Universal priesthood

The universal priesthood or the priesthood of all believers is a concept in some branches of Christianity which denies the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian Church of the East doctrine of the sacrament of Holy Orders. Derived from the theology of Martin Luther and William Tyndale, it became prominent as a tenet of Protestant Christian doctrine, the exact meaning of the belief and its implications vary among denominations; the universal priesthood is a foundational concept of Protestantism. While Martin Luther did not use the exact phrase "priesthood of all believers", he adduces a general priesthood in Christendom in his 1520 To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation in order to dismiss the medieval view that Christians in the present life were to be divided into two classes: "spiritual" and "secular", he put forward the doctrine that all baptized Christians are "priests" and "spiritual" in the sight of God: That the pope or bishop anoints, makes tonsures, consecrates, or dresses differently from the laity, may make a hypocrite or an idolatrous oil-painted icon, but it in no way makes a Christian or spiritual human being.

In fact, we are all consecrated priests through Baptism, as St. Peter in 1 Peter 2 says, "You are a royal priesthood and a priestly kingdom," and Revelation, "Through your blood you have made us into priests and kings." Two months Luther would write in his On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church: How if they are forced to admit that we are all priests, as many of us as are baptized, by this way we are. If they recognize this they would know that they have no right to exercise power over us except insofar as we may have granted it to them, for thus it says in 1 Peter 2, "You are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a priestly kingdom." In this way we are all priests, as many of us. There are indeed priests, they are chosen from among us, who do everything in our name. That is a priesthood, nothing else than the Ministry, thus 1 Corinthians 4:1: "No one should regard us as anything else than ministers of Christ and dispensers of the mysteries of God." The Bible passage considered to be the basis of this belief is the First Epistle of Peter, 2:9: But you are not like that, for you are a chosen people.

You are royal priests, a holy nation, God’s own possession. As a result, you can show others the goodness of God, for he called you out of the darkness into his wonderful light. Other relevant Scripture passages include Exodus 19:5–6, First Peter 2:4–8, Book of Revelation 1:4–6, 5:6–10, 20:6 and the Epistle to the Hebrews. In ancient Israel, priests acted as mediators between people, they ministered according to God's instruction and they offered sacrifices to God on behalf of the people. Once a year, the high priest would enter the holiest part of the temple and offer a sacrifice for the sins of all the people, including all the priests. Although many religions use priests, most Protestant faiths reject the idea of a priesthood as a group, spiritually distinct from lay people, they employ professional clergy who perform many of the same functions as priests such as clarifying doctrine, administering communion, performing baptisms, etc. In many instances, Protestants see professional clergy as servants acting on behalf of the local believers.

This is in contrast to the priest, whom some Protestants see as having a distinct authority and spiritual role different from that of ordinary believers. British Quakers and US and African Quakers in some cases, have no order of service. God can speak through any person present. Most Protestants today recognize only Christ as a mediator between God; the Epistle to the Hebrews calls Jesus the supreme "high priest," who offered himself as a perfect sacrifice. Protestants believe that through Christ they have been given direct access to God, just like a priest. God is accessible to all the faithful, every Christian has equal potential to minister for God; this doctrine stands in opposition to the concept of a spiritual aristocracy or hierarchy within Christianity. The belief in the priesthood of all believers does not preclude order, authority or discipline within congregations or denominational organizations. For example, Lutheranism maintains the biblical doctrine of "the preaching office" or the "office of the holy ministry" established by God in the Christian Church.

The Augsburg Confession states: Furthermore, it is taught that we cannot obtain forgiveness of sin and righteousness before God through our merit, work, or satisfactions, but that we receive forgiveness of sin and become righteous before God out of grace for Christ’s sake through faith when we believe that Christ has suffered for us and that for his sake our sin is forgiven and righteousness and eternal life are given to us... To obtain such faith God instituted the office of preaching, giving the sacraments. Through these, as through means, he gives the Holy Spirit who produces faith and when he wills, in those who hear the gospel... Concerning church government it is taught that no one should publicly teach

List of art installations by Ilya Kabakov (1983-2000)

Ilya Kabakov completed 155 installations between 1983–2000, which were installed around the world. The series of albums Ten Characters helped formulate much of Kabakov's work. In the albums he offers the viewer a narrative of a fictional character, which, in 1983, he began to transform into complete immersive experiences. 1. The Ant, 1983. Little White Men, 1983; the Fly with Wings, 1984. 16 Ropes, 1984. Intellectual Screens, 1985. Ten Albums, 1985; the Rope of Life, 1985. The Rope Along the Edge, 1985; the Man Who Flew Into Space From His Apartment, 1985. The Ship, 1985; the Underground Golden River, 1985. Concert for a Fly, 1986. Box with Garbage, 1986. Before Supper, 1988. Ten Characters, 1988; the Man Who Flew into His Picture, 1988. The Untalented Artist, 1988; the Short Man, 1988. The Composer, 1988; the Collector, 1988. The Man Who Never Threw Anything Away, 1988. Children's Corner, 1988. Three Nights, 1989. Old Furniture and Little White Men, 1989; the Garden/In the Corner, 1989. Trousers in the Corner, 1989.

