Cook County, Illinois
Cook County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois. It is the second-most populous county in the United States after California; as of 2017, the population was 5,211,263. Its county seat is Chicago, the largest city in Illinois and the third-most populous city in the United States. More than 40% of all residents of Illinois live in Cook County. Cook County's population is larger than that of 28 individual U. S. states, the combined populations of the seven smallest states. There are 135 incorporated municipalities or wholly within Cook County, the largest of, Chicago, home to 54% of the population of the county; that part of the county which lies outside the Chicago city limits is divided into 29 townships. Geographically, the county is the sixth-largest in Illinois by land area, it shares the state's Lake Michigan shoreline with Lake County. Including its lake area, the county has a total area of 1,635 square miles, the largest county in Illinois, of which 945 square miles is land and 690 square miles is water.
Land-use in Cook County is urban and densely populated. Cook County is included in the Chicago–Naperville–Elgin, IL–IN–WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is surrounded by. Cook County was created on January 15, 1831, out of Putnam County by an act of the Illinois General Assembly, it was the 54th county established in Illinois and was named after Daniel Cook, one of the earliest and youngest statesmen in Illinois history. He served as the second U. S. Representative from Illinois and the state's first Attorney General. In 1839, DuPage County was carved out of Cook County; the government of Cook County is composed of the Board of Commissioners, other elected officials such as the Sheriff, State's Attorney, Board of Review, Assessor, Circuit Court judges, Circuit Court Clerk, as well as numerous other officers and entities. Cook County is the only home rule county in Illinois; the Cook County Code is the codification of Cook County's local ordinances. Cook County's current County Board president is Toni Preckwinkle.
The Circuit Court of Cook County, an Illinois state court of general jurisdiction is funded, in part, by Cook County, accepts more than 1.2 million cases each year for filing. The Cook County Department of Corrections known as the Cook County Jail, is the largest single-site jail in the nation; the Cook County Juvenile Detention Center, under the authority of the Chief Judge of the court, is the first juvenile center in the nation and one of the largest in the nation. The Cook County Law Library is the second-largest county law library in the nation. In the 1980s, Cook County was ground zero to an extensive FBI investigation called Operation Greylord. Ninety-two officials were indicted, including 17 judges, 48 lawyers, 8 policemen, 10 deputy sheriffs, 8 court officials, a state legislator; the Bureau of Health Services administers the county's public health services and is the third-largest public health system in the nation. Three hospitals are part of this system: Jr.. Hospital of Cook County, Provident Hospital, Oak Forest Hospital of Cook County, along with over 30 clinics.
The Cook County Department of Transportation is responsible for the design and maintenance of roadways in the county. These thoroughfares are composed of major and minor arterials, with a few local roads. Although the County Department of Transportation was instrumental in designing many of the expressways in the county, today they are under the jurisdiction of the state; the Cook County Forest Preserves, organized in 1915, is a separate, independent taxing body, but the Cook County Board of Commissioners acts as its Board of Commissioners. The district is a belt of 69,000 acres of forest reservations surrounding the city of Chicago; the Brookfield Zoo and the Chicago Botanic Garden are located in the forest preserves. Cook County is the fifth-largest employer in Chicago. In March 2008, the County Board increased the sales tax by one percent to 1.75 percent. This followed a quarter-cent increase in mass transit taxes. In Chicago, the rate increased to 10.25 percent, the steepest nominal rate of any major metropolitan area in America.
In Evanston, sales tax reached Oak Lawn residents pay 9.5 percent. On July 22, 2008, the Cook County board voted against Cook County Commissioner's proposal to repeal the tax increase. In 2016, Cook County joined Chicago in adopting a $13 hourly minimum wage. Cook County Board chairman John Daley called the wage hike "the moral and right thing to do." In June 2017, nearly 75 home rule municipalities passed measures opting themselves out of the increase. The county has more Democratic Party members than any other Illinois county and it is one of the most Democratic counties in the United States. Since 1932, the majority of its voters have only supported a Republican candidate in a Presidential election three times, all during national Republican landslides–Dwight Eisenhower over native son Adlai Stevenson II in 1952 and 1956, Richard Nixon over George McGovern in 1972. Since the closest a Republican has come to carrying the county was in 1984, when Ronald Reagan won 48.4 percent of the county's vote.
