École centrale de Lille
Located in the campus of Science and Technology of the University of Lille in Villeneuve-d'Ascq. It is one of the Centrale Graduate Schools, its different curricula lead to the following French & European degrees: Ingénieur Centralien de Lille Masters Recherche & Doctorat Mastères Spécialisés Massive open online course in project management. Academic activities and industrial applied research are performed in French and English languages. Students from a dozen of nationalities participate to the different curricula at École Centrale de Lille. Most of the 1300 graduate engineer students at École Centrale de Lille live in dedicated residential buildings nearby research labs and metro public transports on a science and technology campus, shared with 20,000 students from the University of Lille. École Centrale de Lille was founded as École des arts industriels et des mines de Lille in 1854, the same year when Louis Pasteur became the dean of Faculté des sciences de Lille and pioneered applied research with industry cooperations, with support of scientists such as Charles Frédéric Kuhlmann.
Between 1854 and 1871, students attending the two-year curriculum grew to 90 per annum. Baccalaureate was a prerequisite to admission to the engineering school. In 1872 lectures and research activities in the engineering school were reorganised into a three-year curriculum and developed within its Institut industriel du Nord, with a focus on civil engineering, mechanical engineering and manufacturing engineering. Electrical engineering full courses were added in 1892, automobile design has been taught from 1899 onwards. More than 200 students graduated in year 1914. Aerodynamics studies started in 1930. A stress on automatic control and computers was initiated in 1957. Came courses and research in computer science, supply chain management, materials science, micro-electronics and telecommunications. Since early 20th century, student admission has been based on a competitive exam after attending a classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles or similar undergraduate studies. École Centrale de Lille was located in Lille central district from 1854 to 1875.
Larger buildings with dedicated laboratories were inaugurated in 1875 nearby the Faculté des sciences de Lille. It moved in 1968 in the modern campus of Lille University of Science and Technology, in the south-east suburb of Lille. Admission to the Centralien engineering Programme implemented at École Centrale de Lille is possible after two/three year scientific undergraduate studies and requires success to either: an admission exam for the Bachelor of Science degree: CASTing - Concours d'Admission sur Titre Ingénieur a French nationwide selective exam with numerus clausus: concours Centrale-Supelec a selective application as per TIME double degrees procedures applicable in Europe a selective application as per TIME Overseas double degree procedures applicable for selected Universities and Institutes of Technology in Brasil, Chile, Indonesia, Korea a selective application as per IMCC procedure for one-semester or one-year accredited post-graduate study period in France and USA a specific application process for other international students presented by their originating University.
The Centralien Programme lasts three years and results in a master's degree, augmented with international experience. Thus undergraduate studies + the Centralien Programme account for more than a cumulated 300 ECTS credit in the European education system. However, graduate students enrolled in the TIME double degree procedure are required to spend two-years at École Centrale de Lille and spend two years in the TIME-partner institute for a total of four years resulting in a double master's degree. Not to mention that 18% students attending courses at École Centrale de Lille are international students, all students enrolled in the Centralien Programme have an international exposure with opportunities to perform industry training and internship in enterprises worldwide, study abroad for 1 year in selected partner institutes providing Master courses, or be part of the 2+2 year TIME double degree programme. In addition to the Centralien Programme, École Centrale de Lille provides a range of master's degree cursus in science and engineering that are opened to applicants who have completed their undergraduate studies in other institutes.
Admission to Masters' second-year research cursus is possible for applicants who have performed their Master's first year in another institute and wish to focus on a research topic associated to Centrale Lille research labs. Admission to one of the 6 Masters from École Centrale de Lille is possible upon an application assessment process based on academic criteria. Note that Masters/Research workload is 60 ECTS credits and may be the starting point for doctorate studies; these 6 Masters and a larger number of Masters from other Centrale Graduate Schools and from partner institutes are possible as electives for a double degree alongside the Centralien Programme. Admission to one of the 6 Specialized Masters for Master-level specialization and continuing education in specific engineering
The baccalauréat known in France colloquially as bac, is an academic qualification that French students are required to take to graduate high school. Introduced by Napoleon I in 1808, it is the main diploma, required to pursue university studies. Similar university entrance qualifications exist elsewhere in Europe, variously known as Bachillerato in Germany and Italy, Bachillerato in Spain and South America as well as Baccalaureus in the Netherlands and Sweden. There is the European Baccalaureate, which students take at the end of the European School education, it gives access to a wide range of university education. It differs from British A levels and Scottish Highers but is similar to a US two-year college diploma in that it is earned comprehensively and can be obtained in streams requiring a high level in a number of different subjects, depending on the stream; the general streams are Sciences and Social Sciences and Literature. Much like British A levels or European Matura, the baccalauréat allows French and international students to obtain a standardised qualification at the age of 18.
