Pico-Union, Los Angeles
Pico-Union is a neighborhood in Central Los Angeles, California. The name "Pico-Union" refers to the neighborhood that surrounds the intersection of Pico Boulevard and Union Avenue. Located west of Downtown Los Angeles, it is home to over 40,000 residents; the neighborhood contains two historic districts, both listed in the National Register of Historic Places. It has five public schools as well as a public library. Google Maps draws the following boundaries for Pico-Union: Olympic Boulevard on the north, the Harbor Freeway on the east, the Santa Monica Freeway on the south and Hoover St. on the west. According to the Los Angeles Times' Mapping L. A. project, Pico-Union is bounded by Olympic Boulevard on the north, the Harbor Freeway on the east, the Santa Monica Freeway on the south and Normandie Avenue on the west. It includes the California Highway Patrol station beneath the freeway interchange northeast of Washington Boulevard. Pico-Union is flanked by Koreatown and Westlake to the north and northeast, Downtown to the east, Adams-Normandie, University Park and Exposition Park to the south and Harvard Heights to the west.
The area encompassed by Pico-Union was developed as a middle and upper middle class residential district beginning in the 1910s. Easy access to downtown Los Angeles and the nearby Wilshire District drew large numbers of affluent homeowners. Following the Second World War, the Pico-Union area, like many inner city neighborhoods, experienced an outflux of residents to the suburbs; the loss of residents and business led to high vacancy rates and lower property values in much of the neighborhood by the 1960s. In the late 1970s and 1980s, the area became a major point of entry for Salvadoran and Guatemalan immigrants seeking refuge from civil war, according to the Pico Union Self-Guided Walking Tour, published in 2009 by the Los Angeles Conservancy. Pico-Union became the city's 19th Historic Preservation Overlay Zone on August 10, 2004, it contains two historic districts listed in the National Register of Historic Places: South Bonnie Brae Tract Historic District and Alvarado Terrace Historic District.
In August 2012, the City of Los Angeles designated a portion of Vermont Avenue in Pico-Union as El Salvador Community Corridor. The former First Church of Christ, once one of Jim Jones' Peoples Temples, was located in Pico-Union, at the corner of Alvarado Street and Alvarado Terrace. Pico-Union is the fourth-most-crowded neighborhood in Los Angeles, surpassed only by East Hollywood and Koreatown; the 2000 U. S. census counted 42,324 residents in the 1.67-square-miles neighborhood—an average of 25,352 people per square mile. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 44,664; the median age for residents was 27, considered young for the county. The ethnic breakdown in 2000 was: Latinos, 85.4%. El Salvador and Mexico were the most common places of birth for the 64.6% of the residents who were born abroad, a figure, considered high in comparison with foreign-born in the city as a whole. Other immigrants come from Guatemala and Nicaragua; the median household income in 2008 dollars was $26,424, considered low for both the city and the county.
The percentage of households earning $20,000 or less was high, compared to the county at large. The average household size of 3.3 people was high for Los Angeles. Renters occupied 90.5% of the housing units, home- or apartment owners the rest. The percentages of never-married men and never-married women were among the county's highest; the census found 2,113 families headed by single parents, the 23.3% rate being considered high for both the city and the county. In 2000 there were 667 military veterans living in Pico-Union, or 2.3% of the population, considered a low rate for the city and the county overall. These were the ten neighborhoods or cities in Los Angeles County with the highest population densities, according to the 2000 census, with the population per square mile: Pico-Union residents aged 25 and older holding a four-year degree amounted to 6.7% of the population in 2000, considered low for both the city and the county, there was a high percentage of residents with less than a high school diploma.
These are the elementary or secondary schools within the neighborhood's boundaries: West Adams Preparatory High School, LAUSD, 1500 West Washington Boulevard SIATech Pico-Union is a public charter high school, 2140 West Olympic Boulevard suite 327. "Classes are held from 9:00 am - 4:00 pm. This site is an independent study school where students complete work at home, online and on site." Loyola High School of Los Angeles, private, 1901 Venice Boulevard Berendo Middle School, LAUSD, 1157 South Berendo Street, which claims the title as the oldest intermediate school continuously in operation in Los Angeles and in the entire United States Sophia T. Salvin Special Education Center, LAUSD, 1925 Budlong Avenue Leo Politi Elementary School, LAUSD, 2481 West 11th Street Tenth Street Elementary School, LAUSD, 1000 Grattan Street Saint Thomas the Apostle School, private elementary, 2632 West 15th Street Magnolia Avenue Elementary School, LAUSD, 1626 South Orchard Avenue Los Angeles Christian School, private, 1630 West 20th Street Los Angeles Public Library operates the Pico-Union Branch Library at 1030 South Alvarado Street.
Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery was founded as Rosedale Cemetery in 1884, when Los Angeles was a small city of around 28,000 people, on 65 acres of land between Washington and Venice boulevards between Normandie Avenue and Walton and Catalina Streets. Elizabeth Harrower (1918
Washington Boulevard (Los Angeles)
Washington Boulevard is an east-west arterial road in Los Angeles County, California spanning a total of. Its western terminus is the Pacific Ocean just west of Pacific Avenue and straddling the border of the Venice Beach and Marina Peninsula neighborhoods of Los Angeles; the Boulevard extends eastbound to the city of Whittier, at Whittier Boulevard. It is south of Venice Boulevard for most of its length. At Wade Street, Washington Place is formed adjacent and parallel and lasts until just east of Sepulveda Boulevard, where it merges back into Washington Boulevard. Washington merges into Culver Boulevard but forms back into its own street at Canfield Avenue. Washington Boulevard, four lanes passes through locations in the mid southern portion of Los Angeles County; the communities to the west include affluent areas such as Ladera Heights. Further east it passes between Crestview and Culver City and through Mid City, Arlington Heights, Pico Union, City of Commerce, Pico Rivera, Los Nietos and Whittier.
Washington Boulevard is the dividing line between Venice and the Los Angeles neighborhood of Marina Peninsula which sits south of the Boulevard from the Pacific Ocean to Via Marina drive. East of Via Marina is the unincorporated area of Marina del Rey. In 1905, when the road was known as Washington Street, it boasted the headquarters of the local horse driving club, for a mile west of Western Avenue. "The road is not of the best," reported the Los Angeles Times, "and automobiles are usurping it... but it is the nearest approach to a speedway the reinsmen have, they therefore make the most of it." Mayor Owen McAleer "has set aside that stretch of the highway to those drivers who delight in vying with each other off the racetrack, policemen have been given to understand that some latitude is to be allowed horsemen there." Washington Boulevard provides bus service between Venice Beach and West LA Transit Center by Culver City Transit line 1, between West LA Transit Center and Downtown by Metro Local line 35, east of Downtown by Montebello Transit line 50.
A portion of the Metro Blue line runs along Washington Boulevard, from Flower Street to Long Beach Avenue, while the Metro Expo Line serves a rail station near the intersection with National Boulevard. The entire route is in Los Angeles County. There are no postmiles because the street is maintained by not Caltrans. Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery LA Trade Tech College is located at Grand Avenue near the Blue Line station of the same name; the RPM International building is located on the corner of Westmorland Blvd. and Washington Blvd., dedicated as the "Ray Charles Square". The Ray Charles Post Office at La Brea Avenue. Government center named after Jr.. City Council member, 1973–87 West Adams Preparatory High School is located on Vermont Avenue and Washington Blvd
Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion
The Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion is a Jewish seminary with several locations in the United States and one location in Jerusalem. It is the oldest extant Jewish seminary in the Americas and the main seminary for training rabbis, cantors and communal workers in Reform Judaism. HUC-JIR has campuses in Cincinnati, New York City, Los Angeles and Jerusalem; the Jerusalem campus is the only seminary in Israel for training Reform Jewish clergy. HUC was founded in Cincinnati in 1875 under the leadership of Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise. Jacob Ezekiel was Secretary of the Board and treasurer from the College's inception until just before his death in 1899; the first rabbinical class graduated in 1883. The graduation banquet for this class became known as the Trefa Banquet because it included food, not kosher, such as clams, soft-shell crabs, frogs' legs and dairy products served after meat. At the time, Reform rabbis were split over the question of whether the Jewish dietary restrictions were still applicable.