The 1970 Illinois Constitution allows the party controlling the state legislature to redraw voting districts. The Democrats won complete control of state government in 2003. S. House of Repre
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans are Americans who are descendants of people from Spain and Latin America, respectively. More it includes all Americans who speak the Spanish language natively, who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, whether of full or partial ancestry. For the 2010 United States Census, people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: Argentine, Colombian, Puerto Rican, Mexican, Costa Rican, Honduran, Panamanian, Bolivian, Spanish American, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Venezuelan. Brazilian Americans, other Portuguese-speaking Latino groups, non-Spanish speaking Latino groups in the United States are defined as "Latino" by some U. S. government agencies. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably."Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States.
People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. As one of the only two designated categories of ethnicity in the United States, Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Salvadoran, Guatemalan or Colombian origin; the predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies in different locations across the country. Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans. Hispanic/Latinos overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic whites. Hispanics have lived within what is now the United States continuously since the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565. After Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Many have Native American ancestry. Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, as well as Florida.
Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada and Texas, all of which were part of the Republic of Mexico from its independence in 1821 until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Conversely, Hispanic immigrants to the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American states. A study published in 2015 in the American Journal of Human Genetics, based on 23andMe data from 8,663 self-described Latinos, estimated that Latinos in the United States carried a mean of 65.1% European ancestry, 18.0% Native American ancestry, 6.2% African ancestry. The study found that self-described Latinos from the Southwest those along the Mexican border, had the highest mean levels of Native American ancestry; the terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" refer to an ethnicity. Hispanic people may share some commonalities in their language, culture and heritage. According to the Smithsonian Institution, the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin.
In the United States, many Hispanics and Latinos are of both Native American ancestry. Others are predominantly of European ancestry or of Amerindian ancestry. Many Hispanics and Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as other regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread, may be of sub-Saharan African descent as well; the difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some. The U. S. Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. After the Mexican–American War concluded in 1848, term Hispanic or Spanish American was used to describe the Hispanos of New Mexico within the American Southwest; the 1970 United States Census controversially broadened the definition to "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico.
The term Latino has developed a number of definitions. One definition of Latino is "a Latin male in the United States"; this is the oldest and the original definition used in the United States, first used in 1946. This definition encompasses Spanish speakers from both Europe and the Americas. Under this definition, immigrants from Spain and immigrants from Latin America are both Latino; this definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U. S. Census Bureau and OMB, as the two agencies use Latino interchangeably. A definition of Latino is as a condensed form of the term "Latino-Americano", the Spanish word for Latin-American, or someone who comes from Latin America. Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A Brazilian American is a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America. However, an immigrant from Spain would be classified as European or White by American sta
How to Get Away with Murder
How to Get Away with Murder is an American drama television series that premiered on ABC on September 25, 2014. The series was created by Peter Nowalk, produced by Shonda Rhimes and ABC Studios; the series airs on ABC as part of a night of programming, all under Rhimes's Shondaland production company. Viola Davis stars as Annalise Keating, a law professor at a prestigious Philadelphia university who, with five of her students, becomes entwined in a murder plot; the series features an ensemble cast with Alfred Enoch, Jack Falahee, Aja Naomi King, Matt McGorry, Karla Souza as Keating's students, Charlie Weber and Liza Weil as her employees, Billy Brown as a detective with the Philadelphia Police Department, Annalise's lover. From the third season onward, Conrad Ricamora was promoted to the main cast after recurring in the first two seasons. For her portrayal, Davis has received critical acclaim. Davis has received nominations from the Golden Globe Awards for Best Actress in a Television Series, the Critics' Choice Awards for Best Actress in a Drama Series, the Television Critics Association at the TCA Awards for Individual Achievement in Drama.