It qualifies holders to work in certain areas, go on to tertiary education, or acquire some other professional qualification or training. Although it is not required, the vast majority of students in their final year of secondary school take a final exam. Unlike some US high school diplomas, this exam is not for lycée completion but university entrance; the word bac is used to refer to one of the end-of-year exams that students must pass to get their baccalauréat diploma: le bac de philo, for example, is the philosophy exam, which all students must take, regardless of their field of study. Within France, there are three main types of baccalauréat: the baccalauréat général. For entrance to regular universities within France, there are some restrictions as to the type of baccalauréat that can be presented. In some cases, it may be possible to enter a French university without the bac by taking a special exam, the diploma for entrance to higher education. Though most students take the bac at the end of secondary school, it is possible to enter as a candidat libre without affiliation to a school.
Students who did not take the bac upon completion of secondary school and would like to attend university, or feel that the bac would help them accomplish professional aspirations, may exercise that option. The exam is the same as the one administered to secondary-school students except that free candidates are tested in Physical Education, but students' Physical Education grade is calculated based on evaluation throughout the year; the students who sit for the baccalauréat général choose one of three streams in the penultimate lycée year. Each stream carries different weights associated with each subject. Another terminology is sometimes used, which existed before 1994 and further divided the different séries; until it was possible to sit for a bac C or D, B, or A1, A2, A3. People who passed the baccalauréat before the reform still use that terminology in referring their diploma. However, the streams for the baccalauréat général are now as follows: The baccalauréat permits students to choose to sit for exams in over forty world languages or French regional languages.
The S stream prepares students for work in scientific fields such as medicine and the natural sciences. Natural sciences students must specialise in either Mathematics, Physics & Chemistry, Computer science or Earth & Life Sciences. Students of the Baccalauréat économique et social prepare for careers in the social sciences, in Philosophy in management and business administration, in economics; the subject Economics & Social Sciences is the most weighed and is only offered in this stream. History & Geography and Mathematics are important subjects in ES. Students in the L stream prepare for careers in the humanities such as education, literature, law and public service, they have interests in the arts. The most important subjects in the literary stream are Philosophy and French language and literature and other languages English and Spanish; the majority of the baccalauréat examination takes place in a week in June. For lycée students, the end of the last year, terminale. Most examinations are given in essay-form.
The student is given a substantial block of time to complete a well-argued paper. The number of pages varies from exam to exam but is substantial considering all answers have to be written down and justified. Mathematics and science exams are problem sets but some science questions require an essay-type answer. Foreign-language exams have a short translation section, as well. In the S stream, the Mathematics and the Earth & Life Sciences examinations sometimes contain some multiple-choice questions. All students have to work on a scientific research project; those are conducted in groups of 2, 3 or 4 and focus on a subject determined by the students, under the supervision of a faculty member. When taken in mainland France, the baccalauréat material is the same for all students in a given stream. Secrecy surrounding the material is tight, a
Agrocampus Ouest is a French higher education institution of university-level, grande école-type. Its official name is Institut supérieur des sciences agronomiques, horticoles et du paysage, it operates under the supervision of the French Ministry of Agriculture. It trains agricultural sciences engineers and research scientists, it has one in Rennes and the other in Angers. Agrocampus Ouest was created in 2008, as the merger of two institutions: Institut National d'Horticulture et de Paysage in Angers. Agrocampus Rennes in Rennes, its head office is located in Rennes, has a second campus in Angers. Agrocampus Ouest trains engineers, 4 specializations being available: agricultural sciences engineer horticulture sciences engineer landscape sciences engineer food industry sciences engineerDepending on the chosen specialization, trainings are held in one or the other campus. Agrocampus Ouest offers 16 Master's degrees and 9 Bachelor's degrees in life sciences. Moreover, Agrocampus Ouest has 6 doctoral schools: Life-Agro-Health Plants, health Materials science Human sciences and society Mathematics, telecommunications, signal, electronics Law, management, environment and territories The institution has 80 acamedic partnerships across the world.
