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Universal Sports

Universal Sports was an American sports-oriented digital cable and satellite television network. It was owned as a joint venture between InterMedia Partners and NBCUniversal; the channel was launched in 2006 as World Championship Sports Network. One of the first events broadcast by WCSN was coverage of the United States Track and Field Championships via streaming video. In 2007, InterMedia Partners gained a majority ownership interest in the network. By March 2008, WCSN began to be carried on broadcast television, through the digital subchannels of several stations owned by the Granite Broadcasting Corporation. NBC Universal entered into a partnership with InterMedia in which the former acquired a minority interest in the channel. By November 2008, all 10 of NBC's owned-and-operated stations had begun carrying the network on one of their digital subchannels. Universal Sports offered carriage on broadcast stations on a channel lease basis until 2011, with the provision that the stations strike deals with cable providers in their markets to carry the network by January 31, 2009.

If a station failed to obtain cable carriage, the network had the right to move its affiliation to another station in that market that would be able to gain cable carriage. The network was being shopped to NBC-affiliated stations until December 1. On June 17, 2010, Universal Sports, along with the International Rugby Board, announced that the channel would bring "unprecedented national television and digital media coverage of the 2011 and 2015 Rugby World Cup tournaments". On October 22, 2015, it was announced that Universal Sports would close down on November 16, 2015, that NBC Sports would inherit the network's portfolio of sports rights for its own networks; the channel shut down at 6AM on that day. On July 1, 2017, the United States Olympic Committee and the NBC Sports Group launched the Olympic Channel serving as Universal Sports' eventual replacement channel. On June 15, 2011, DirecTV added Universal Sports as a national basic channel; the carriage agreement with DirecTV led NBCUniversal and Intermedia to announce on September 12, 2011, that it would transition Universal Sports into a cable- and satellite-exclusive service by January 2012.

On January 1, 2012, Universal Sports was dropped by most cable providers as a result of a protracted battle to get them to offer the service as a premium channel. One of the providers to drop the channel was Comcast, the nation's largest cable company and part-owner of Universal Sports' co-parent NBCUniversal at the time The channel had long-term broadcasting agreements with the International Association of Athletics Federations, the International Cycling Union, the International Federation of Gymnastics, the International Rowing Federation, the International Ski Federation, the International Swimming Federation, the International Rugby Board; the channel provided year-round coverage of events that receive attention every few years. Through television carriage and internet streaming, viewers were provided an in-depth look at how Olympic athletes compete between the games. Universal Sports promoted itself as "the athlete's network," and extended its coverage through blogs and interviews outside of competition.

As reported by Olympic news outlet Around the Rings, Universal Sports and Infront Sports and Media announced an exclusive media rights agreement for the International Ski Federation World Cup events beginning with the 2011-2012 season

William S. Griffith

William Samuel "Bill" Griffith was a dedicated adult educator. Working internationally at both applied and academic levels, Griffith contributed intellectual excellence and hard work to a diversity of fields which mattered much to him: literacy, family planning, correction services – and the development of academic journals which fostered professional communities in each field. Family was important to Griffith. While at Pennsylvania State University, he met and married Beverly Ann Breland – they had three children: Thomas, Kathryn and five grandchildren. 1953 B Sc Pennsylvania State University 1950–1951 Kroger Fellowship 1952–1953 KDKA Fellowship1955 MSc Louisiana State University – Dairy Science 1953–1954 Research Assistantship 1961–1963 University of Chicago Professor, Adult Education 1962–1963 Carnegie Fellowship 1963 PhD Adult Education University of Chicago Thesis topic: The Establishment of a Growth Model of Institutions of Adult Education 1963–1968 Assistant Professor of Education University of Chicago 1968–1977 Associate Professor of Education University of Chicago 1971 Visiting Professor of Adult Education North Carolina State University, Summer program 1971 Adult Education Quarterly with Ann P Hayes Extension Handbook: Processes and Practices, Second Edition 1972–1973 Fulbright-Hayes Senior Research Fellow: Australian National University.

Donner Foundation grant 1982–1996 Lakeside Correctional Institution – Community Liaison Committee 1982–1984 President – Northwest Adult Education Association 1983–1996 Chair – Canadian Society of Extension – Professional Development Committee Griffith was interested in and worked for Planned Parenthood. Other interests: was an active member of the Commission of Adult Education, the President of the Northwest Adult Education Association, the Chairman of the Commission of Professors of Adult Education and the President of the American Association for Adult and Continuing Education, he served on the committee of the Adult Education Research Conference. Griffith is listed in Who's Who In America UBC Library archives University of Chicago Faculty Deaths an inventory of William S. Griffith's papers at Syracuse University

