Alpha Chi Omega
Alpha Chi Omega is a women's fraternity founded on October 15, 1885. There are 194 collegiate and 279 alumnae chapters represented across the United States, the fraternity counts more than 230,000 members initiated through its history. Angela Costly Harris is the current National President of Alpha Chi Omega and oversees all collegiate and alumnae chapters in the nation. Alpha Chi Omega is a member of the National Panhellenic Conference, the governing council of 26 women's fraternities, its own national headquarters is located in Indiana. Alpha Chi Omega was formed at DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana on October 15, 1885. In the fall of 1885, Professor James Hamilton Howe, the first Dean of the Music School, invited seven young women from the school to a meeting with the purpose of forming a fraternity; those young women were Anna Allen, Olive Burnett, Bertha Deniston, Amy DuBois, Nellie Gamble, Bessie Grooms, Estelle Leonard. Howe collaborated with a Beta Theta Pi, to form a national fraternity.
Campbell by-laws. This first constitution read: "The object of this fraternity is as follows: To attain the highest musical culture and to cultivate those principles that embody true womanhood." On February 26, 1886, the fraternity was given its formal introduction by a soiree musical. Alpha Chi Omega joined the National Panhellenic Conference in 1903. Although some association with the music school was required early on, Alpha Chi Omega was never a "strictly musical" organization. Members graduated in many other departments of the university, including the liberal arts department. In 1889, a national literary fraternity offered to merge with Alpha Chi Omega. In its early years it was externally considered to be a professional music society, but due to disagreement with this designation, in 1900, the sorority added literary qualifications, which led to it being considered a general sorority by 1905. In 1911, Alpha Chi Omega began supporting the MacDowell Colony, as MacDowell was an alumna of Alpha Chi Omega.
During World War I and II Alpha Chi Omega offered its support by helping working mothers who were married to service men by providing day nurseries and helping orphaned French children. In 1947, Alpha Chi Omega adopted Easter Seals as its philanthropy and supported other projects associated with cerebral palsy. In 1978, the fraternity created the Alpha Chi Omega Foundation to merge funds for the fraternity's philanthropic projects and educational programming into one nonprofit organization. In 1992, the fraternity voted adopt a new primary philanthropy, the support of victims of domestic violence. Alpha Chi Omega was the first major organization to speak out and adopt Domestic Violence Awareness as their philanthropy; this epidemic issue affects one in four women in the world today and one in three women on college campuses. Alpha Chi Omega continues to support Easter Seals. Alpha Chi Omega's Founders chose "Alpha", the first letter of the Greek alphabet, because they were forming the first fraternity in the school of music.
Since they thought they might be founding the last such fraternity, "Omega" seemed appropriate, considering it stands for the end. "Kai", meaning "and", was added to form "the beginning and the end". "Kai" was soon changed to "Chi". Alpha Chi Omega's colors of scarlet red and olive green were chosen to commemorate the fraternity's fall founding; the fraternity's official symbol is a three-stringed lyre and the official flower is a red carnation, which exemplifies the fraternity's colors. The fraternity's official jewel is the pearl; the badge is a lyre featuring pearls and the fraternity's letters on the crossbar. Alpha Chi Omega chose the lyre to be their official symbol since it was the first instrument played by the Gods on Mount Olympus. Although Alpha Chi Omega no longer is a musical sorority, they are still connected to their musical heritage through their symbol of the lyre; the fraternity manages its philanthropy through the Alpha Chi Omega Foundation. This branch continues to grant funds to the fraternity's former partners, the MacDowell Colony and Easter Seals, as well as to services and programs for domestic violence victims and on education on the subject.
The Foundation helps to support members and those related to Alpha Chi Omegas through other funds and grants to ensure continuous support for its members. Individual chapters focus their attention on increasing the awareness of domestic violence, its effects on individuals and children, as well as aiding victims of domestic violence through hands-on activities and service projects; this work is done through local agencies, which undergraduate and alumnae chapters support physically and financially. Local agencies include rape crisis centers, emergency shelters and safe houses for victims of domestic violence and their children, long-term assistance centers for battered women across the nation. Alpha Chi Omega is partnered with Mary Kay, Allstate Foundation Purple Purse, The One Love Foundation, RAINN, It's On Us, various organizations which support domestic/sexual violence violence awareness and education and survivor support; the fraternity supports Kristin's Story in cooperation with Delta Delta Delta, a nonprofit set up by the Delta Delta Delta mother of an Alpha Chi Omega member who committed suicide following a sexual assault.
