A window sill is the surface at the bottom of a window. A dictionary of architecture categorically defined the characteristics of a windowsill as: The lowest form of window casement. Windowsills hold pieces in slope downward to drain water. In a well-hung window, the lower sash rests on the chin; the window sill of the window frame sits on the window sill of the wall opening. Window#Terms
University of Western Ontario Faculty of Engineering
The University of Western Ontario Faculty of Engineering known as Western Engineering, is an accredited engineering faculty within the University of Western Ontario, located in London, Ontario. It offers 9 undergraduate programs; the Department of Engineering Science was created within the Western Faculty of Science in 1954. This was under the leadership and guidance of Professor L. S. Lauchland. At this time, Western became the third university to offer engineering courses in Ontario, behind the University of Toronto and Queen's University; the starting class enrolment was 20, with the faculty being housed within the Natural Sciences Building. Original tuition fees ran at $350 for the first class, were the same standard for the Arts and Sciences students as well; when first established, Western only offered the first two years of the engineering program and for any student to continue pursuing their professional degree, they would need to further their schooling at another university with accreditation.
This changed in March 1956. The first accredited undergraduate degrees in Engineering were offered to the class of 1958. 12 students graduated with a Bachelor of Engineering Sciences, under the accreditation of the Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario. The first two years of the program were common amongst all students, with selection for courses into the different specializations being offered a little bit in the third year, but in the fourth year. Four programs were offered initially; this was the first year the Iron Ring Ceremony was administered in the spring. Construction on the Faculty of Engineering building began in May 1958, was opened the following year on October 30, 1959; the Engineering Science department was formed into the Faculty of Engineering Science in 1960, with Richard M. Dillon as the first Dean of Engineering. At this time, the faculty moved into the newly constructed engineering building and left the Faculty of Science it once belonged to. Enrollment reached 186 students and by 1966, the first female students were graduating with bachelor's degrees.
Masters of Engineering Sciences degrees were first awarded to three graduates in 1964. The one-year, post undergraduate degree of a Masters of Engineering was first offered three years in 1967. PhD degrees began to be awarded with two in 1969, although the PhD program was approved 4 years earlier in 1965; the first Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel was constructed in 1965 and received global attention, testing scale models of hundreds of buildings including the CN Tower and the Hong Kong Bank building. By 1968, the graduate engineering programs were well underway and approval of more engineering space was submitted. By 1971, the addition of the Spencer Engineering Building was completed; this new extension was built to not only house some Engineering Science facilities, but became the new home for the emerging Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science. The second dean, Dr. Ab I. Johnson, was appointed in this year as well; the early to mid-1970s saw a large increase in students in the program, reaching over 400 for full-time enrolment.
Many of the participated in the growing number of engineering-specific clubs and teams that were starting to be formed during this time. The Undergraduate Engineering Society was well-established and became a voice for the undergraduates at the faculty level; the third Dean of Engineering Science was appointed in 1977. Dr. Gordon F. Chess. Chess was an active professor at Western since his employment in 1958. During his time as Dean, Chess lobbied hard to encourage women participation within the engineering program and, with the help of Jean Surry and Doreen Dinsdale, established the Women in Engineering and Technology program; this program is still active in Engineering. The faculty started to offer the now popular Industry Internship Program in 1982 under the leadership of Dr. Hugh Peacock. Starting with only 2 participants, the program garnered attention and started to reflect other internship programs being offered at other major engineering faculties such as the University of Waterloo or McMaster University.
In 2017 over 120 undergraduate students were enrolled in the program extending the graduation of their degrees by one year. In July 1987, Dr. Mohan Mathur accepted the position of fourth Dean of Engineering Science; the next year, Mathur helped facilitate the install of the Computer Assisted Learning Laboratory for Engineering. CALL-E was a brand-new system in 1988 developed by IBM and the faculty acquired it due to the support of John Thompson the IBM Canada president at the time; this new computer system along with the expansion of ethernet cables and IT infrastructure inside the Spencer Engineering Building, helped modernize the university into the STEM environment. In 1990, Lynda Shaw was brutally murdered driving back to London from her home in Toronto. Shaw was a third-year mechanical engineering student; the tragedy hit hard throughout the entire university. Articles depicting Shaw's outgoing personality and involvement with extra-curriculars were written in the Gazette and London Free Press.
