Amgen Inc. is an American multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California. In 2013, the company's largest selling product lines were Neulasta/Neupogen, two related drugs used to prevent infections in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. Other products include Epogen, Sensipar/Mimpara, Vectibix, Prolia and XGEVA. Amgen, one of the world's largest biotechnology companies, was established in Newbury Park, California in 1980, where its world headquarters are located, it had 5,125 employees in Thousand Oaks as of 2017, which made up 7.5% of the city's total employment. It is the largest employer in Ventura County. Amgen has attracted hundreds of scientists to the Newbury Park area. Focused on the cutting edge of molecular biology and biochemistry, its goal is to provide a healthcare business based on recombinant DNA technology; the word AMGen is a portmanteau of the company's original name, Applied Molecular Genetics, which became the official name of the company in 1983.
The company's first chief executive officer, from 1980, was co-founder George B. Rathmann, followed by Gordon M. Binder in 1988, followed by Kevin W. Sharer in 2000. Robert A. Bradway became Amgen’s president and chief executive officer in May 2012 following Sharer's retirement; the company has made at least five major corporate acquisitions. 1980. William Bowes from Cetus Corporation recruits Winston Salser from UCLA to start Amgen with a scientific advisory board consisting of Normam Davidson, Leroy Hood, Arnold Berk, John Carbon, Robert Schimke, Arno Motulsky, Marvin H. Caruthers, Dave Gibson. 1989. Amgen received approval for the first recombinant human erythropoetin product, for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney failure. Epogen would be approved for anemia due to cancer chemotherapy, anemia due to treatment with certain HIV drugs, for the reduction of the need for transfusions associated with surgery. 1991. In February 1991, Amgen received FDA approval for Neupogen for the prevention of infections in patients whose immune systems are suppressed due to cancer chemotherapy.
A 2002 meta-analysis found that Neupogen treatment reduced the risk of febrile neutropenia by 38%, reduced the risk of documented infection by 49%, reduced the risk of infection-related mortality by 40%. 1998. In November 1998, Immunex, a future acquisition of Amgen, received approval for Enbrel, the first rheumatoid arthritis drug targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha. A 2006 assessment by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence of the United Kingdom concluded that etanercept and related rheumatoid arthritis drugs introduced by competitors "are effective treatments compared with placebo for RA patients who are not well controlled by conventional DMARDs, improving control of symptoms, improving physical function, slowing radiographic changes in joints." A more recent study demonstrated that compared to traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, treatment with etanercept improved survival, reduced cardiovascular events and reduced the incidence of hematological cancers. 2010. On June 6, 2010 Amgen received FDA approval for Prolia, a protein drug for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis.
In clinical trials, Prolia reduced the rate of vertebral fractures by 61% and the risk of hip fractures by 40%. 2010 In November 2010 the FDA approved Xgeva for the prevention of complications of bone metastases in patients with solid tumors. The clinical trials enrolled patients with breast or prostate cancer. 2012. Illegal marketing practices; the Los Angeles Times reported on December 18, 2012, that AMGEN pleaded guilty and agreed to pay $150 million in criminal penalty and $612 million to resolve 11 related whistleblower complaints. Federal prosecutors accused the company of pursuing profits while putting patients at risk. Larry Husten, a contributor at Forbes.com elaborates on AMGEN's illegal marketing practices in this case, namely that the "government accused Amgen of marketing Aranesp for indications not approved by the FDA and other illegal marketing practices". One of the drugs mentioned in the lawsuit had sales of $492 million in the third quarter of 2012, down 17% from the same quarter the previous year due to "reimbursement problems and label changes".
