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Universal Turing machine

In computer science, a universal Turing machine is a Turing machine that simulates an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input. The universal machine achieves this by reading both the description of the machine to be simulated as well as the input to that machine from its own tape. Alan Turing introduced the idea of such a machine in 1936–1937; this principle is considered to be the origin of the idea of a stored-program computer used by John von Neumann in 1946 for the "Electronic Computing Instrument" that now bears von Neumann's name: the von Neumann architecture. In terms of computational complexity, a multi-tape universal Turing machine need only be slower by logarithmic factor compared to the machines it simulates; every Turing machine computes a certain fixed partial computable function from the input strings over its alphabet. In that sense it behaves like a computer with a fixed program. However, we can encode the action table of any Turing machine in a string, thus we can construct a Turing machine that expects on its tape a string describing an action table followed by a string describing the input tape, computes the tape that the encoded Turing machine would have computed.

Turing described such a construction in complete detail in his 1936 paper: "It is possible to invent a single machine which can be used to compute any computable sequence. If this machine U is supplied with a tape on the beginning of, written the S. D of some computing machine M U will compute the same sequence as M." Davis makes a persuasive argument that Turing's conception of what is now known as "the stored-program computer", of placing the "action table"—the instructions for the machine—in the same "memory" as the input data influenced John von Neumann's conception of the first American discrete-symbol computer—the EDVAC. Davis quotes Time magazine to this effect, that "everyone who taps at a keyboard... is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine," and that "John von Neumann on the work of Alan Turing". Davis makes a case that Turing's Automatic Computing Engine computer "anticipated" the notions of microprogramming and RISC processors. Knuth cites Turing's work on the ACE computer as designing "hardware to facilitate subroutine linkage".

As the Turing Machine was encouraging the construction of computers, the UTM was encouraging the development of the fledgling computer sciences. An early, if not the first, assembler was proposed "by a young hot-shot programmer" for the EDVAC. Von Neumann's "first serious program... to sort data efficiently". Knuth observes that the subroutine return embedded in the program itself rather than in special registers is attributable to von Neumann and Goldstine. Knuth furthermore states that "The first interpretive routine may be said to be the "Universal Turing Machine"... Interpretive routines in the conventional sense were mentioned by John Mauchly in his lectures at the Moore School in 1946... Turing took part in this development also. Davis mentions operating systems and compilers as outcomes of the notion of program-as-data. Some, might raise issues with this assessment. At the time a small cadre of researchers were intimately involved with the architecture of the new "digital computers". Hao Wang, a young researcher at this time, made the following observation: Turing's theory of computable functions antedated but has not much influenced the extensive actual construction of digital computers.

These two aspects of theory and practice have been developed entirely independently of each other. The main reason is undoubtedly that logicians are interested in questions radically different from those with which the applied mathematicians and electrical engineers are concerned, it cannot, fail to strike one as rather strange that the same concepts are expressed by different terms in the two developments." Wang hoped that his paper would "connect the two approaches." Indeed, Minsky confirms this: "that the first formulation of Turing-machine theory in computer-like models appears in Wang". Minsky goes on to demonstrate Turing equivalence of a counter machine. With respect to the reduction of computers to simple Turing equivalent models, Minsky's designation of Wang as having made "the first formulation" is open to debate. While both Minsky's paper of 1961 and Wang's paper of 1957 are cited by Shepherdson and Sturgis, they cite and summarize in some detail the work of European mathematicians Kaphenst, Péter.

The names of mathematicians Hermes and Kaphenst appear in the bibliographies of both Sheperdson-Sturgis and Elgot-Robinson. Two other names of importance are Canadian researchers Lambek. For much more see Turing machine equivalents. With this encoding of action tables as strings it becomes possible in principle for Turing machines to answer questions about the behaviour of other Turing machines. Most of these questions, are undecidable, meaning that the function in question cannot be calculated mechanically. For instance, the problem of determining whether an arbitrary Turing machine will halt on a particular input, or on all inputs, known as the Halting pro

Théodule Meunier

Théodule Meunier was a French anarchist who, along with Emile Henry and Auguste Vaillant, was responsible for a series of bombings in Paris, France during early 1892. The three targeted both civilian and government buildings which included boulevard cafes, the homes of magistrates, police stations and the Chamber of Deputies. A cabinet maker by trade, Meunier had joined the French anarchist movement during the early 1890s. According to Charles Malato, it was said of Meunier that he was "...the most remarkable type of revolutionary illuminist, an ascetic and a visionary, as passionate for the search for the ideal society as Saint-Just, as merciless as seeking his way towards it." During the trial of the notorious anarchist known as Ravachol, Meunier set off a bomb at the Lobau Barracks, the site of the Communard massacres, on 15 March 1892. On 25 April, the day before Ravachol was to be sentenced, the Cafe Very in which Ravachol was arrested was bombed killing the owner and a customer as well as injuring numerous others.

