Adventure opened to the general public, it featured six themed "islands", including the Port of Entry, Seuss Landing, The Lost Continent, Jurassic Park, Toon Lagoon, Marvel Super Hero Island.
The park opened to mediocre attendance, several attractions were closed shortly thereafter, including Island Skipper Tours, due to lack of attendance. Along with the new theme park, the resort opened a Florida version of Universal CityWalk from Universal Studios Hollywood. CityWalk Orlando, but with different venues and design. Universal opened the resort's first onsite hotel in September 1999. Loews Portofino Bay Hotel was operated and owned by Loews Hotels but was partially owned by Universal and The Blackstone Group; the two theme parks, CityWalk, the hotel were branded as Universal Studios Escape, however the name was changed to Universal Orlando Resort. In December 2000, Hard Rock Hotel opened as Universal Orlando's second onsite hotel. Despite its name, the hotel is owned by Loews Hotels, like Loews Portofino Bay Hotel and is not affiliated with Hard Rock International. In 2001, Loews Royal Pacific Resort opened. In the midst of all these openings, two parking garages were constructed and the popular water park Wet'n Wild Orlando was acquired.
In 2003, rumors began swirling that a Harry Potter themed attraction would be coming to Universal or one of the Disney parks. On May 31, 2007, Universal, in partnership with Warner Bros. announced The Wizarding World of Harry Potter would be added to its Islands of Adventure park. Just over three years on June 18, 2010, the seventh "island" at Universal's Islands of Adventure, The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, opened. Shortly after the massive success of the grand opening of The Wizarding World of Harry Potter - Hogsmeade, rumors began to swirl once again, this time of a second Potter-themed area in Universal Studios Florida, it was announced shortly thereafter that Universal would begin construction of The Wizarding World of Harry Potter -Diagon Alley, replacing Jaws: The Ride. On July 8, 2014, Diagon Alley opened to the public; the Blackstone Group sold its stake in Universal Orlando in early 2011. The original theme park in the resort, Universal Studios Florida, opened on June 7, 1990, as a theme park that let visitors "Ride the Movies."
The park is composed of themed attractions based on the film industry. Visitors get themed dining and shopping, a variety of special events throughout the year, may catch an actual film crew at work on the backlot; the themes of Universal Studios Florida are targeted at making guests feel like they are on a movie set with rides and attractions inspired by popular film and music productions. The park consists of eight themed areas – Hollywood, Production Central, New York, San Francisco, Diagon Alley/London, World Expo and Woody Woodpecker's Kidzone; the second park to open at the resort was Universal's Islands of Adventure, opened on May 28, 1999. It is composed of seven distinct "islands". Visitors start off in the Port of Entry and make their way through the various islands – Marvel Super Hero Island, Toon Lagoon, Jurassic Park, The Wizarding World of Harry Potter - Hogsmeade, The Lost Continent, Seuss Landing; the Wizarding World of Harry Potter, based on the popular Harry Potter franchise, is the only island added after the park opened.
Universal CityWalk is the name shared by the entertainment and retail districts located adjacent to the theme parks of Universal Parks & Resorts. CityWalk began as an expansion of Universal's first park, Universal Studios Hollywood, serves as an entrance plaza from the parking lots to the theme parks. CityWalk can be found at Universal Orlando Resort in Florida and Universal Studios Japan in Osaka, Japan. CityWalk Hollywood and CityWalk Orlando have some common tenants, but their respective architectural styles are quite different. Where CityWalk Hollywood incorporates a classic modern blend of Hollywood, CityWalk Orlando is entirely modern in appearance. City walk is separate from Universal Studios Hollywood it serves as an entrance from the parking lot that does lead to Universal Studios. Inspiration came from the Horton Plaza according to Jon Jerde, the architecture of City Walk Hollywood tries to capture the architecture found all over Los Angeles. Universal CityWalk Hollywood is a three-block entertainment, shopping promenade.
