The Universal Product Code is a barcode symbology, used in the United States, Europe, New Zealand, other countries for tracking trade items in stores. UPC consists of 12 numeric digits. Along with the related EAN barcode, the UPC is the barcode used for scanning of trade items at the point of sale, per GS1 specifications. UPC data structures are a component of GTINs and follow the global GS1 specification, based on international standards, but some retailers do not use the GS1 system. On the other hand, some retailers use the EAN/UPC barcode symbology, but without using a GTIN. Wallace Flint proposed an automated checkout system in 1932 using punched cards. Bernard Silver and Norman Joseph Woodland, a graduate student from Drexel Institute of Technology, developed a bull's-eye-style code and applied for the patent in 1949. In the 1960s and early 1970s, railroads in North America experimented with multicolor bar codes for tracking railcars, but this system was abandoned and replaced with a radio-based system called AEI.
In 1973, a group of trade associations from the grocery industry formed the Uniform Product Code Council which, with the help of consultants Larry Russell and Tom Wilson of McKinsey & Company, defined the numerical format that formed the basis of the Uniform Product Code. Technology firms including Charegon, IBM, Litton-Zellweger, Pitney Bowes-Alpex, Plessey-Anker, RCA, Scanner Inc. Singer, Dymo Industries/Data General, put forward alternative proposals for symbol representations to the council; the Symbol Selection Committee chose to implement the IBM proposal designed by George J. Laurer, but with a slight modification to the font in the human readable area; the first UPC-marked item to be scanned at a retail checkout was a 10-pack of Wrigley's Juicy Fruit chewing gum, purchased at the Marsh supermarket in Troy, Ohio, at 8:01 a.m. on June 26, 1974. The shopper was the cashier who made the first UPC scan was Sharon Buchanan; the NCR cash register rang up 67 cents. The shopping cart contained other barcoded items but the gum was the first one picked up at the checkout.
The gum packet went on display at the Smithsonian Institution's American history museum in Washington, D. C. Around late 1969, IBM at Research Triangle Park in North Carolina assigned George Laurer to determine how to make a supermarket scanner and label. In late 1970, Heard Baumeister provided equations to calculate characters per inch achievable by two IBM bar codes, Delta A and Delta B. In February, 1971, Baumeister joined Laurer. In mid 1971, William "Bill" Crouse invented a new bar code called Delta C, it achieved four times the characters per inch as Delta B. Delta B compared bar widths to space width to code bits; this was sensitive to ink spread where too much ink or pressure would cause both edges of a bar to spread outward and too little to cause them to shrink. To make it worse as bars spread spaces shrink and vice versa. Delta C achieved its higher performance by only using leading to leading or trailing to trailing edges, unaffected by uniform ink spread; the code provided best performance when it had a defined character set with a fixed reference distance that spanned most or preferably all the character.
In August, 1971, Crouse joined the scanner effort. After several months they had made no progress, they were aware of the RCA bull's eye label that could be scanned with a simple straight line laser scanner, but a readable label was far too large. Although Litton Industries proposed a bull's eye symbol cut in half to reduce the area, it was still too large and presented the same ink smear printing problems as the RCA symbol; the redundancy and checking ability were removed completely. They were aware of the many proposals from around the world, none of which were feasible. In the spring of 1972, Baumeister announced a breakthrough, he proposed a label with bars that were longer than the distance across all bars that needed to be read in a single pass. This label could be scanned with a simple "X" scanner only more complex than the straight line laser scanner; the next day Baumeister suggested if the label were split into two halves the bar lengths could be cut nearly in half. These two proposals reduced the area from the bull's eye by one third and one sixth.
The image to the right shows the label proposed by Baumeister. He did not specify any specific bar code as, well understood. Except for the bar coding and ten digits the UPC label today is his proposal. Shortly after that Baumeister transferred to another area of RTP. Laurer proceeded to write a proposal. N. J. Woodland was aided Laurer with writing his proposal. Laurer's first attempt with a bar code used Delta B; the resulting label size was about six inches by three inches, too large. Crouse suggested that Laurer use his Delta C bar code and provided a copy of his patent that had a sample alphanumeric character set and rules to generate other size alphabets; this reduced the label size to about 1.5” x 0.9”. Laurer asked Crouse for assistance in how the scanner could detect a label. Together they defined a definition of how to detect the label; the guard bars provided identification for half label discrimination and training bars for the scanner threshold circuits. Laurer proceeded to write his proposal.