According to its website, Agrocampus Ouest has: 14 research units in partnership with the INRA research institute 398 associated researchers. According to the 2011 ranking published by the L'Etudiant and L'Expansion, Agrocampus Ouest is the third French grande école for agricultural sciences, ex-æquo with l'ENSA de Toulouse. List of agricultural universities
École nationale supérieure des mines de Nancy
Mines Nancy is one of the French generalist engineering Grandes Ecoles. It is located in the campus Artem, in the city of Nancy, Eastern France, is part of the University of Lorraine. Around 400 students are taught general science and management and 300 follow specialised Master programs; these students are taught by 60 permanent professors. There are 400 researchers including a hundred doctorants. Despite its small size, it is well represented in the French industry. Most of its students hold executive positions in the industry and large corporations or scientific research positions in France or abroad, it was created in 1919 on the request of the University of Nancy in order to contribute to the reconstruction of the mining and steel industry in the east of France after World War I. At the end of the 1950s, under the impulse of its then-director Bertrand Schwartz, the school reorganized its curriculum to include a balanced blend of engineering and social sciences. At the time, it was an innovative educational model for engineers, extended to other Grandes Ecoles.
The school was aimed at training mining engineers. In 1957, its director Bertrand Schwartz began its transformation into a modern "generalist" school; the school focuses on training innovative managers for the industry and researchers, with a broad generalist and high scientific knowledge, able to communicate in different languages. The Ingénieurs civils des Mines degree, is ranked among the best French Grande Ecole degrees. 20% of the students are international students from Morocco and China. In addition to the general science and management classes, the students have to specialise from their second year to the third year: "Département Matériaux" "Département Énergie" "Département Génie industriel" "Département Information et Systèmes" "Département Géoingénierie"; the students must learn English and at least another language. The students have to do at least three internships. Operator internship, whose aim is to discover the reality of work, become aware of the repetitive nature or physical difficulties of the tasks and understand human relations within a company.
Assistant-engineer internship. Engineer internship, the end of course thesis has to be research oriented; the engineer internship is an opportunity for the companies to hire the students. For students having taken studied in the Classe Préparatoire aux Grandes Ecoles, admission to the Ingénieur Civil des Mines degree is decided through a nationwide competitive examination and there origin is different: MP, PC, PSI... with a nombre of places for each option in 2015 is: MP: 54 PC: 32 PSI: 40 PT: 4 TSI: 3 CCP: 5 AST: 5It is possible for any student to be accepted for specialised masters or an exchange program in particular through the partnerships with other schools or universities in the world. Master's Degree in Mechanical Engineering. Master's Degree in Production Management. LSG2M: science and engineering of materials and metallurgy LSGS: science and engineering of surfaces LPM: physics of materials LAEGO: environment, buildings CRPG: petrography and geochemistry LORIA: computer science and its applications ERPI: innovative Processes The students of the ENSMN organize their own meeting with professionals, who present their companies and their activities.
The FORUM EST-HORIZON is the biggest meeting between the professional world and the students in the East of France. With 50 exhibitors covering a large variety of economic and industrial fields, the forum gathered last year more than 1000 students, looking for advice and internships. Jean-Claude Trichet, president of the European Central Bank from 2003 to 2011 Jacques Bouriez, chief executive officer of Louis Delhaize Group Patrick Cousot, professor at New York University Louis Doucet, chief executive officer of GE Money Bank Bertrand Méheut, chief executive officer of Canal+ group Amina Benkhadra, former Moroccan minister of energy, mines and environment since 2007. Kofi Yamgnane, mayor of Saint-Coulitz, mayor of Saint-Briac, French junior minister of social integration in 1991-1993 and deputy of Finistère in the French Parlement in 1997-2002, he ran for the 2010 Togolese presidential election. Philippe Guillemot, chief executive officer of AREVA T&D among its members: Anne Lauvergeon, chief executive officer of AREVA Claude Imauven, chief executive officer of Saint-Gobain PAM, chief executive officer of Saint-Gobain Jean-Yves Koch, managing director of Capgemini École nationale supérieure des Mines d'Albi Carmaux École nationale supérieure des Mines d'Alès École nationale supérieure des Mines de Douai École nationale supérieure des Mines de Nantes École nationale supérieure des Mines de Paris École nationale supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Rabat Site of the école nationale supérieure des mines de Nancy Promotional site of
Conservatoire national des arts et métiers
The Conservatoire national des arts et métiers is a doctoral degree-granting higher education establishment and Grande école in engineering, operated by the French government, dedicated to providing education and conducting research for the promotion of science and industry. It has a large museum of inventions accessible to the public, it was founded on 10 October 1794, during the French Revolution. It was first proposed by Abbé Henri Grégoire as a "depository for machines, tools, drawings and books in all the areas of the arts and trades"; the deserted Saint-Martin-des-Champs Priory was selected as the site of collection, which formally opened in 1802. Charged with the collection of inventions, it has since become an educational institution. At the present time, it is known as a continuing education school for adults seeking engineering and business degrees, proposing evening classes in a variety of topics; the collection of inventions is now operated by the Musée des Arts et Métiers. The original Foucault pendulum was exhibited as part of the collection, but was moved to the Panthéon in 1995 during museum renovation.