Seeking asylum in Great Britain, like other contemporaries such as Jean-Pierre François he lived as a political refugee in London for a time before his eventual arrest by Scotland Yard detective William Melville at London Victoria station on 4 April 1894. Extradited to France in June, Meunier was tried the following month and sentenced to life imprisonment in a penal colony in Cayenne, he would remain there for 14 years until his death following a failed escape attempt. He had been in correspondence with fellow French anarchist Jean Grave the previous year and, in one letter expressed no remorse for his crimes stating "I only did what I had to do. If I could start over again, I would do the same thing." He was used as the main antagonist of detective Sherlock Holmes in René Réouven's 1985 novel L'Assassin du Boulevard

Live from New Jersey

Live from New Jersey is a live album released by Pete Yorn in 2004. It was recorded in Fall 2003 and had been available through Yorn's website since January of that year, but now has an "official" release; this release gives a full concert performance of Yorn, who mixes up tracks from both studio albums he had recorded up until that point. While the emphasis is on his debut album, musicforthemorningafter, there are seven tracks from Day I Forgot; the remainder tracks are one new song. Disc one"I Feel Good Again" "Pass Me By" "Black" "Carlos" "Turn of the Century" "Do You Wanna Dance/Closet" "Long Way Down" "Lose You" "Just Another" "Strange Condition"Disc two"Life on a Chain" "Bandstand in the Sky" "Suspicious Minds" "On Your Side" "June" "Crystal Village" "For Nancy" "Burrito" "All at Once" "Atlantic City" /"Murray" Luke Adams- drums Jason Johnson- guitar Joe Kennedy Jr.- guitar, piano, background vocals R. Walt Vincent- bass guitar Pete Yorn- guitar, lead vocals The album is a recording of Yorn's performance at the Community Theatre in Morristown, NJ.

When Yorn sings "I was killed in half a day, I hadn't time to regret you, R-E-A-C-T" in the song "Life On A Chain," he is referencing the song "Harborcoat" by R. E. M. Off of their album Reckoning. In "Harborcoat," Michael Stipe sings "There's a splinter in your eye and it reads'react,' R-E-A-C-T."

Green Vault

The Green Vault is a museum located in Dresden, which contains the largest treasure collection in Europe. The museum was founded in 1723 by Augustus the Strong of Poland and Saxony, it features a variety of exhibits in styles from Baroque to Classicism; the Green Vault is named after the malachite green painted column bases and capitals of the initial rooms. It has some claim to be the oldest museum in the world. After the bombing of Dresden during World War II, the Grünes Gewölbe was restored. Today, its treasures are shown in two exhibitions: The Historic Green Vault is famous for its splendors of the historic treasure chamber as it existed in 1733, while the New Green Vault focuses the attention on each individual object in neutral rooms; the Grünes Gewölbe is located on the first and second floors of the western section of Dresden Castle. It is now part of the Dresden State Art Collections. In 1547, Holy Roman elector Moritz of Saxony ordered the construction an additional wing to Dresden Castle.

Four of the added rooms on the first floor of the palace were given elaborate, molded plaster ceilings. In these rooms, the column bases and capitals were painted a bluish-green color. Due to this coloring, the rooms were referred to as the "Green Vault." The official name of these rooms, which were protected against fire and robbery by thick walls and iron shutters and doors, was "Privy Repository". Throughout the 17th century, the Privy Repository was used by the rulers of the Electorate of Saxony as a private treasure chamber for important documents and jewelry. Between 1723 and 1729, the elector Frederic Augustus I, today referred to as Augustus the Strong, turned the private chambers into a public museum. First, he commanded splendid rooms to be created in; the Pretiosensaal and the Eckkabinett were listed as completed in the inventory of 1725. An extension followed in 1727. Augustus' intentions have been preserved on a ground plan from 1727; as in the first construction phase, the architect Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann planned and built a museum-like, artistic structure of German Baroque grandeur.

A suite of eight interconnecting rooms was constructed whose architectural beauty complemented the abundance and quality of the priceless treasures. Augustus the Strong could now exhibit his entire collection of valuables, including bronze statues and works of art in silver, gold and ivory; the sequence of rooms was deliberately staged. By the end of his four-decade-long reign in 1733, Augustus the Strong had made his crown treasures and his inherited riches accessible to the public – an unprecedented innovation in the Baroque period; these rooms remained unchanged for two centuries. When war was imminent in 1938, the art treasures were taken to the Königstein Fortress; the Green Vault was damaged in the February 13, 1945 bombing of Dresden in World War II. Three of the eight rooms were destroyed. At the end of the war in 1945, the treasures were confiscated by the Red Army and transported to the Soviet Union. After their return to Dresden in 1958, part of the collection was displayed at the Albertinum.

In 2004, the Neues Grünes Gewölbe was opened on the second floor of the rebuilt Dresden castle. Its modern style of presentation centers on the works of art. In 2006, the reconstructed Historisches Grünes Gewölbe was reopened in the magnificent suite of rooms on the first floor as it had existed in 1733 at the time of its founder's death. On 25 November 2019, the Green Vault was broken into, three sets of early 18th century royal jewellery were stolen; each set consists of 37 items, made up of diamonds, rubies and sapphires. It was estimated. Prior to the 2019 heist, the collection consisted of over 4,000 pieces, with 1,100 on display in the New Green Vault and about 3,000 shown in the Historic Green Vault. Entrance to the Historic Green Vault requires advance purchase of tickets for a specific entry time slot. A limited number of tickets is sold every morning; the New Green Vault can be visited at any time. The Historic Green Vault has 3,000 pieces of jewelry on display, including works in gold and ivory.