Other cast members have received recognition for their performances, with Enoch and King being nominated by the NAACP as Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series and Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series at the GLAAD Awards. On May 11, 2018, ABC renewed the series for a fifth season, which premiered on September 27, 2018. Annalise Keating is a prominent criminal defense attorney and law professor at Middleton University in Philadelphia, she selects five of her first year students to intern at her firm: Wes Gibbins, Connor Walsh, Michaela Pratt, Asher Millstone, Laurel Castillo. They work with Frank Delfino and Bonnie Winterbottom, an associate lawyer; as the first season introduces occasional clients for Keating, it explores two related murders through both flashback and flashforward sequences: Lila Stangard, mistress of Annalise's husband and a student at Middleton, Sam Keating, Annalise's husband, killed by Annalise's interns. The first nine episodes alternate between the present-day timeline in medias res, depicting Wes, Connor and Laurel covering up Sam's murder by disposing of his body, flashbacks detailing the course of events leading up to Sam's death, including Annalise's becoming involved in the Lila Stangard investigation, at Wes' urging, leading her to discover Sam's affair and creating suspicion that he killed Lila.
The final six episodes explore Annalise's attempt to help her interns cover up Sam's murder and implicate Sam in Lila's death, flashbacks to Lila's final moments before her murder. The first nine episodes focus on Annalise's defense of Caleb and Catherine Hapstall, who were accused of torturing and murdering their adoptive parents. Wes, in the meantime, teams up with Rebecca's foster brother to try and find Rebecca. Connor struggles with his relationship with Oliver, while Asher works with A. D. A. Emily Sinclair, in order to protect his secrets. In the mid-season finale, Sinclair is murdered, Annalise helps cover it up, at the expense of her being shot in the stomach by Wes; the second part of the season focuses on Wes' investigation of his mother's suicide 10 years ago. The season ends with Annalise's finding out that Frank was responsible for the car crash that killed her baby, Annalise sends him away. Michaela and Asher hook up, Wes meets with his biological father right before the latter is shot dead by an unknown shooter.
In the aftermath of Wallace Mahoney's death, all five of the students attempt to move on. A new mystery arises around the burning down of Annalise's house and, found dead inside; the events leading up to it involve Annalise's starting a free legal clinic and struggling with alcoholism. Oliver starts working for Annalise, he leaves Connor when becoming disgusted with himself for rejecting Connor's Stanford acceptance. Michaela and Asher's relationship starts to progress, as does Wes and Laurel's, Frank starts working to atone for the death of Annalise's child, it is revealed that it was Wes who died, that he was killed before the fire. Annalise is arrested for Wes' death. Frank attempts to help Annalise by confessing to killing Wes, it is further revealed that Wes' death was commissioned by Laurel's father, who disapproved of their relationship. In the fourth season, Annalise works with a therapist, Dr. Isaac Roa, to see through her recovery from alcoholism, she cuts ties with Bonnie and the interns, gets a woman with a long rap sheet freed from jail, commits to a major class action against the state for miscarriages of justice caused by an underfunded public defender's office.
Laurel deduces that her father, Jorge Castillo, is responsible for Wes' murder and hatches a scheme to steal incriminating evidence from his law firm with the help of Michaela, Oliver and Asher. During the data heist, their classmate Simon accidentally shoots himself with Laurel's gun, leading to Asher's arrest, Laurel goes into premature labor after being accidentally struck by Frank. Annalise saves the baby. However, Jorge claims custody of his grandchild by submitting evidence of Laurel's past addictions and history of mental illness to a judge. Laurel
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
University Park station
University Park is a station on Metra's Metra Electric line located in University Park, Illinois. University Park is the southern terminus of the Metra Electric main line and is 31.5 miles away from the northern terminus at Millennium Station. The station is located on South Governor's Highway near West Stuenkel Road. In Metra's zone-based fare system, University Park is in zone G. University Park station is located at grade level; the station consists of one island platform. The station has an unstaffed waiting room with a ticket vending machine. Parking is available at the station. University Park opened in 1977. University Park has an underground mezzanine containing ticket vending machines as well as parking token machines; the platform serves two tracks. Both tracks continue into the yard, due to the frequency of the Metra Electric District, most trains do not continue into the yard. On the platform, two 24/7 shelters are available. Trains board on both sides of the platform, most trains departing to Chicago board from the inbound side.