Incident in the Corridor near the Kitchen, 1989. The Metaphysical Man, 1989. Exhibition of a Book, 1989, he Lost His Mind, Ran Away Naked, 1990. Labyrinth. My Mother's Album, 1990. In the Corner, 1990. Three Russian Paintings, 1990. Seven Exhibitions of a Painting, 1990. Concert for a Blue Fly and Yellow Pencil, 1990. Mother and Son, 1990. Two Memories About Fear, 1990. I Will Return on April 12... 1990. Illustrations for a Bible, 1991. My Motherland; the Flies, 1991. The Targets, 1991; the Red Wagon, 1991. The Commentary of O. Egorova, 1991; the Glue, 1991. Whose Are Those Wings?, 1991. Monument to the Division of Normandie-Niemen, 1991. Repairs, 1991; the Communal Kitchen, 1991. Ripped Off Landscape, 1991; the Mental Institution or the Institute of Creative Research, 1991. Toilet in the Corner, 1991. In the Communal Kitchen, 1991; the Bridge, 1991. We Are Leaving Here Forever, 1991. 52 Dialogues in the Communal Kitchen, 1991. The Life of Flies, 1992. Three Green Paintings, 1992. In the Communal Kitchen: New Documents and Materials, 1992.

The Toilet, 1992. Incident at the Museum or Water Music, 1992 61; the Blue Dish, 1992. Illustration as a Way to Survive, 1992. In Memory of Pleasant Recollections, 1992; the Unhung Painting, 1992. The Unhappened Dialogue, 1992; the Big Archive, 1993. The Empty Museum, 1993. RendezVous, 1993; the White Cube, 1993. The Red Pavilion, 1993. Concert for a Fly, 1993; the Boat of My Life, 1993. Emergency Exit, 1993. Unknown Guests, 1993; the Deserted School or School #6, 1993. NOMA or The Moscow Conceptual Circle, 1993. For Sale!, 1994. The Operating Room, 1994; the Artist's Despair or the Conspiracy of the Untalented, 1994. The Corridor of Two Banalities, 1994. In the Apartment of Viktor Nikolaevich, 1994. Unrealized Projects, 1994; the Red Corner, 1994. Unfinished Installation, 1994; this Will Happen Tomorrow!, 1995. We Are Living Here, 1995; the Rope of Life and Other Instllations, 1995. Fallen Sky, 1995; the School Library, 1995. The Reading Room, 1995. No Water, 1995. Too Metaphysical, 1993. An Extraordinary Incident, 1995.

The First Image of the Car, 1995. The Tennis Game, 1996. Toilet on the River, 1996. Music on the Water, 1996. Destroyed Altar, 1996; the Artist's Library, 1996. On the Roof, 1996. Monument to a Lost Glove, 1996. Healing with Paintings, 1996. Two Cabinets, 1996. Wings, 1996. Voices Behind the Door, 1996; the Blue Carpet, 1997. Treatment with Memories, 1997; the Fallen Chandelier, 1997. 20 Ways to Get an Apple Listening to the Music of Mozart, 1997. We Were in Kyoto, 1997. Looking up, Reading the Words... 1997. The Palace of Culture in Fryasino, 1997. My Grandfather's Shed, 1997; the Hospital: Five Confessions, 1997. In the Closet, 1997; the Meeting, 1998. The Palace of Projects, 1998. 16 Installations, 1998. Memorial to Useless Things, 1998. Valuable Paintings, 1998. Four Minimalist Paintings, 1998. Someone's Crawling Under the Floor, 1998. Cosmic Bottle, 1998; the Painting on an Easel, 1998. I Want to Go Back!, 1998. A Solemn Painting, 1998, he Has Hidden, 1998. Two Windows, 1998. Catching the Rabbit, 1998; the White Painting.

Hospital, 1998. Did You Know at Least...?, 1998. And I Was Like You... 1998. Two Windows, 1998; the Observer, 1998. The Weakening Voice, 1998. We Are Free!, 1998. Old Bridge, 1998; the Last Step, 1998. The Children's Hospital, 1998, they Are Looking Down, 1998. Monument to a Lost Civilization, 1999; the Day After, 1999. The Old Reading Room, 1999. Life and Creativity of Charles Rosenthal, 1999; the Globe in a Different Topographical System, 1999. The Old Bottle, 1999; the Arriving Archive, 1998. The Happiest Man, 2000; the Painting as Assignation, 1998. Vibrators on the Wall, 2000; the Golden Apples, 2000. 50 Installations, 2000. The Rice Fields, 2000. Wordless, 2000; the Fountain, 2000 Created in 1984, the viewer enters the installation through a single door and is invited to visit the separate rooms, only one of which cannot be entered and must be viewed through cracks in a door, shoddily boarded up. The Man W

Nicolas Viton de Saint-Allais

Nicolas Viton de Saint-Allais was a French genealogist and littérateur. Nicolas Viton de Saint-Allais was born on April 1773 in Langres, France. During the French Revolution, he served as an Assistant to Guillaume Marie Anne Brune, 1st Count Brune. In 1808, he became a genealogist, his genealogical practice was called, "Bureau général de la Noblesse de France". By 1820, his sold his practice to Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Jullien de Courcelles, he died in 1842 in Paris. His son went on to serve in the French Foreign Legion; the Art of Verifying Dates De l'ancienne France, Paris: M. de Saint-Allais, 1833