Some of the more traditionalist Reform rabbis thought the banquet menu went too far, were compelled to find an alternative between Reform Judaism and Orthodox Judaism. This was a major cause of the founding of American Conservative Judaism. In 1950, a second HUC campus was created in New York through a merger with the rival Reform Jewish Institute of Religion. Additional campuses were added in Los Angeles in 1954, in Jerusalem in 1963; as of 2009, the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion is an international seminary and university of graduate studies offering a wide variety of academic and professional programs. In addition to its Rabbinical School, the College-Institute includes Schools of Graduate Studies, Jewish Non-Profit Management, sacred music, Biblical archaeology and an Israeli rabbinical program; the Los Angeles campus operates many of its programs and degrees in cooperation with the neighboring University of Southern California, a partnership that has lasted over 35 years.
Their productive relationship includes the creation of the Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement, an interfaith think tank through the partnership of HUC, USC and Omar Foundation. CMJE holds religious text-study programs across Los Angeles. No classrooms on this campus have windows. Rabbi Alfred Gottschalk was appointed as HUC's sixth president, following the death of Nelson Glueck; as president, Gottschalk oversaw the growth and expansion of the HUC campuses, the ordination of Sally Priesand as the first female rabbi in the United States, the investiture of Reform Judaism's first female hazzan and the ordination of Naamah Kelman as the first female rabbi to be ordained in Israel. In 1996, Rabbi Sheldon Zimmerman was appointed as the 7th President of the College-Institute, he was succeeded in 2000 by Rabbi David Ellenson. The 12th president of HUC-JIR, elected in 2014, was Rabbi Aaron D. Panken, Ph. D. A noted authority on rabbinic and Second Temple literature, with research interests in the historical development of legal concepts and terms, Rabbi Panken was killed in a plane crash on May 5, 2018, while piloting a single-engine Aeronca 7AC over New York's Hudson Valley.
The cantorial school of the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion was founded in 1947. The school is located on the New York campus of HUC-JIR at One West Fourth Street, it offers a five-year graduate program, conferring the degree of Master of Sacred Music in the fourth year and ordination as cantor in the fifth year. Cantorial School at HUC-JIR continues for the next four years in New York. While in Israel, students study Hebrew, Jewish music, get to know Israel. Cantorial students study alongside Education students. In New York, the program includes professional learning opportunities as a student-cantor, in which students serve congregations within and outside of the NY area; the curriculum includes liturgical music classes covering traditional Shabbat, High Holiday and Festival nusach, Musicology, Reform Liturgy and Composition. Each student is assigned practica during the 2nd, 3rd, 4th year of school culminating with a Senior Recital during the 5th year. Rabbi David Ellenson President of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, announced on January 27, 2011 that the School of Sacred Music would be renamed the Debbie Friedman School of Sacred Music in honor of Debbie Friedman.
The renaming occurred on December 7, 2011. HUC has both male and female students including rabbinic and cantorial studies. Since its founding, the College-Institute has ordained over 400 cantors; as of 2007, 520 ordained rabbis and 179 invested cantors have been women.. The first female rabbi to be ordained by HUC was Sally Priesand, ordained in 1972, the only woman in a class with 35 men; the first female cantor to be invested by HUC was Barbara Ostfeld-Horowitz in 1975. After four years of deliberation, HUC decided to give women a choice of wording on their ordination certificates beginning in 2016, including the option to have the same wording as men. Up until male candidates' certificates identified them by the Reform movement’s traditional "morenu harav," or "our teacher the rabbi," while female candidates' certificates only used the term "rav u’morah," or "rabbi and teacher." Sally Priesand herself was unaware that her certificate referred to her any differently than her male colleagues until it was brought to her attention years later.
Rabbi Mary Zamore, executive director of th
Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, as well as a diverse residential neighborhood of some 58,000 people. A 2013 study found, it is part of Central Los Angeles. A heritage of the city's founding in 1781, Downtown Los Angeles today is composed of different areas ranging from a fashion district to Skid Row, it is the hub for the city's urban rail transit system and the Metrolink commuter rail system for Southern California. Banks, department stores, movie palaces at one time drew residents and visitors into the area, but the district declined economically and suffered a downturn for decades until its recent renaissance starting in the early 2000s. Old buildings are being modified for new uses, skyscrapers have been built. Downtown Los Angeles is known for its government buildings, parks and other public places; the earliest known settlements in the area of what is now Downtown Los Angeles was by the Tongva, a Native American people. European settlement arrived after Father Juan Crespí, a Spanish missionary charged with exploring sites for Catholic missions in California, noted in 1769 that the region had "all the requisites for a large settlement".