Pace 367 University ParkRiver Valley Metro University Park Commuter Routes 1 and 2 Metra – Stations – University Park Train at University Park Station Pictures of University Park Metra Station and Train Yard Station from Google Maps Street View University Park Station Entrance from Google Maps Street View
Eastern Continental Divide
The Eastern Continental Divide or Eastern Divide or Appalachian Divide is a hydrographic divide in eastern North America that separates the easterly Atlantic Seaboard watershed from the westerly Gulf of Mexico watershed. The divide nearly spans the United States from south of Lake Ontario through the Florida peninsula, consists of raised terrain including the Appalachian Mountains to the north, the southern Piedmont Plateau and lowland ridges in the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the south. Water including rainfall and snowfall, lakes and rivers on the eastern/southern side of the divide drains to the Atlantic Ocean; the ECD is one of six continental hydrographic divides of North America which define several drainage basins, each of which drains to a particular body of water. The divide originates at the Eastern Triple Divide near the middle of the northern border of Pennsylvania runs south-by-southwest following the crest of the Appalachian Mountains through Pennsylvania, western Maryland, West Virginia and North Carolina to its high point on Grandfather Mountain descends to the city of Atlanta in northwestern Georgia, where it doglegs southeasterly across the Georgia plateau and through the lowlands of Northern Florida to its terminus in central Florida at the northern boundary of the Lake Okeechobee Basin.
Though the divide is associated with high elevation, at its southern terminus at the northern Kissimmee River watershed in Florida, the elevation is only 70ft. Above sea level. Nor does the divide always coincide with the highest point or ridgeline, because streams can flow through passes or gaps in the ridge, so that terrain on one side of the ridge drains to the other side and therefore to the other watershed; this occurs in several places. The ECD is not fixed, but can shift due to erosion, tectonic shift and anthropogenic activity such as tunnel excavation, damming of rivers and road construction. In colonial times, except for Spanish Florida, the ECD served as the boundary between English colonies on the Atlantic seaboard and Indian lands to the interior; the Eastern Continental Divide originates in the north at the Eastern Triple Divide on the summit named'Triple Divide Peak' 10.4 mi south of the New York-Pennsylvania line about 5 mi. southwest of the borough of Ulysses in Potter County, Pennsylvania.
That summit is the northernmost peak of three atop a broad plateau, farmland. From there, the ECD runs south-southwest through the two nearby southern summits southwesterly along the Allegheny Plateau west of the Allegheny Front until it plunges south along the Appalachians barrier ridge. Mount Mitchell State Park in North Carolina is the highest point on the ECD at 6,366 ft; as the altitude of the peaks diminishes across the swampy Georgia plateau the divide meanders into the low country of Northern Florida until it reaches central Florida, ending at the north bank watershed of the Kissimmee River. While notionally, the ECD may be considered to extend to the southern tip of Florida, south of Lake Okeechobee the everglades, which spans the length and breadth of the peninsula, is a seasonal swamp which drains into the lake. During the wet season, overflow from the lake forms an unchanneled "river" 100 miles long and 60 miles wide that flows south to Florida Bay which ostensibly drains into the Gulf of Mexico, but due to mud dykes, little exchange of water occurs.
So hydrographically, the only divide in southern Florida is between the lake and the ocean or Gulf, that divide is coincident with the boundary between land and sea. Because the divide represents the highest terrain, air is forced upwards regardless of wind direction; this process of orographic enhancement leads to higher precipitation than surrounding areas. In winter, the divide is much snowier than surrounding areas, due to orographic enhancement and cooler temperatures with elevation; some locations in North Carolina average up to 100 inches of snow a year, up to 175 inches a year falls in parts of West Virginia. Prior to about 1760, north of Spanish Florida, the Appalachian Divide represented the boundary between British and French colonial possessions in North America; the Royal Proclamation of 1763 separated settled lands of the Thirteen Colonies from lands north and west of it designated the Indian Reserve. Divides Continental Divide of the Americas Laurentian Divide Saint Lawrence River Divide Great Basin Divide Arctic DivideTriple points Eastern Triple Divide
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University