Crouse had an idea for a simple wand worn l
"Let's Get Away" is a song by American hip hop recording artist T. I. released as the fourth single from Trap Muzik. The song features vocals production from Jazze Pha, it peaked at number 35 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. The song interpolates Aretha Franklin's 1972 song "Day Dreaming"; the music video was directed by Darren Grant, while T. I. was sentenced to three years in prison. He was granted rights to film the video for "Let's Get Away" while in prison. Fellow American rappers and Juvenile, make cameo appearances throughout the video. 1. "Let's Get Away " 2. "Let's Get Away " 3. "Let's Get Away " 1. "Doin' My Job " 2. "Doin' My Job " 3. "Doin' My Job " "Let's Get Away" Music video on YouTube Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
The New York Tech Bears refer to the mascot and sports teams of the New York Institute of Technology, located in Old Westbury, New York, United States. All of New York Tech's teams compete in NCAA Division II; the Bears are part of the East Coast Conference. Tech is best known for its men's lacrosse team, which has won four NCAA Division II national championships. Tech sent several runners to the Olympic Games, in 1980, 1988, 1992, in 2000. Men's programs Baseball Basketball Cross country Lacrosse Soccer Track & field Women's programs Basketball Cross country Soccer Softball Lacrosse Track & field President's Stadium: A 1,000-seat stadium, the home of the men's and women's lacrosse teams and men's and women's soccer teams. In 2006, the NYIT replaced the natural grass of the field with FieldTurf. Angelo Lorenzo Memorial Field: The home of the Tech baseball program; the field was resurfaced in the 2012-2013 academic year, with raised dugouts, a new press box behind home plate and will FieldTurf both the infield and outfield.
Recreation Hall: A 500-seat arena, Recreation Hall is home to men's and women's basketball and features a new hardwood floor installed in 2019. Tech Softball Complex: The home of the Tech softball team. Led by Bob Hirschfield until 2012, the NYIT baseball team was the only sport that competed at the NCAA Division I level, as an independent. With over 650 wins under his belt Coach Hirschfield helped over 60 players reach the next level and sign professional contracts; the most recent signings were Joe Esposito, Mike Laluna, Kraig Binick, Mike Roth, Lou Bernardi, Jon Burke, Andrew Gurassi, Steve Faulkner, George Carroll, Danny Lackner and Frank Valentino. Some of the more notable professional signings in recent and past years were Al Watson, Al Labozetta, Bill DaCosta, Alan Ashkinazy, Mike Gaffney, Chris Rojas, Brian Goelz, Jimmy Goelz; the Bears opened their newly renovated ball park in 2014 and began playing as an independent, following the demise of the Great West Conference In the fall of 2017, Tech moved its baseball program to Division II, matching the rest of its athletic programs.
The school requested that the NCAA grant the team immediate eligibility rather than going through the usual two-year transition period, this was granted, allowing the team to compete in the East Coast Conference and able to qualify for the NCAA Division II championship. Under first-year coach Frank Catalanotto in 2019, the program reached the College World Series for the first time in program history. During lacrosse coach Jack Kaley's tenure, Tech's lacrosse team rose to become a national powerhouse. Under Kaley, the Bears had a record of 152-28, they won the East Coast Conference championship four consecutive years. They have reached the NCAA Division II national championship game six times, have won the national championship four times, including an undefeated season in 2003. Upon Kaley's retirement, Bill Dunn was appointed head coach. Since Bill Dunn has been appointed head coach, the Bears have won the East Coast Conference Championships in 2017 and 2018. NCAA National Finalists: 1994, 1997, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2008 NCAA National Championships: 1997, 2003, 2005, 2008 In 1980, the men's basketball team made its first and only appearance in the NCAA Division II national championship game, losing 80-74 to Virginia Union.
Several Bears have gone on to play professionally overseas including Bryant Lassiter, Manix Auriantal, Kirk Stewart. After serving as interim head coach for the final two games of the 2018-19 season, Evan Conti became head coach for the 2019-20 season. NCAA Tournament Appearances: 1978, 1980, 2004 ECC Championship: 2006-2007 In 2005-2006, the women's basketball team made its first appearance in the East Coast Conference tournament; the Bears advanced to the championship game. NYIT made another run at the ECC title in 2006-07. In 2009-2010, Anthony Crocitto was named head coach of the women's basketball program and since the Bears have doubled their wins total each season. In 2011-2012, NYIT produced the program's best record in school history; the Bears lost in the first round to neighboring LIU Post. In the 2014-15 season, the Bears lost in the ECC Championship to Queens College. Under third-year coach Kenny Parham, the program won its first East Coast Conference postseason championship in 2019.
Since coach Carlos Delcid took over in 2001, NYIT's soccer team has become one of the best in the nation. In 2003, the Bears advanced to the NCAA playoffs after an absence of 18 years, when the Bears advanced to the NCAA Final Four in 1985, they have established a school record of 13 wins in a row and have been ranked as high as no. 7 in the nation. In 2005, the men's soccer team advanced to the NCAA Division II Elite Eight, they lost on penalty kicks to Franklin Pierce College. The Bears won their first ECC Championship in 2011 off a goal from Senior Danilo Hernandez. NYIT men's soccer has four All-Americans: Vinny Caccavale, Kyle Cupid, Eduardo Anacelto, Algernon Lawrence; the softball team made its first appearance in the NCAA tournament in 2009. Don Cooper: Baseball Ray Giannelli: Baseball Allen Watson: Baseball Official website