Lioré et Olivier LeO H-242

The Lioré et Olivier LeO H.242 was a French-manufactured flying boat, used for European passenger air services in the 1930s. Several were operated by Air France. One LeO H.242 features at the end of Hergé's The Adventures of Tintin comic King Ottokar's Sceptre. H-24.01 First prototype. Powered by two 373 kW Renault 12Jb engines. One built. H-241 The initial four-engined long-range heavy-weight variant of the H-24; the hull was exclusively made of anodised Duralumin, for corrosion resistance. Although construction began before the H.242, the sole H.241 was completed but did not enter production. H-242 Initial production. Powered by four Gnome-Rhône 7Kd Titan Major radial engines. Two were built for Air France and delivered in December 1933 and February 1934, they could carry ten passengers. H-242/1 Revised production version, with a modified engine installation. Twelve were built for Air France and delivered between March 1935 and May 1937, carrying twelve passengers. Most H.242/1s were fitted with wide chord NACA cowlings over the front engine only, but some aircraft were fitted with narrow chord Townend rings around the front engine.

H-243 an un-built projected version for the French navy with enlarged hull. H-244 A projected high-speed inter-continental flying boat for Air Union, abandoned when Air Union was absorbed by Air France. H-246 A major redesign, the four engines now all in tractor configuration. FranceAir France ItalyRegia Aeronautica - Captured aircraft. Data from The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, General characteristics Crew: 4 Capacity: 12 passengers Length: 18.45 m Wingspan: 28 m Height: 6.33 m Wing area: 116.25 m2 Empty weight: 5,868 kg Max takeoff weight: 8,700 kg Powerplant: 4 × Gnome-Rhône 7Kd Titan Major 7-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, 261 kW each Propellers: 2-bladed variable-pitch propellersPerformance Maximum speed: 240 km/h Range: 1,100 km Service ceiling: 4,500 m Time to altitude: 1,000 m in 6 minutes 50 seconds Lioré et Olivier LeO H-246 Donald, David. The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Leicester, UK:Blitz, 1997. ISBN 1-85605-375-X

Aryna Sabalenka

Aryna Siarhiejeŭna Sabalenka is a Belarusian professional tennis player. She has been a top ten player in both singles and doubles, having been ranked as high as No. 9 in singles and No. 2 in doubles by the Women's Tennis Association. Sabalenka won her first Grand Slam title in doubles at the 2019 US Open alongside Elise Mertens, she has won nine WTA titles in total, six in three in doubles. Sabalenka was unheralded as a junior and unknown until 2017 when she rose to prominence by leading the Belarus Fed Cup team to a runner-up finish with Aliaksandra Sasnovich, despite both of them being ranked outside the top 75 at the time. Following the 2017 Fed Cup, she began having more success on the WTA Tour, reaching four finals in 2018 to go along with eight top ten victories. Sabalenka continued to excel in singles in 2019 with three titles in China, highlighted by a defense of her Wuhan Open title at the Premier 5 level and by winning the WTA Elite Trophy at the end of the year, she finished both 2019 ranked No. 11 in the world in singles.

Sabalenka began playing doubles in 2019. With Mertens as her partner, she completed the Sunshine Double by winning the two Premier Mandatory tournaments in March, the Indian Wells Open and the Miami Open. After a US Open doubles title in the year, she qualified for the WTA Finals for the first time. Sabalenka has a aggressive style of play accumulating high numbers of winners and unforced errors. With her height, she has a strong serve; the power and ferocity in her game has been described as "big babe tennis personified". Sabalenka was born on 5 May 1998 in the capital of Belarus, her father Sergey was a hockey player. Aryna started playing tennis by chance, she said, "One day, my dad was just driving me somewhere in the car, on the way he saw tennis courts. So he took me to the courts. I liked it and enjoyed it and that's how it was. That's how it started." She began training at the National Tennis Academy in Minsk when it opened in 2014. In 2015, the Belarusian Tennis Federation persuaded Sabalenka and her team to focus on playing low-level professional events instead of junior tournaments though she was still eligible to compete at the junior level at the time.

Sabalenka had a late start on the ITF Junior Circuit, instead competing on the U14 and U16 Tennis Europe tours at a younger age. She did not compete in the main draw of any ITF events until 2013 at the low-level Grade 4 Tallink Cup in Estonia at the age of 15, she never played in the junior Grand Slam tournaments, or any other high-level Grade A and Grade 1 events. Without the higher point levels from these bigger tournaments, she had a career-high ranking of just No. 225. Sabalenka won her first ITF title in doubles at the lowest-level Grade 5 Alatan Tour Cup in Belarus in late 2013 with compatriot Vera Lapko as her partner. In 2014, she excelled at Grade 4 events, she reached her first singles final at the Estonian Junior Open in June and won her first singles title at the MTV Total Junior Cup in Finland in October. At the end of the season, Sabalenka defended her Alatan Tour Cup doubles title, this time with compatriot Nika Shytkouskaya, won the singles title, she only played in one tournament in the European Junior Championships.