It has more than 30 places to eat, a 19-screen movie theater featuring IMAX,7 night spots, indoor skydiving and more than 30 stores. Designed by Jon Jerde, CityWalk opened in May 1993 adjacent to the Cineplex Odeon cinema. A $1 billion, 93,000 sq ft. expansion opened in 2000. Planning done by Jerde Associates. CityWalk's central plaza is topped by a 170-foot radial trelis designed and built by Pearce Structures; the courtyard features a leaping fountain, created by WET. A huge television monitor brought in by Panasonic, is located above the multiplex, showing upcoming Universal movie releases, music videos, NBCUniversal promotions stands next to the giant guitar towering over the Hard Rock Cafe. Street performers are a common sight. "5 Towers" is an interactive outdoor concert venue on Universal CityWalk, featuring a technologically advanced staging system. The stage is equipped with thousands of LED fixtures, motion capture sensors, five soaring 42-foot light tower sculptures, a massive video monitor, a state-of-the-art audio system.
The new staging system serves as the structural artistic centerpiece for CityWalk. It features live music; the Universal CityWalk in Orlando opened in 1999 as one component of the expansion that transformed Universal Studios Florida into today's Universal Orlando Resort. It was built over entrance. Guests arriving at the resort park in one of two multi-story parking structures travel via covered moving sidewalks over Universal Boulevard into CityWalk. From there, guests can proceed into either of the theme parks: Universal Studios Florida or Islands of Adventure. Hard Rock Cafe Orlando – This is the second Hard Rock Café built on Universal property; the first café was built near the Psycho house, Bates Motel, E. T. Adventure, Fievel's Playland. Although the first café was considered to be one of the largest in the chain, the company closed down the restaurant to reopen in an bigger facility and alongside Hard Rock Live in the CityWalk section; the old Hard Rock Café building was demolished in October 2011.
Jimmy Buffett's Margaritaville Antojito's Authentic Mexican Food Starbucks Bubba Gump Shrimp Company, inspired by the 1994 film Forrest Gump Cinnabon Pat O'Brien's Bar – a franchise of the original bar/restaurant in New Orleans. BK Whopper Bar – Limited service to the fast food restaurant Burger King Panda Express Moe's Southwest Grill Fusion Bistro Sushi & Sake Bar Bob Marley – A Tribute to Freedom Red Oven Pizza Bakery Cold Stone Creamery Menchie's Frozen Yogurt Vivo Italian Kitchen Hot Dog Hall of Fame Bread Box Handcrafted Sandwiches The Cowfish Sushi and Burger Bar NBC Sports Grill & Brew The Toothsome Chocolate Emporium & Savory Feast Kitchen Voodoo Doughnut Bigfire American Fare Universal Cinemark at CityWalk operated by Loews Theatres until January 26, 2006, when AMC Theaters merged the Loews Theatres chain, operated by AMC until 2018. Bob Marley -- A Tribute to Freedom CityWalk's Rising Star -- opened 2008, replacing CityJazz; the Groove Hard Rock Live, a separate performance venue adjacent to the Hard Rock Cafe Red Coconut Club Blue Man Group Sharp Aquos Theatre, a live show featuring Blue Man Group.
Jimmy Buffett's Margaritaville, Live bands take to the restaurant's stage to perform every evening. Hollywood Drive-In Mini Golf – A miniature golf course harkening back to 50's era drive-in movies; the facility has two different and intricately themed courses: "The Haunting of Ghostly Greens" and "Invaders from Planet Putt-Putt". Opened in March 2012. Tommy Bahama BMG Gear Candy Smith CityWalk Hub Store P! Q Fossil, Inc. Fresh Produce The Smuggler’s Hold Quiet Flight Surf Shop Universal Studios Store Hart & Huntington Tattoo Company NASCAR Cafe Kiddie Carousel NBA City Element Skateboards Emeril's Restaurant Orlando Family Feud Live Red Lobster nolboo Ganko Shinobuan Inaba Wako Shabu Sai YAKINIKU KARUBIN CHAMP FUGETSU USA Gottie's BEEF Pommenoki Fujin Raijin RA-MEN Kamakura Pasta Kobe Motomachi Doria Moana Kitchen Bubba Gump Shrimp Co. Hard Rock Cafe Kushiro Monogatari BISTRO 309 T. G. I. Friday's AEN TABLE Kyoto Katsugyu Daikisuisan Kaitensushi MOS BURGER FUNFUN POPCORN PAPA Moomin Stand MOMI&TOY'S 551 HORAI PIZZA NAPOLETANO Kineya Mugimaru Romaken ST-MARC CAFÉ EDION NOSTALGIA MUSEUM ROCK SHOP Little Osaka LAWSON - convenience store chain Matsumoto Kiyoshi - drug s
Universal Pictures is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal. Founded in 1912 by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane, Jules Brulatour, it is the oldest surviving film studio in the United States, the world's fifth oldest after Gaumont, Pathé, Nordisk Film, the oldest member of Hollywood's "Big Five" studios in terms of the overall film market, its studios are located in Universal City and its corporate offices are located in New York City. Universal Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America, was one of the "Little Three" majors during Hollywood's golden age. Universal Studios was founded by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane and Jules Brulatour. One story has Laemmle watching a box office for hours, counting patrons and calculating the day's takings.