On September 4, 1781, the city was founded by a group of settlers who trekked north from present-day Mexico. Land speculation increased in the 1880s, which saw the population of the city explode from 11,000 in 1880 to nearly 100,000 by 1896. Infrastructure enhancements and the laying of a street grid brought development south of the original settlement into what is today the Civic Center and Historic Core neighborhoods. By 1920, the city's private and municipal rail lines were the most far-flung and most comprehensive in the world in mileage besting that of New York City. By this time, a steady influx of residents and aggressive land developers had transformed the city into a large metropolitan area, with DTLA at its center. Rail lines connected four counties with over 1,100 miles of track. During the early part of the 20th century, banking institutions clustered around South Spring Street, forming the Spring Street Financial District. Sometimes referred to as the "Wall Street of the West," the district held corporate headquarters for financial institutions including Bank of America and Merchants Bank, the Crocker National Bank, California Bank & Trust, International Savings & Exchange Bank.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange was located on the corridor from 1929 until 1986 before moving into a new building across the Harbor Freeway. Commercial growth brought with it hotel construction—during this time period several grand hotels, the Alexandria, the Rosslyn, the Biltmore, were erected — and the need for venues to entertain the growing population of Los Angeles. Broadway became the nightlife and entertainment district of the city, with over a dozen theater and movie palaces built before 1932. Department stores opened flagship stores downtown, including The Broadway, Hamburger & Sons, May Company, JW Robinson's, Bullock's, serving a wealthy residential population in the Bunker Hill neighborhood. Numerous specialty stores flourished including those in the jewelry business which gave rise to the Downtown Jewelry District. Among these early jewelers included the Laykin Diamond Company and Harry Winston & Co. both of which found their beginnings in the Hotel Alexandria at Fifth and Spring streets.
The Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal opened in May 1939, unifying passenger service among various local and long-distance passenger trains. It was built on a grand scale and would be one of the "last of the great railway stations" built in the United States. Following World War II, the development of the Los Angeles freeway network, increased automobile ownership led to decreased investment downtown. Many corporate headquarters dispersed to new suburbs or fell to mergers and acquisitions; the once-wealthy Bunker Hill neighborhood became a haven for low-income renters, its stately Victorian mansions turned into flophouses. From about 1930 onward, numerous old and historic buildings in the plaza area were demolished to make way for street-level parking lots, the high demand for parking making this more profitable than any other option that might have allowed preservation; the drastic reduction in the number of residents in the area further reduced the viability of streetfront businesses that would be able to attract pedestrians.
For most Angelenos, downtown became a drive-out destination. In an effort to combat blight and lure businesses back downtown, the city's Community Redevelopment Agency undertook the Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project in 1955, a massive clearance project that leveled homes and cleared land for future commercial skyscraper development; this period saw the clearing and upzoning of the entire neighborhood, as well as the shuttering of the Angels Flight funicular railway in 1969. Angels Flight resumed operation in 1996 for a period of five years, shutting down once again after a fatal accident in 2001. On March 15, 2010, the railway once again opened for passenger service following extensive upgrades to brake and safety systems. With Class A office space becoming available on Bunker Hill, many of DTLA's remaining financial corporations moved to the newer buildings, leaving the former Spring Street Financial District devoid of tenants above ground floor. Following the corporate headquarters' moving six blocks west, the large department stores on Broadway shuttered, culminating in the 1980s.