There are 194 chapters of Alpha Chi Omega at universities in the United States. There are 279 alumnae chapters, which allow women of all post-graduate ag
Penn State University Creamery
The Pennsylvania State University Creamery shortened to just Berkey Creamery or The Creamery, is a producer and vendor of ice cream and cheese, all made through the Department of Food Science in the College of Agricultural Sciences of the Pennsylvania State University. It is the largest university creamery in the United States, using 4.5 million pounds of milk annually half of which comes from a 225-cow herd at the University's Dairy Production Research Center and the rest from an independent milk producer, selling 750,000 hand-dipped ice cream cones per year. Offering over 100 ice cream flavors made with a butterfat content of 14.1% and ingredients from around the country and the world, the Creamery's ice cream is enjoyed by many students and alumni every day. The first Creamery was built in 1865, dairy short courses were first offered in 1892. Ice cream became a part of football weekend tradition in 1896, when Creamery ice cream was first sold to the public. By 1932, the Creamery was buying milk and cream from hundreds of nearby farmers and was selling ice cream in both State College and Altoona, Pennsylvania.
Ice cream makers Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield of Ben & Jerry's, are 1978 alumni of the Penn State Creamery correspondence course in ice cream-making, Agriculture 5150, which teaches manufacturers the basics of ice cream production. During the 1980s the Creamery was using three million pounds of milk per year, in 2004, it supplied the Penn State dining halls with over 225,000 gallons of milk; that same year, it produced 200,000 pounds of cheese products and 225,000 gallons of ice cream and sherbet, both selling these products and providing them for university use. Only U. S. President Bill Clinton has been allowed to mix different flavors of Creamery ice cream; the Creamery does not allow mixing of flavors. The flavors President Clinton requested were Peachy Paterno. However, when Clinton returned after his tenure as the President, Creamery workers would no longer serve him mixed flavors; the Creamery moved from its long-time home in Borland Laboratory location to a new location in the new Food Science Building at the intersection of Curtin Road and Bigler Road in 2006.
The new Creamery is closer to Beaver Stadium, the East Residence Halls dormitory complex, a parking deck. When the move was first announced, there were some student protests, but these protests subsided. There are five Creamery ice cream flavors that have remained the most popular in recent Creamery history: Vanilla, Bittersweet Mint, Peanut Butter Swirl, Peachy Paterno, Butter Pecan; the new creamery facility has been named the Berkey Creamery, in honor of the Berkey family who donated a large sum of money to the construction of the Food Sciences Building, which includes the new creamery facility. List of dairy product companies in the United States Penn State Creamery Home Page Penn State Department of Food Science Flavors available at the Penn State Creamery Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences
Schreyer Honors College
The Schreyer Honors College is the honors program of the Pennsylvania State University. Founded in 1980 as the University Scholars Program, it was expanded and renamed in 1997 in response to a $30 million gift by William and Joan Schreyer. Schreyer was one of three honors colleges, along with those at Arizona State and Mississippi, to be listed by Reader's Digest in its "America's 100 Best" list published in May, 2005. On November 17, 2006, the Schreyers pledged an additional gift of $25 million to the Schreyer Honors College. Having contributed more than $58 million to Penn State, they were the largest family donors in the school's history, prior to the recent donation of $88 million from Terry and Kim Pegula for a new arena. After a decade of service, Dean Christian Brady announced in May 2016 that he was stepping down, effective May 31. Kathleen J. Bieschke was named interim dean on May 25, 2016. Peggy A. Johnson became the dean on July 1, 2017. Details regarding the Schreyer Honors College can be found in their Annual Report.