Within weeks of his Chicago trip, Laemmle gave up dry goods to buy the first several nickelodeons. For Laemmle and other such entrepreneurs, the creation in 1908 of the Edison-backed Motion Picture Trust meant that exhibitors were expected to pay fees for Trust-produced films they showed. Based on the Latham Loop used in cameras and projectors, along with other patents, the Trust collected fees on all aspects of movie production and exhibition, attempted to enforce a monopoly on distribution. Soon and other disgruntled nickelodeon owners decided to avoid paying Edison by producing their own pictures. In June 1909, Laemmle started the Yankee Film Company with partners Abe Julius Stern; that company evolved into the Independent Moving Pictures Company, with studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where many early films in America's first motion picture industry were produced in the early 20th century. Laemmle broke with Edison's custom of refusing to give screen credits to performers. By naming the movie stars, he attracted many of the leading players of the time, contributing to the creation of the star system.
In 1910, he promoted Florence Lawrence known as "The Biograph Girl", actor King Baggot, in what may be the first instance of a studio using stars in its marketing. The Universal Film Manufacturing Company was incorporated in New York on April 30, 1912. Laemmle, who emerged as president in July 1912, was the primary figure in the partnership with Dintenfass, Kessel, Swanson and Brulatour. All would be bought out by Laemmle; the new Universal studio was a vertically integrated company, with movie production and exhibition venues all linked in the same corporate entity, the central element of the Studio system era. Following the westward trend of the industry, by the end of 1912 the company was focusing its production efforts in the Hollywood area. On March 15, 1915, Laemmle opened the world's largest motion picture production facility, Universal City Studios, on a 230-acre converted farm just over the Cahuenga Pass from Hollywood. Studio management became the third facet of Universal's operations, with the studio incorporated as a distinct subsidiary organization.
Unlike other movie moguls, Laemmle opened his studio to tourists. Universal became the largest studio in Hollywood, remained so for a decade. However, it sought an audience in small towns, producing inexpensive melodramas and serials. In its early years Universal released three brands of feature films—Red Feather, low-budget programmers. Directors included Jack Conway, John Ford, Rex Ingram, Robert Z. Leonard, George Marshall and Lois Weber, one of the few women directing films in Hollywood. Despite Laemmle's role as an innovator, he was an cautious studio chief. Unlike rivals Adolph Zukor, William Fox, Marcus Loew, Laemmle chose not to develop a theater chain, he financed all of his own films, refusing to take on debt. This policy nearly bankrupted the studio when actor-director Erich von Stroheim insisted on excessively lavish production values for his films Blind Husbands and Foolish Wives, but Universal shrewdly gained a return on some of the expenditure by launching a sensational ad campaign that attracted moviegoers.
Character actor Lon Chaney became a drawing card for Universal in the 1920s, appearing in dramas. His two biggest hits for Universal were The Phantom of the Opera. During this period Laemmle entrusted most of the production policy decisions to Irving Thalberg. Thalberg had been Laemmle's personal secretary, Laemmle was impressed by his cogent observations of how efficiently the studio could be operated. Promoted to studio chief, Thalberg was giving Universal's product a touch of class, but MGM's head of production Louis B. Mayer lured Thalberg away from Universal with a promise of better pay. Without his guidance Universal became a second-tier studio, would remain so for several decades. In 1926, Universal opened a production unit in Germany, Deutsche Universal-Film AG, under the direction of Joe Pasternak; this unit produced three to four films per year until 1936, migrating to Hungary and Austria in the face of Hitler's increasing domination of central Europe. With the advent of sound, these productions were made in the German language or Hungarian or Polish.