Shortly after, the faculty developed the Lynda Shaw Memorial Distinguished Lecture. This annual lecture brings in leaders, educators and philanthropists to speak. By the early 1990s, many of the large engineering clubs were established; the Formula SAE team, solar car team, Baja SAE team, concrete toboggan team were all established around this time and
Pitch (sports field)
A pitch or a sports ground is an outdoor playing area for various sports. The term pitch is most used in British English, while the comparable term in American and Canadian English is playing field or sports field. For most sports the official term is field of play, although this is not used by those outside refereeing/umpiring circles; the field of play includes out-of-bounds areas that a player is to enter while playing a match, such as the area beyond the touchlines in association football and rugby or the sidelines in American and Canadian football, or the "foul territory" in baseball. The surface of a pitch is most composed of sod, but may be artificial turf, clay, concrete, or other materials. A playing field on ice may be referred to as a rink, for example an ice hockey rink, although rink may refer to the entire building or, in the sport of curling, to either the building or a particular team. In the sport of cricket, the cricket pitch refers not to the entire field of play, but to the section of the field on which batting and bowling take place in the centre of the field.
The pitch is prepared differently from the rest of the field, to provide a harder surface for bowling. A pitch is a regulation space, as in an association football pitch; the term level playing field is used metaphorically to mean fairness in non-sporting human activities such as business where there are notional winners and losers. Game Court is one of the names for a multi-sport athletic space constructed outdoors, where such games as basketball, paddle tennis and other racquet sports, up to a dozen more games and activities can be played, they are smaller than a regulation tennis or basketball court, although there is no set dimensions or size for a game court. The game-court concept was popularized by Sport Court in the 1970s, some generic references are made to game courts as'sport courts', although, a trademark of Connor Sport Court International, LLC. Game courts are found in residential backyards, giving families and children opportunities for healthy recreation close to home. Game courts are constructed using a rectangular sub-base made from concrete or asphalt covered with an open-grid modular polypropylene sports surface to improve safety.
Most feature athletic equipment such as basketball goals, net systems for racquet sports and badminton, lights for nighttime play, fencing or ball containment netting, hockey/soccer goals, lines or markings for various sports, practice or training components can be incorporated into the design. The surface of a game court—as opposed to playing on concrete or asphalt—is designed for safe play and to reduce injury. Many people have started to use suspended athletic courts to cover old athletic courts like tennis courts and basketball courts; the surface should provide appropriate traction for various types of sports and activities, as well as shock or force reduction to minimize overuse and stress injuries. Game courts are custom-designed to the interests of the family or organization, are versatile in enabling a wide variety of sports to be played in a small space; some activities played on a game court are enjoyable modifications of other sports that allow for similar skills to be developed as the'regulation' game, but on a reduced-scale court size.
A typical game court of 50 by 30 feet might include a basketball key and 3-point line arranged around a hoop, overlaid by short-court tennis or pickleball lines along the longer dimension. Game courts for private use will be built with a high fence surrounding the surface to allow for containment of the ball used in play. Any of several materials have been used in construction including chain-link fencing of fabric mesh. Rules and dimensions
A campus is traditionally the land on which a college or university and related institutional buildings are situated. A college campus includes libraries, lecture halls, residence halls, student centers or dining halls, park-like settings. A modern campus is a collection of buildings and grounds that belong to a given institution, either academic or non-academic. Examples include the Apple Campus; the word derives from a Latin word for "field" and was first used to describe the large field adjacent Nassau Hall of the College of New Jersey in 1774. The field separated Princeton from the small nearby town; some other American colleges adopted the word to describe individual fields at their own institutions, but "campus" did not yet describe the whole university property. A school might have one space called a campus, one called a field, another called a yard; the tradition of a campus began with the medieval European universities where the students and teachers lived and worked together in a cloistered environment.
The notion of the importance of the setting to academic life migrated to America, early colonial educational institutions were based on the Scottish and English collegiate system. The campus evolved from the cloistered model in Europe to a diverse set of independent styles in the United States. Early colonial colleges were all built in proprietary styles, with some contained in single buildings, such as the campus of Princeton University or arranged in a version of the cloister reflecting American values, such as Harvard's. Both the campus designs and the architecture of colleges throughout the country have evolved in response to trends in the broader world, with most representing several different contemporary and historical styles and arrangements; the meaning expanded to include the whole institutional property during the 20th century, with the old meaning persisting into the 1950s in some places. Sometimes the lands on which company office buildings sit, along with the buildings, are called campuses.