It was reinstalled in the Musée des Arts et Métiers. On 6 April 2010, the cable suspending the original pendulum bob snapped causing irreparable damage to the pendulum and to the marble flooring of the museum; the novel Foucault's Pendulum by Umberto Eco deals with this establishment, as the Foucault pendulum hung in the museum plays a great role in the storyline. The novel was published in 1989 prior to the pendulum being moved back to the Panthéon during museum reconstruction; the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers is located at 292 rue Saint Martin, in the 3rd arrondissement of Paris, in the historical area of the city named Le Marais. The Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers is a public institution of the French government, in the scientific and professional fields, with the status of "Grand Etablissement". Under the supervision of the Ministry of Higher Education, it has 3 missions: Training throughout life, it is implemented in more than 150 cities in France and abroad. Cnam's motto is "Omnes docet ubique", which means "He teaches everyone everywhere."
Since July 2010, Cnam has been organized in two distinct "Schools", each one with seven departments: Industrial Sciences and Information Technology, directed by William Dab: Chemicals, Health, Risk. Mechanical and electrotechnical systems engineering; the CNAM supports continuing education. Multidisciplinary programs. All teachings are formatted to comply with the CNAM LMD, thus respecting the European Credit Transfer System. Léon Bourgeois, Nobel Peace Prize, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Sadi Carnot, alumnus of the École Polytechnique and of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, physicist. Paul Doumer, alumnus of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, President of the French Republic. Louis Pasteur, alumnus of the École Normale Supérieure and of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers and biologist. From 1995 to 2009, the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers hosted the weekly seminar of psychoanalyst Jacques-Alain Miller.
Jean Ferrat, alumnus of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, singer-songwriter. Abbé Grégoire, founder of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. Jean-Baptiste Say, alumnus of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, classical economist, professor with the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers and the Collège de France. Alexandre Vandermonde, mathematician. From 1794 on, Vandermonde was member of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, examiner with the École polytechnique, professor with the École Normale Supérieure. Jacques de Vaucanson, famous engineer, gave his personal collection to the CNAM as well as his name to an adjacent street. Léon Vaudoyer, architecte of the CNAM building during the nineteenth century, together with the Institut de France building. Jean Prouvé, French metal worker, self-taught architect and designer, CNAM professor from 1957 to 1970. Alain Wisner Vandermonde: secret society of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Écoles de l'an III scientifiques Michel Nusimovici, Les écoles de l'an III, 2010 Official website Official website Official website CNAM lebanon
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar
École nationale d'ingénieurs de Brest
The École nationale d'ingénieurs de Brest is a French grande école leading to the French “Diplôme d’Ingénieur” under the authority of the French Ministry of Education and Research. ENIB is located on the Technopole Brest-Iroise in Plouzané; the school is attached to the University of Western Brittany. This school is part of the ENI group and provides an engineer training certified by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research in the fields of electronics, of computer engineering and Mechatronics; the course lasts 3 years or 2 years according to the degree when entering the school. The main admission to the ENIB is made through a selective examination during the year leading to the baccalauréat, most of the successful candidates come from the série scientifique or Bac S. There is however further possibility to join the ENIB on after 2 years of studies in an IUT or at the University, the selection being on academic records. 1961 - Creation of the ENIB. 1987 - In 5 years. Diversification of recruitment, creation of two channels.
1988 - Establishment of the Research Laboratory for Electronics 1990 - Establishment of research laboratory computer 1991 - Ability to deliver a DEA in Electronics - Optronics. 1992 - New building on the Technopole Brest-Iroise. 1994 - Authorization to issue a Master: Real Time Software Engineering and for Industrial Computing. 1997 - Authorization for the Masters: Distributed Virtual Reality. 2000 - Opening of a mechatronics channel. 2004 - New 4000m² extension building and creation of the European Center for Virtual Reality. 2006 - Establishment of the mechanics research laboratory. 2009 - Introduction of the Professional Systems and Services option. 2011 - Integration of electronic and computer labs in the Lab-STICC 2012 - Inauguration of Student House 2013 - The Institut Mines-Télécom includes ENIB as an associate school Official site of school Official website of the ENIB students