However, the Broadway theaters saw much use as Spanish-language movie houses during this time, beginning with the conve
University of Southern California
The University of Southern California is a private research university in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1880, it is the oldest private research university in California. For the 2018–19 academic year, there were 20,000 students enrolled in four-year undergraduate programs. USC has 27,500 graduate and professional students in a number of different programs, including business, engineering, social work, occupational therapy and medicine, it is the largest private employer in the city of Los Angeles, generates $8 billion in economic impact on Los Angeles and California. USC is the birthplace of the Domain Name System. Other technologies invented at USC include DNA computing, dynamic programming, image compression, VoIP, antivirus software. USC's alumni include a total of 11 Rhodes Scholars and 12 Marshall Scholars; as of October 2018, nine Nobel laureates, six MacArthur Fellows, one Turing Award winner have been affiliated with the university. USC sponsors a variety of intercollegiate sports and competes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association as a member of the Pac-12 Conference.
Members of USC's sports teams, the Trojans, have won 104 NCAA team championships, ranking them third in the United States, 399 NCAA individual championships, ranking them second in the United States. Trojan athletes have won 288 medals at the Olympic Games, more than any other university in the United States. In 1969, it joined the Association of American Universities. USC has had a total of 521 football players drafted to the National Football League, the second-highest number of drafted players in the country; the University of Southern California was founded following the efforts of Judge Robert M. Widney, who helped secure donations from several key figures in early Los Angeles history: a Protestant nurseryman, Ozro Childs, an Irish Catholic former-Governor, John Gately Downey, a German Jewish banker, Isaias W. Hellman; the three donated 308 lots of land to establish the campus and provided the necessary seed money for the construction of the first buildings. Operated in affiliation with the Methodist Church, the school mandated from the start that "no student would be denied admission because of race."
The university is no longer affiliated with any church, having severed formal ties in 1952. When USC opened in 1880, tuition was $15.00 per term and students were not allowed to leave town without the knowledge and consent of the university president. The school had an enrollment of 53 students and a faculty of 10; the city lacked paved streets, electric lights, a reliable fire alarm system. Its first graduating class in 1884 was a class of three—two males and female valedictorian Minnie C. Miltimore; the colors of USC are cardinal and gold, which were approved by USC's third president, the Reverend George W. White, in 1896. In 1958, the shade of gold, more of an orange color, was changed to a more yellow shade; the letterman's awards were the first to make the change. USC students and athletes are known as Trojans, epitomized by the Trojan Shrine, nicknamed "Tommy Trojan", near the center of campus; until 1912, USC students were known as Fighting Methodists or Wesleyans, though neither name was approved by the university.
During a fateful track and field meet with Stanford University, the USC team was beaten early and conclusively. After only the first few events, it seemed implausible USC would win. After this contest, Los Angeles Times sportswriter Owen Bird reported the USC athletes "fought on like the Trojans of antiquity", the president of the university at the time, George F. Bovard, approved the name officially. During World War II, USC was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. USC is responsible for $8 billion in economic output in Los Angeles County. On May 1, 2014, USC was named as one of many higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights for potential Title IX violations by Barack Obama's White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. USC is under a concurrent Title IX investigation for potential anti-male bias in disciplinary proceedings, as well as denial of counseling resources to male students, as of 8 March 2016.
In 2017, the university came into the national spotlight when the Los Angeles Times published information about Carmen A. Puliafito, the dean of USC's medical school. After accusations of drug use, he resigned from his position as dean in 2016 and was fired from the school the following year after the news stories were published, his medical license was subsequently suspended pending a decision. The following year, the Los Angeles Times broke another story about USC focusing on George Tyndall, a gynecologist accused of abusing 52 patients at USC; the reports span from 1990 to 2016 and include using racist and sexual language, conducting exams without gloves and taking pictures of his patients' genitals. Inside Higher Ed noted that there have been "other incidents in which the university is perceived to have failed to act on misconduct by powerful officials" when it reported that the university's president, C. L. Max Nikias, is resigning. Tyndall was fired in 2017 after reaching a settlement with the university.
The school did not report him to state medical authorities or law enforcement at the time, though the LAPD is now investigatin
Vincent de Paul
Vincent de Paul was a French Catholic priest who dedicated himself to serving the poor. He is venerated as a saint in the Anglican Communion, he was canonized in 1737. He was renowned for his compassion and generosity. Founder of Congregation of the Mission and Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul. St Vincent de Paul was born in 1581 in the village of Pouy, in the Province of Guyenne and Gascony, the Kingdom of France, to peasant farmers, father Jean and mother Bertrande de Moras de Paul. There was a stream named the "Paul" in the vicinity and it is believed that this might have been the derivation of the family name, he wrote the name as one word – Depaul to avoid the inference that he was of noble birth, but none of his correspondents did so. He had three brothers – Jean and Gayon, two sisters – Marie and Marie-Claudine, he was the third child. At an early age, he showed a talent for reading and writing but during his childhood, he herded his family's livestock. At 15, his father sent him to seminary.