The Microsoft Campus in Redmond, Washington is a good example. Hospitals, airports sometimes use the term to describe the territory of their facilities; the word "campus" has been applied to European universities, although most such institutions are characterized by ownership of individual buildings in urban settings rather than park-like lawns in which buildings are placed. Campus novel Campus university Satellite campus History of college campuses and architecture in the United States The dictionary definition of campus at Wiktionary Media related to Campuses at Wikimedia Commons
Allyn and Betty Taylor Library
Located in London, the Allyn and Betty Taylor Library is the second-largest academic library on the University of Western Ontario campus. It serves the faculties of Engineering, Health Sciences and the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry; the Allyn and Betty Taylor Library was opened on November 22, 1991, with the design and construction of the new library funded through the Renaissance Campaign. At the time of the Library's opening, Dr. Allyn Taylor was quoted as saying: "My long association with Western is close to my heart. Betty and I are proud and thankful indeed to have our names linked with this fine, new library, can only say how grateful we are to the anonymous benefactor responsible." The $11.8 million three floor addition to the north side of the Natural Sciences Building had a total seating capacity of 1,000 in 1991. The main floor contains the service desk, study rooms, as well as many large study tables, is considered a "normal conversation area"; the two lower floors and Lower Ground, contain upwards of one hundred study cubicles for quiet study, is considered a "silent area".
There are six floors, which are known collectively as "the stacks", house the majority of the print collection. Collaborative learning spaces are ideal for preparing presentations, reciting presentations or studying on independently. All areas are AODA compliant. Media Rooms and Media Tables are bookable by the Western community and are equipped with various technology to facilitate collaboration, including multi-view display screens and projectors. Allyn and Betty Taylor Library The Pipeline: Taylor Library's Bathroom Reading Taylor Library Twitter Taylor Library Facebook Western Libraries
All-weather running track
An all-weather running track is a rubberized artificial running surface for track and field athletics. It provides a consistent surface for competitors to test their athletic ability unencumbered by adverse weather conditions. Various forms of dirt, grass and crushed cinders were used. Many examples of these varieties of track still exist worldwide. Starting in the late 1950s, artificial surfaces using a combination of rubber and asphalt began to appear. An artificial warm-up track was constructed for the 1956 Summer Olympics in Australia. During the 1960s many of these tracks were constructed. In the mid-1960s Tartan tracks were developed, surfaced with a product by 3M; the name Tartan is a trademark. This process was the first to commercialize a polyurethane surface for running tracks, though it was conceived for horse racing. Many Tartan tracks were installed worldwide, including at many of the top universities in the United States. Among that list was a Tartan track installed in the Estadio Olímpico Universitario, home of the 1968 Summer Olympics at Mexico City, which were the first global championships to use such a track.
Olympic shot put champion Bill Nieder was instrumental in developing the product and selling it for this first use in the Olympics. An all-weather surface has become standard since. Another Tartan track was installed on a temporary basis for the 1968 United States Olympic Trials held at altitude at Echo Summit, before being moved to South Tahoe Middle School, where it survived for 40 years. An original Tartan track is still in place at "Speed City" San Jose State University on a satellite to the campus at 10th Street and Alma. Years of the abuse of tractors tearing it and cars parked on it shows the durability of this original product. Surfacing tracks has become an industry with many competitors. Tartan. Chevron 440. Rekortan. Eurotan. Martin ISS was another 1970's development. Plexitracs. Mondotrack. There are other techniques that distribute small chunks of rubber adhere them in place with various polyurethane or latex substances; the International Association of Athletics Federations, international governing body of the sport, publishes specific regulations for the conduct of a Global Championship or International level track meet.
Since the early 1980s, the manufacturer of the surfaces selected for most championship meets has been the Italian company, again the trademarked brand name becoming sused as a genericized trademark. Mondo's track surface is called Mondotrack; the surface differs from the particles stuck in adhesion techniques, in that they are more of a rubber carpet, cut to size tightly seamed together. This form of construction gives a more consistent traction; because of the tight fit specifications required for manufacture, construction surrounding these sites has to be of a higher standard, making a Mondotrack one of the most expensive systems to use. Examples of Mondotracks were used for the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, United States. Another player in the marketplace is BASF-owned Conica, which can boast the 2009 World Championships in Athletics in Berlin, along with other record hosting venues like Stadio Olimpico in Rome, Italy The proper length of the 1st lane of a competitive running track is 400 m.