As a Grade B1 event, this was the highest level junior tournament. She lost in the second round to top seed Markéta Vondroušová. Sabalenka began playing on the ITF Women's Circuit in 2012 before she competed on the ITF Junior Circuit, her first five tournaments were in her hometown of Minsk and spread out over two years, but she did not win a main draw match in any of them. She won her first professional match at the end of 2014 in Istanbul; the following season in October, she won her first two titles in back-to-back weeks in Antalya, both at the $10K level. Sabalenka won a $25K title the last week of the year; this title put her into the top 300 of the WTA rankings for the first time at the start of 2016. That year, she made her Fed Cup debut in April, she won her two biggest titles to date at the $50K level. The first in Tianjin put her into the top 200 in May and the second in Toyota in November helped her finish the year ranked at No. 137 in the world. Despite some early season success in Fed Cup, Sabalenka had a quiet start to the year otherwise.

She played in her first WTA main draw in February as a qualifier at the Dubai Open. In her Grand Slam debut, she again reached the main draw through qualifying and defeated Irina Khromacheva in the opening round. Sabalenka followed up this achievement with another WTA win over No. 34 Lauren Davis at the Washington Open, the 2016 runner-up and the highest-ranked player she had defeated at the time. After losing in qualifying at the US Open, Sabalenka reached her first WTA semifinal at the Tashkent Open, defeating 3rd seed and world No. 53 Tatjana Maria along the way. A few weeks she entered the Tianjin Open as the 119th-ranked player in the world, but managed to reach her first WTA final. There, she faced her childhood idol Maria Sharapova, but lost in two close sets. With this performance, she rose to No. 76 in the rankings. After losing a tight Fed Cup final to the United States, Sabalenka finished the season by winning the biggest title of her career at the time at the Mumbai Open, a WTA 125K event.

The title cemented her at No. 73 at the end of the year. After playing few WTA events in 2017, Sabalenka utilized her higher ranking to play on the WT

Consumer price index

A Consumer Price Index measures changes in the price level of a weighted average market basket of consumer goods and services purchased by households. The CPI is a statistical estimate constructed using the prices of a sample of representative items whose prices are collected periodically. Sub-indices and sub-sub-indices are computed for different categories and sub-categories of goods and services, being combined to produce the overall index with weights reflecting their shares in the total of the consumer expenditures covered by the index, it is one of several price indices calculated by most national statistical agencies. The annual percentage change in a CPI is used as a measure of inflation. A CPI can be used to index the real value of wages and pensions. In most countries, the CPI, along with the population census, is one of the most watched national economic statistics; the index is computed monthly, or quarterly in some countries, as a weighted average of sub-indices for different components of consumer expenditure, such as food, shoes, each of, in turn a weighted average of sub-sub-indices.

At the most detailed level, the elementary aggregate level, detailed weighting information is unavailable, so indices are computed using an unweighted arithmetic or geometric mean of the prices of the sampled product offers. These indices compare prices each month with prices in the price-reference month; the weights used to combine them into the higher-level aggregates, into the overall index, relate to the estimated expenditures during a preceding whole year of the consumers covered by the index on the products within its scope in the area covered. Thus the index is a fixed-weight index, but a true Laspeyres index, since the weight-reference period of a year and the price-reference period a more recent single month, do not coincide. Ideally, the weights would relate to the composition of expenditure during the time between the price-reference month and the current month. There is a large technical economics literature on index formulas which would approximate this and which can be shown to approximate what economic theorists call a true cost-of-living index.

Such an index would show how consumer expenditure would have to move to compensate for price changes so as to allow consumers to maintain a constant standard of living. Approximations can only be computed retrospectively, whereas the index has to appear monthly and, quite soon. In some countries, notably in the United States and Sweden, the philosophy of the index is that it is inspired by and approximates the notion of a true cost of living index, whereas in most of Europe it is regarded more pragmatically; the coverage of the index may be limited. Consumers' expenditure abroad is excluded. Saving and investment are always excluded, though the prices paid for financial services provided by financial intermediaries may be included along with insurance; the index reference period called the base year differs both from the weight-reference period and the price-reference period. This is just a matter of rescaling the whole time-series to make the value for the index reference-period equal to 100.

Annually revised weights are a desirable but expensive feature of an index, for the older the weights the greater is the divergence between the current expenditure pattern and that of the weight reference-period. It is reported on a per region or country basis on a monthly and annual basis. International organizations like the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development report statistical figures like the Consumer Price Index for many of its member countries. In the US the CPI is reported by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Consumer Price Index = Market Basket of Desired Year Market Basket of Base Year × 100 or CPI 2 CPI 1 = Price 2 Price 1 Where 1 is the comparison year and CPI1 is an index of 100. Alternatively, the CPI can be performed as CPI = updated cost base period cost × 100; the "updated cost" is divided by that of the initial year multiplied by one hundred. Many but not all price indices are weighted averages using weights that sum to 1 or 100. Example: The prices of 85,000 items from 22,000 stores, 35,000 rental units are added together and averaged.