Vincent's interest in the priesthood at that time was with the intent to establish a successful career and obtain a benefice, with which he could retire early and support the family. For two years, Vincent received his education at a college in Dax, adjoining a monastery of the Friars Minor where he and others resided. In 1597, he began his studies in the Faculty of Theology at the University of Toulouse; the atmosphere at the university conducive to spiritual contemplation. Fights broke out between various factions of students. An official was murdered by two students, he continued his studies and was able to help pay for his education by tutoring others. He was ordained on 23 September 1600, at the age of nineteen, in Château-l'Évêque, near Périgueux; this was against the regulations established by the Council of Trent which required a minimum of 24 years of age for ordination, so when he was appointed parish priest in Tilh, the appointment was appealed in the Court of Rome. Rather than respond to a lawsuit in which he would not have prevailed, he resigned from the position and continued his studies.
On 12 October 1604, he received his Bachelor of Theology from the University of Toulouse. He received a Licentiate in Canon Law from the University of Paris. Early biographies of Vincent describe his capture and enslavement during his two years away from France, from 1605 to 1607. Subsequent biographies written nearly 300 years after the events in question consider his enslavement a myth, starting with Antoine Rédier's La vraie vie de Saint Vincent de Paul; the biographer Pierre Coste, who wrote Monsieur Vincent, the comprehensive biography of Vincent based on his correspondence and documents, publicly confirmed the accuracy of Vincent's captivity and enslavement. According to Rédier, Coste held the opposing view in private, questioned the reliability of the two letters supporting the account of Vincent's enslavement. To avoid scandal and possible backlash, Coste kept his doubt of the slavery narrative private. Skeptics agree that the letters themselves were written by Vincent, but question Vincent's account of the events of 1605-1607.
There is not an alternative narrative of Vincent's life from 1605-1607, but Pierre Grandchamps and Paul Debongnie argue that details of Vincent's captivity narrative are implausible. According to the letters, in 1605, Vincent sailed from Marseilles on his way back from Castres where he had gone to sell some property he had received in an inheritance from a wealthy patron in Toulouse, was taken captive by Barbary pirates, who took him to Tunis. De Paul was auctioned off as a slave, spent two years in bondage, his first master was a fisherman, but Vincent was unsuitable for this line of work due to sea-sickness and was soon sold. His next master was a spagyrical physician and inventor, he became fascinated by his arts and was taught how to prepare and administer his master's spagyric remedies. The fame of Vincent's master became so great that it attracted the attention of men who summoned him to Istanbul. During the passage, the old man died and Vincent was sold once again, his new master was a former Franciscan from Nice, Guillaume Gautier.
He had converted to Islam in order to gain his freedom from slavery and was living in the mountains with three wives. The second wife, a Muslim by birth, was drawn to and visited Vincent in the fields to question him about his faith, she became convinced that his faith was true and admonished her husband for renouncing his Christianity. Her husband decided to escape back to France with his slave, they had to wait ten months, but they secretly boarded a small boat and crossed the Mediterranean, landing in Aigues-Mortes on 28 June 1607. After returning to France, Vincent went to Rome. There he continued his studies until 1609 when he was sent back to France on a mission to King Henry IV. Once in France, he made the acquaintance of abbé Pierre de Bérulle, whom he took as his spiritual advisor. André Duval, of the Sorbonne introduced him to Canfield's "Rule of Perfection". In 1612 he was sent as parish priest to the Church of Saint-Medard in Clichy. In less than a year, Bérulle recalled him to Paris to serve as a chaplain and tutor to the Gondi family.
Preaching a mission to the peasants on the Gondi estates persuaded him that he should direct his efforts to the poor. It was the Countess de Gondi who persuaded her husband to endow and support a group of able and zealous missionaries who would work among poor tenant farmers and country people in general. On 13 May 1643, with Louis XII
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University