Enrollment in the Schreyer Honors College is around 2,000 students, with 300 incoming students per year. About 80% of the Honors students are from Pennsylvania. Incoming student application requirements include excellent high school grades, strong extracurricular activities, positive teacher references; the average high school GPA is 4.00/4.00. The average SAT score for incoming students is 2150/2400, although SAT scores are not used in the admissions decision process at the Honors College. First year students admitted to the Honors College earn a $5,000-per-year academic scholarship, renewable for four years. Current Penn State students with strong academic and volunteer credentials can apply to the Honors College as sophomores or juniors; these students are not eligible for the $5,000-per-year academic scholarship. To graduate as a Schreyer Scholar, students in the Honors College are required to maintain a 3.4 GPA, take a selection of Honors classes and complete an Honors Senior Thesis. Membership in the SHC has unique benefits.
Most underclassmen Scholars live in a "Living and Learning Community" honors dormitories, including both Atherton Hall and Simmons Hall. The College's Travel Ambassador program provides funding for honors student travel around the world, with gifts matching the cost of airfare for longer trips with a service or academic focus. Academically, honors students have the benefit of early registration for classes, allowing for competitive placement. Students are offered over 220 honors classes, which are smaller and taught by more senior faculty than comparable courses. Additionally, the college offers an opportunity called the Integrated Undergraduate Graduate program, which allows exceptional students to pursue their undergraduate and master's degrees concurrently; the IUG program permits students to combine the required honors thesis and graduate thesis into a single thesis for both undergraduate and graduate degrees, as well as allowing students to use some courses towards both degrees in order to graduate in a shorter period of time.
Official website Penn State faculty member named new Schreyer Honors College dean
A college town or university town is a community, dominated by its university population. The university may be large, or there may be several smaller institutions such as liberal arts colleges clustered, or the residential population may be small, but college towns in all cases are so dubbed because the presence of the educational institution pervades economic and social life. Many local residents may be employed by the university—which may be the largest employer in the community—many businesses cater to the university, the student population may outnumber the local population. In the United States over the past few decades, so-called "college towns" have cropped up near colleges and universities, but these are distinctly commercial enterprises designed and built by commercial development companies and consisting of shops and, in some cases, upscale housing, they are, in effect, small shopping plazas built to vaguely resemble a college "quad." In Europe, a university town is characterised by having an ancient university.
The economy of the city is related with the university activity and supported by the entire university structure, which may include university hospitals and clinics, printing houses, laboratories, business incubators, student rooms, dining halls, students' unions, student societies, academic festivities. Moreover, the history of the city is intertwined with that of the university. Many European university towns have not been important places of science and education, but centres of political and social influence throughout the centuries. Besides a educated and transient population, a stereotypical college town has many people in non-traditional lifestyles and subcultures and with a high tolerance for unconventionality in general, has a active musical or cultural scene; the majority of the population is politically liberal. Many have become centres of innovative startups; the concept of a university town has developed since the European Middle Ages, equivalents existed in earlier times and in non-European cultures.
For example, in Classical times the city of Athens - no longer having any political or military power, but renowned as the greatest center of learning in the Roman Empire - had many of the characteristics of a university town, is sometimes called such by modern scholars. As in the case of a company town, the large and transient university population may come into conflict with other townspeople. Students may come from outside the area, subscribe to a different—sometimes radically different—culture. Most students are young people. Economically, the high spending power of the university and of its students in aggregate may inflate the cost of living above that of the region, it is common for university employees to commute from surrounding areas, finding the cost of living in town too expensive. Studentification, in which a growing student population move in large numbers to traditionally non-student neighborhoods, may be perceived as a form of invasion or gentrification, it may be due to university enrollment expanding beyond the capacity of on-campus housing, inadequate zoning enforcement, and/or student culture.
Neighborhood associations may work to limit conversion of family homes to student rentals, while some local residents may oppose the construction of large on-campus dormitories or expansion of fraternity and sorority houses, forcing a growing enrollment to seek housing in town. Moreover, a single-family home can be converted into several smaller rental units, or shared by a number of students whose combined resources exceed those of a typical single-family rental—a strong incentive for absentee landlords to cater to students. In the US, educational institutions are exempted from local taxes, so in the absence of a system for "Payments In Lieu Of Taxes", the university population will disproportionately burden parts of the local public infrastructure, such as roads or law enforcement; some analysts argue that students relieve the burden on other parts of the local public infrastructure, such as local primary and secondary schools, by far the most costly line item in most North American city and town budgets, by providing tax revenues through local sales tax and property tax paid by landlords.