Some tracks are not built to this specification, instead some are legacy to imperial distances like 440 yd. Prior to rule changes in 1979, distances in Imperial units were still used in the United States; some facilities build tracks to fit the available space. One of the most notable examples of this is Franklin Field where the 400 meter distance is achieved in lane 5. Olympic tracks in the early 20th century were of other lengths; each lane of the track could be as wide as 122 cm, though the majority of American tracks are built to NFHS high school specifications that allow smaller lanes. The IAAF specifies a preferred radius for the turns at 37 metres, but allows a range. Major international level meets are conducted and world records are allowed to be set on tracks that are not 37 metres, but do fall in the range. Lane - The ordinal number of the lane with the first lane being on the inside Total length - The total length of the lane Radius - The radius of the curve 0.30m from the inner side into that lane Semi-circle length - The length of the half circle of track at that radius Delta - The length a track of this radius is longer than the inside track Angle - The corresponding staggering angle Track and field#Stadiums IAAF Technical Documents runtrackdir.com list of All-Weather Tracks in United Kingdom Trackinfo.org listing of All-Weather tracks in the Western United States
University of Western Ontario
The University of Western Ontario, corporately branded as Western University as of 2012 and shortened to Western, is a public research university in London, Canada. The main campus is located on 455 hectares of land, surrounded by residential neighbourhoods and the Thames River bisecting the campus' eastern portion; the university operates twelve academic schools. It is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada; the university was founded on 7 March 1878 by Bishop Isaac Hellmuth of the Anglican Diocese of Huron as "The Western University of London Ontario". It incorporated Huron University College, founded in 1863; the first four faculties were Arts, Divinity and Medicine. The Western University of London became non-denominational in 1908. Beginning in 1919, the university has affiliated with several denominational colleges; the university grew in the post-World War II era, as a number of faculties and schools were added to university. Western is a co-educational university, with more than 24,000 students, with over 306,000 living alumni worldwide.
Notable alumni include government officials, business leaders, Nobel Laureates, Rhodes Scholars, distinguished fellows. Western's varsity teams, known as the Western Mustangs, compete in the Ontario University Athletics conference of U Sports; the university was founded on 7 March 1878 by Bishop Isaac Hellmuth of the Anglican Diocese of Huron as The Western University of London Ontario, its first chancellor was Chief Justice Richard Martin Meredith. It incorporated Huron College, founded in 1863; the first four faculties were Arts, Divinity and Medicine. There were only 15 students when classes began in 1881. Although the university was incorporated in 1878, it was not until 20 June 1881 that it received the right to confer degrees in Arts and Medicine. In 1882, the name of the university was revised to The Western University and College of London, Ontario; the first convocation of graduates was held on 27 April 1883. Affiliated with the Church of England, Western became non-denominational in 1908.
In 1916, the university's current site was purchased from the Kingsmill family. There are two World War I memorial plaques in University College; the first lists the 19 students and graduates of the University of Western Ontario who lost their lives. A third plaque lists those who served with the No. 10 Canadian General hospital during WWII, the unit raised and equipped by UWO. In 1923, the university was renamed The University of Western Ontario; the first two buildings constructed by architect John Moore and Co. at the new site were the Arts Building and the Natural Science Building. Classes on the university's present site began in 1924; the University College tower, one of the university's most distinctive features, was named the Middlesex Memorial Tower in honour of the men from Middlesex County who fought in World War I. In 1919, the Ursuline Sisters had established Brescia College as a Roman Catholic affiliate, in the same year Assumption College in Windsor affiliated with the university.
Before the end of the affiliation, Assumption College was one of the largest colleges associated with the university. Waterloo College of Arts became affiliated with Western in 1925. St. Peter's College seminary of London, Ontario was became affiliated with Western in 1939, it became King's College, an arts college. Today, King's, Brescia colleges are all still affiliates of Western. Two World War II memorial honour rolls are hung on the Physics and Astronomy Building: the first lists the UWO students and graduates who served in the Second World War, the second lists those who served with the No. 10 Canadian General hospital during WWII, the unit raised and equipped by UWO. Although enrollment was small for many years, the university began to grow after World War II, it added a number of faculties in the post-war period, such as the Faculty of Graduate Studies, the School of Business Administration, the Faculty of Engineering Science, the Faculty of Law, Althouse College for education students and the Faculty of Music.
In 2012, the university rebranded itself as "Western University" to give the school less of a regional or national identity. "We want to be international," president Dr. Amit Chakma told The Globe and Mail; the university's legal name, remains "The University of Western Ontario" and is used on transcripts and diplomas. The University of Western Ontario is in the city of London, Ontario, in the southwestern end of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor; the majority of the campus is surrounded by residential neighbourhoods, with the Thames River bisecting the campus' eastern portion. Western Road is the university's major transportation artery, going north to south; the central campus of Western, which includes most of the University's student residences and teaching facilities is 170.8 hectares. Student residences make up the largest portion of Western's building area, with 31 percent of all building space allocated for residential use. Teaching and research facilities take up the second largest portion of building space, with 28 percent of all buildin