They are weighted this way: Housing: 41.4%, Food and Beverage: 17.4%, Transport: 17.0%, Medical Care: 6.9%, Other: 6.9%, Apparel: 6.0%, Entertainment: 4.4%. Taxes are not included in CPI computation. C P

Condensate pump

A condensate pump is a specific type of pump used to pump the condensate produced in an HVAC, condensing boiler furnace, or steam system. Condensate pumps may be used to pump the condensate produced from latent water vapor in any of the following gas mixtures: Conditioned building air Refrigerated air in cooling and freezing systems Steam in heat exchangers and radiators The exhaust stream of very-high-efficiency furnacesCondensate recovery systems help reduce three tangible costs of producing steam: Fuel/energy costs Boiler water make-up and sewage treatment Boiler water chemical treatment Condensate pumps are used in hydronic systems that cannot discharge excess condensate water via a gravity feed. Condensate pumps are electrically powered centrifugal pumps, they are used to remove condensate water from HVAC systems that cannot be accomplished via gravity, therefore the water must be pumped up. Home units are small and the pumps are rated at a fraction of a horsepower, but in commercial applications, the pumps and motors are much higher.

Large industrial pumps may serve as the feedwater pump for returning the condensate under pressure to a boiler. Condensate pumps run intermittently and have a tank in which condensate can accumulate; the accumulating liquid raises a float switch energizing the pump. The pump runs until the level of liquid in the tank is lowered; some pumps contain a two-stage switch. As liquid rises to the trigger point of the first stage, the pump is activated. If the liquid continues to rise, the second stage will be triggered; this stage may switch off the HVAC equipment, trigger an alarm, or both. Some systems may include two pumps to empty the tank. In this case, the two pumps alternate operation, a two-stage switch serves to energize the on-duty pump at the first stage and energize the remaining pump at the second stage; this second stage action is in addition to any triggering of other system changes as noted for a single pump installation. In this way pump runtime is shared between the two, a backup pump is provided in case one pump fails to function.

Small pumps have tanks that range from 2 to 4 liters and are supported using the flanges on their tanks or placed upon the floor. A plastic impeller in a molded volute at the bottom of the pump provides the pumping action. Large pumps are pad-mounted drawing liquid from a tank below the floor; the smallest pumps may have no tank at all and are placed within a container such as the drip pan of a dehumidifier appliance. In most locales, condensate water must be pumped to the outside of the dwelling. Further, this would require a trap. In industrial steam systems the condensate pump is used to collect and return condensate from remote areas of the plant; the steam produced in the boiler processes a considerable distance away. Once steam is used it turns to hot condensate; this pump and many more around the plant returns this hot water back to a make-up tank closer to the boiler, where it can be reclaimed, chemically treated, reused, in the boiler it can sometimes be referred to as a condensate return pump.

In a steam power plant shipboard ones, the condensate pump is located adjacent to the main condenser hotwell directly below it. This pump sends the water to a make-up tank closer to the steam boiler. If the tank is designed to remove dissolved oxygen from the condensate, it is known as a deaereating feed tank; the output of the DFT supplies the feed booster pump which, in turn, supplies the feedwater pump which returns the feedwater to the boiler so the cycle can start over. Two pumps in succession are used to provide sufficient net positive suction head to prevent cavitation and the subsequent damage associated with it; this pump is associated with a much larger tank, float switch, an electric motor than the example above. Some systems are so remote that steam power is used to return the condensate where electricity is impractical to provide; the output of small condensate pumps is routed to a sewer, plumbing drain, or the outside world via PVCl plastic tubing. Note, in some locales condensate water is not permitted to enter a sewer system and must be directed to the outside of the house into the leader/gutter downspout system.

If the outlet of the line is at a higher level than the tank of the pump, a check valve is fitted at the outlet of the pump so that liquid cannot flow backwards into the pump's tank. If the outlet is below the tank level, siphonage naturally clears the output line of all liquid when the pump is deenergized. In cold regions of the world, it is important that condensate lines that are exhausted outside be designed so that no water can remain in the line to freeze up. Condensate water is distilled water but contains chemicals. If it is being condensed from an air stream, it may have dust, microbes, or other contaminants in it. If it is condensed from steam, it may have traces of the various boiler water treatment chemicals, and if it is condensed from furnace exhaust gases, it may be acidic, containing sulfuric acid or nitric acid as a result of sulfur and nitrogen dioxides in the exhau