When a university expands its facilities, the potential loss of property tax revenue is thus a concern, in addition to local desire to preserve open space or historic neighborhoods. As a result, local people may resent its students; the students, in turn, may criticize the local residents' taking jobs at the university provided by student tuition and fees, accepting the tax revenues that students generate, but resenting students' lifestyles. Some students refer to other inhabitants as a term with somewhat derogatory connotations; this "town and gown" dichotomy notwithstanding and the outside community find a peaceful coexistence, with the town receiving significant economic and cultural benefits from the university, the students adapting to the culture of the town. While noise and other quality of life issues have not been resolved, some advocates of New Urbanism have led the development of neighborhoods in college towns by capitalizing on their proximity to university life. For instance, some universities have developed properties to allow faculty and staff members to walk to work, reducing demand for limited on-campus parking.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Pennsylvania General Assembly
The Pennsylvania General Assembly is the legislature of the U. S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The legislature convenes in the State Capitol building in Harrisburg. In colonial times, the legislature was known as the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly and was unicameral. Since the Constitution of 1776, the legislature has been known as the General Assembly; the General Assembly became a bicameral legislature in 1791. The General Assembly has 253 members, consisting of a Senate with 50 members and a House of Representatives with 203 members, making it the second-largest state legislature in the nation and the largest full-time legislature. Senators are elected for a term of four years. Representatives are elected for a term of two years; the Pennsylvania general elections are held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even-numbered years. A vacant seat must be filled by special election, the date of, set by the presiding officer of the respective house. Senators must be at least 25 years old, Representatives at least 21 years old.
They must be citizens and residents of the state for a minimum of four years and reside in their districts for at least one year. Individuals who have been convicted of felonies, including embezzlement and perjury, are ineligible for election. No one, expelled from the General Assembly may be elected. Legislative districts are drawn every ten years, following the U. S. Census. Districts are drawn by a five-member commission, of which four members are the majority and minority leaders of each house; the fifth member, who chairs the committee, is appointed by the other four and may not be an elected or appointed official. If the leadership can not decide on a fifth member, the State Supreme Court may appoint her. While in office, legislators may not hold civil office. If a member resigns, the Constitution states that he or she may not be appointed to civil office for the duration of the original term for which he or she was elected; the General Assembly is a continuing body within the term. It convenes at 12 o'clock noon on the first Tuesday of January each year and meets throughout the year.
Both houses adjourn on November 30 in even-numbered years, when the terms of all members of the House and half the members of the Senate expire. Neither body can adjourn for more than three days without the consent of the other; the governor may call a special session. As of 2017, only 35 special sessions have been called in the history of Pennsylvania; the Assembly meets in the Pennsylvania State Capitol, completed in 1906. Under the Pennsylvania Constitution, the Assembly must meet in the City of Harrisburg and can move only if given the consent of both chambers. During the mid-19th century, the frustration of the people of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the severe level of corruption in the General Assembly culminated in a constitutional amendment in 1864 which prevented the General Assembly from writing statutes covering more than one subject; the amendment was so poorly written that it prevented the General Assembly from undertaking a comprehensive codification of the Commonwealth's statutes until another amendment was pushed through in 1967 to provide the necessary exception.
This is why today, Pennsylvania is the only U. S. state. Pennsylvania is undertaking its first official codification process in the Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes. Speaker of the House of Representatives: Mike Turzai President pro tem of the Senate: Joseph B. Scarnati 2005 Pennsylvania General Assembly pay raise controversy Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, for the General Assembly before 1776 Pennsylvania Legislative Black Caucus Pennsylvania General Assembly Legislative Process
Beaver Stadium is an outdoor college football stadium in University Park, United States, on the campus of Pennsylvania State University. It is home to the Penn State Nittany Lions of the Big Ten Conference since 1960, though some parts of the stadium date back to 1909; the stadium, as well as its predecessors, is named after James A. Beaver, a former governor of Pennsylvania and president of the university's board of trustees. Beaver Stadium has an official seating capacity of 106,572, making it the second largest stadium in the Western Hemisphere and the third largest in the world. Beaver Stadium is known as one of the toughest venues for opposing teams in collegiate athletics. In 2008, Beaver Stadium was recognized as having the best student section in the country for the second consecutive year. In 2016, it was voted the number-one football stadium in college football in a USA Today poll, garnering over 41 percent of the voteThe stadium is the first to have its interior included in Google Street View.