In the U. S. Universal Pictures did not distribute any of this subsidiary's films, but at least some of them were exhibited through othe
Universal City, California
Universal City is an unincorporated area within the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles County, United States. 415 acres within and around the surrounding area is the property of Universal Pictures, one of the six major film studios in the United States: about 70 percent of the studio's property is inside this unincorporated area, while the remaining 30 percent is within the Los Angeles city limits. Located within the area of Universal City is the Universal Studios Hollywood film studio and theme park, as well as the Universal CityWalk shopping and entertainment center. Within the Los Angeles city limits lies 10 Universal City Plaza, a 36-floor office building for Universal and NBC; the Metro Red Line underground station of the same name is located opposite the 10 Universal Plaza. A Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department station is located at Universal CityWalk, the community houses the only government-funded fire station located on private property; the Los Angeles County Fire Department Station 51 is of special significance to Universal, as "Station 51" was the fictional setting of the Universal and Jack Webb television series Emergency!.
However, the current Station 51 was not used for external shots, or used as a model for the interior shots seen on the show. Universal City's ZIP code is 91608, the community is inside area code 818. Carl Laemmle opened the Second Universal City on March 15, 1915, on the 230-acre Taylor Ranch property. At the launch event, in what is now the North Hollywood area, a crowd of men and women eagerly awaited the display of the film stages, daredevil stunt pilots and silent film idols, as well as the movie cameras Laemmle had brought along. "See how slapstick comedies are made. See your favorite screen stars do their work. See how we make the people laugh or cry or sit on the edge of their chairs the world over!" Stated a poster touting Universal's opening. "C'mon out! Aw, c'mon!"Laemmle, a German immigrant, was Universal Pictures' founder who opened his first nickelodeon in Chicago in 1906. He moved to New York City, where he soon joined half a dozen small motion picture companies to create the movie company he called Universal Pictures.
In 1912, Laemmle operated three small studios - Bison and Oak Crest Ranch. After a court battle with New York Motion Picture Company, control of the Bison lot was returned to the New York Motion Picture Company; the court allowed Carl Laemmle to retain use of the name "Bison" as "Bison 101" for his westerns, which were filmed on the Oak Crest property in the San Fernando Valley. The Oak Crest Ranch is; the Providencia Land and Water company, called "Oak Crest Ranch" in the trade papers, became the first Universal City location. In 1913, Laemmle consolidated the Nestor studio and Oak Crest ranch property, his first Universal City was too small, so he ordered a search for a new and larger property in the valley, a location with more space. Laemmle leased Providencia ranchland in the San Fernando Valley in 1912. If it was a city, it was a haphazard one: with the help of nearly 300 movie hands and actors, Laemmle erected makeshift buildings, set up cameras and began churning out hundreds of one- and two-reel silent westerns.
Other studio chiefs called the place "Laemmle's Folly", mocking that the property was so far out of town and that Laemmle could film scenery for free anywhere he wanted. Laemmle worried that he had made a huge mistake, though Universal was a success because the public could observe movies being made. In the meantime, Laemmle added a zoo to the Oak Crest Ranch –, open to visitors to generate free advertising by word of mouth; the Rotarians of Los Angeles were one of the groups permitted to visit the Oak Crest - Universal City. The Oak Crest ranch being too small for his larger Universal City, Laemmle bought the Lankershim Land and Water property, the 230-acre Taylor Ranch for $165,000, calling it his "New Universal City". In 1914, operations at The Oak Ranch were moved to the Taylor ranch; the Universal ranch zoo was moved to the Back Ranch of the Lankershim property. The new Universal City was opened for Universal staff in 1914. Laemmle went on an eight-day whistle-stop tour from Chicago to Los Angeles the week before Universal City's grand public opening.
His promoters sold the grand lie that Laemmle had persuaded the Secretary of the Navy to send a battleship up the Los Angeles River to fire a salvo on opening day. Easterners, would believe anything they heard about California. After World War I, Laemmle brought more kin over from war-torn Europe, increasing the payroll to 70, his cheerful nepotism was immortalized in humorist Ogden Nash's couplet: Uncle Carl Laemmle has a large faemmle. Carl Laemmle was responsible for creating the "star system" rather than just using anonymous actors in films. Laemmle was forced to end studio tours in the 1920s, when talkies came along and "quiet on the set" became an absolute, he sold his sprawling entertainment empire in 1936. Before his death in 1939, at age 72, he helped bring more than 200 German-Jewish refugees to Los Angeles. A nephew, founded the local Laemmle Theatres chain. Universal City did not welcome tourists again until July 15, 1964, with the opening of the Universal Studios Hollywood theme park and its included Studio Tour.
The next few decades saw the arrival of hotel