Gemstone vessels and bronze statuettes are on display without showcases, in front of mirrored display walls. The Historic Green Vault is located on the first floor of Dresden Castle, spans 2,000 square metres. With these treasure chambers, Augustus the Strong realised his vision of a Baroque Gesamtkunstwerk as an expression of wealth and absolutist power, he presented his treasures to a select public, thus establishing the Green Vault as one of Europe's oldest museums. The Historic Green Vault consists of nine rooms and one entrance chamber: The Vorgewölbe: a collection of Schatzkunst of the Middle Ages and early Renaissance; the Bernsteinkabinett: artworks made of amber. The Elfenbeinzimmer: great variety of carved art pieces and small statues, all made from real ivory; the Weißsilberzimmer: silver artwor

Terinebrica

Terinebrica is a genus of moths belonging to the family Tortricidae. Terinebrica achrostos Razowski & Becker, 2001 Terinebrica chaulioda Razowski & Becker, 2001 Terinebrica cidna Razowski & Becker, 2001 Terinebrica complicata Razowski & Becker, 2001 Terinebrica cornicenthes Razowski & Becker, 2001 Terinebrica fortifera Razowski, 1991 Terinebrica inconspigua Razowski & Becker, 2001 Terinebrica inouei Razowski, 1987 Terinebrica larocana Razowski & Becker, 2001 Terinebrica multidens Razowski & Wojtusiak, 2010 Terinebrica orthoscia Terinebrica paulista Razowski & Becker, 2001 Terinebrica phaloniodes Terinebrica pharetrata Razowski, 1987 Terinebrica polycornuta Razowski, 1999 Terinebrica polyseta Razowski & Becker, 2001 Terinebrica portentifica Razowski & Becker, 2001 Terinebrica saetigera Razowski, 1987 Terinebrica seiugata Razowski, 1987 Terinebrica spiniloba Razowski & Becker, 2001 Terinebrica spinodela Razowski, 1997 Terinebrica tenebrica Razowski, 1987 Terinebrica triplex Razowski & Becker, 2001 Terinebrica vectura Razowski & Becker, 2001 List of Tortricidae genera Brown, J.

W. 2005: World catalogue of insects volume 5 Tortricidae. Razowski J. Becker V. O. 2001: Revision of the Neotropical Euliini Genus Terinebrica Razowski, 1987. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, 44: 253-251. Razowski, J. & J. Wojtusiak, 2010: Tortricidae from Peru. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 53B: 73-159. Doi:10.3409/azc.53b_1-2.73-159. Full article:. Tortricidae.com

Michael Lavarch

Michael Hugh Lavarch AO is an Australian lawyer and former politician. He was the Attorney-General for Australia between 1993 and 1996, since 2004 has been dean and professor of law at Queensland University of Technology, his alma mater. Lavarch commenced his legal career in Brisbane as a solicitor, he gained Australian Labor Party endorsement for the electorate of Fisher in Queensland's Sunshine Coast, was elected to the Federal Parliament at the 1987 election. By the 1993 election, boundary changes had erased Lavarch's majority and made Fisher notionally Liberal. Lavarch contested the newly created seat of Dickson in the outer northern suburbs of Brisbane, which covered much of the Brisbane portion of his former seat. Independent Walter Pegler died shortly before the election, making it necessary to hold a supplementary election on 17 April. Following the return of the Labor Party to government, Prime Minister Paul Keating announced the makeup of the Second Keating Ministry to be sworn in on 24 March, but kept the portfolio of Attorney-General open for Lavarch, subject to him winning Dickson on 17 April.

Lavarch won the supplementary election, defeating future Queensland Liberal leader Bruce Flegg, was duly appointed to the ministry on 27 April. During his political career, he was interested in human rights and native title issues, he was responsible for instigating the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families in 1995, culminating in the publication of the Bringing Them Home Report. He was defeated at the 1996 election, he returned to his legal practice. In 1998, Lavarch was elected as a Queensland delegate to the 4th Constitutional Convention in 1998 for the Australian Republican Movement, he was secretary-general of the Law Council of Australia from 2001 to 2004. In 2004 he was appointed dean and professor of law at Queensland University of Technology, of which he is a graduate. Lavarch has written numerous book chapters and articles about Australia's legal and political systems, including being editor of "Beyond the Adversarial System".

He hosts a radio program podcast on 2SER called "Maintain the Rage" that discusses politics, political history and the way the media covers them. Lavarch lives between Brisbane and Sydney with his wife, indigenous academic and writer, Larissa Behrendt. Michael Lavarch was married to Linda Lavarch. Like her former husband, Linda Lavarch had served as an Attorney General but on the Queensland state level from 2005 to 2009. At the 2016 election, Linda was the ALP candidate for her former husband's former seat of Dickson