Until 1893, Penn State teams participated in sporting events on Old Main lawn, a large grassy area in front of the primary classroom building of the time. Beaver Field, a 500-seat structure located behind the current site of the Osmond Building, was the first permanent home for Penn State's football team, the first game played there was a Penn State victory over Western University of Pennsylvania on November 6, 1893. In 1909, New Beaver Field opened just northeast of Rec Hall in the current location of the Nittany Parking deck, it served as Penn State's stadium until 1960, when the entire 30,000 seat stadium was dismantled and moved to the east end of campus and expanded to 46,284 seats—the lower half of the current facility—and dubbed Beaver Stadium. The stadium has been expanded six times, reflecting Penn State's rise to national prominence under Joe Paterno—more than doubling in size in the process. Expansions in 1972 brought capacity to 57,538. Another expansion in 1976 increased capacity to 60,203.
In 1978, 16,000 seats were added when the stadium was cut into sections and raised on hydraulic lifts, allowing the insertion of seating along the inner ring of the stadium where the track had been located, raising capacity to 76,639. In 1980, maximum capacity increased to 83,770. In 1985, walkways were added around the tops of the end zones and entry ramps at the stadium's corners resulted in lowering the capacity to 83,370. An expansion was completed for the 1991 football season, placing an upper deck addition over the north end zone and raising capacity to 93,967. A major and somewhat controversial construction project took place in 2001, raising the stadium's total capacity to 107,282. An upper deck was added to the south end of the stadium, blocking the view of neighboring Nittany Mountain, but making Beaver Stadium the second largest stadium in the nation, behind Michigan Stadium in Ann Arbor, MI. In 2006, the stadium underwent major aesthetic upgrades. Old steel beams supporting the upper seats in the east and west were replaced and strengthened, new railing was installed, stronger than the old railing which collapsed following the 2005 Ohio State game.
In 2007, over 22,000 student tickets sold out in 59 minutes. In 2008, when tickets were sold by grade, tickets allotted for junior students sold out in 90 seconds, those for sophomores and freshmen sold out in under three minutes each. In 2011, the stadium capacity was reduced from 107,282 seats to 106,572 to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act; the appearance of the stadium has been enhanced with the addition of large blue letters spelling out "The Pennsylvania State University" on the west-facing suites, a list of Penn State's undefeated, national championship, Big Ten championship years underneath. 2012 is the exception, added to this list during the November 24, 2012 game against Wisconsin to honor the team that played after sanctions were passed down during the aftermath of the Jerry Sandusky scandal. On the opposite side of the stadium, letters spelling, "Penn State Nittany Lions" have been added to the press box, with "Beaver Stadium" running below. Nine markers depicting the various traditions of Beaver Stadium, including the Blue Band, the student section, the blue buses which bring the team to the stadium, have been placed around the stadium as well.
In late October, the walls surrounding the field were refaced with Pennsylvania limestone. An iron gate has replaced the old chain-link face at the players' entrance into the stadium. On the new gate the words "PENN STATE" appear in blue; the Penn State Office of Physical Plant and Athletic Department expanded the North and South Video Boards to make them high definition and because parts were no longer available for the old boards. The area of the new video screens dedicated to game replays and game-related video is much larger than the screens they replaced; the two video boards together are some of the largest in college football. The renovation expanded the size of the video boards by eliminating the current game clock and lamp matrix display; the boards are only the second of their kind made and are 4k UHD. The project was completed prior to the first home game of the 2014 season; the boards cost approx. $10 million. On the back of both boards is a nittany lion logo that lights up at night and was added to promote the "Penn State Brand".
Starting with the 2015 season fireworks are shot off from the top of each scoreboard when the team takes the field. In the fall semester of 2015, University Officials stated that they are seeking options to renovate or replace Beaver Stadium in the next 10 years. Officials state that there is a recognized need in an