2013. Lawmakers inserted text into the fiscal cliff bill that will allow the drugmaker to sell a class of drugs that includes Sensipar without government controls for an additional two years; the New York Times estimated that the paragraph in the fiscal cliff bill will cost taxpayers an estimated $500 million but other assessments concluded that the change would protect seniors in rural areas and reduce overall Medicare spending. 2015. In September the company announced; the same day the company announced a collaboration with Xencor on 6 early stage immuno-oncology and inflammation programmes. As part of the deal Amgen will pay $45 million upfront, with the deal being worth up to another $1.7 billion. 2016. In September, the company announced it would purchase the rights to Boehringer Ingelheims Phase I bispecific T-cell engager compound for use in the treatment of multiple myeloma. 2017. Cash returned to shareholders totaled a record $6.5 billion through dividends and share repurchases. 2018. Amgen was ranked 123 on the Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by revenue.
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A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company
The Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company was an American brewery based in Milwaukee and once the largest producer of beer in the United States. Its namesake beer, was known as "The beer that made Milwaukee famous" and was advertised with the slogan "When you're out of Schlitz, you're out of beer". Schlitz first became the largest beer producer in the US in 1902 and enjoyed that status at several points during the first half of the 20th century, exchanging the title with Anheuser-Busch multiple times during the 1950s; the company was founded by August Krug in 1849, but acquired by Joseph Schlitz in 1858. Schlitz was bought by Stroh Brewery Company in 1982 and subsequently sold along with the rest of Stroh's assets to Pabst Brewing Company in 1999. Pabst now produces the relaunched "Schlitz Gusto" beer and Old Milwaukee. On November 13, 2014, Pabst announced that it had completed its sale to Blue Ribbon Intermediate Holdings, LLC. Blue Ribbon is a partnership between American beer entrepreneur Eugene Kashper and TSG Consumer Partners, a San Francisco–based private equity firm.
Prior reports suggested. In Milwaukee, Schlitz was hired as a bookkeeper in a tavern brewery owned by August Krug. In 1856, he took over management of the brewery following the death of Krug. In 1858, Schlitz married the widow, Anna Maria Krug, changed the name of the brewery to the Jos. Schlitz Brewing Co. in 1861, Krug's 16-year-old nephew, August Uihlein, began employment at the brewery. The circulated story of Schlitz' proposed donation of thousands of barrels of beer to the Chicago population after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 is a modern myth, pushed by marketing campaigns. Schlitz' national expansion was based on new distribution points in Chicago and elsewhere, the consequent use of the railway. From the late 1880s, Schlitz built dozens of tied houses in Chicago, most with a concrete relief of the company logo embedded in the brickwork. In 1873, Schlitz rejected a purchase offer from Tennessee brewer Bratton and Sons. Schlitz died on May 7, 1875 at sea (lost at sea, while traveling to Germany.
Management of the corporation passed into the hands of the Uihlein brothers, nephews of founder August Krug. When Anna Maria Krug Schlitz died in 1887, the Uihleins acquired complete ownership of the firm; the company flourished through much of the 1900s, starting in 1902 when the production of one million barrels of beer surpassed Pabst's claim as the largest brewery in the United States. While Prohibition in the United States forced the suspension of alcoholic brewing, the company changed its name from Schlitz Brewing Company to the Schlitz Beverage Company and changed its "famous" slogan to "The drink that made Milwaukee famous." After Prohibition ended, Schlitz again became the world's top-selling brewery in 1934. In 1953, Milwaukee brewery workers went on a 76-day strike; the strike impacted Schlitz's production, including all of Milwaukee's other breweries and allowed Anheuser-Busch to surpass Schlitz in the American beer market. The popularity of Schlitz's namesake beer, along with the introduction of value-priced Old Milwaukee, allowed Schlitz to regain the number-one position.
Schlitz and Anheuser-Busch continued to compete for the top brewery in America for years. Schlitz remained the number-two brewery in America as late as 1976. By 1967, the company's president and chairman was Robert Uihlein, Jr.. Faced with a desire to meet large volume demands while cutting the cost of production, the brewing process for Schlitz's flagship Schlitz beer was changed in the early 1970s; the primary changes involved using corn syrup to replace some of the malted barley, adding a silica gel to prevent the product from forming a haze, using high-temperature fermentation instead of the traditional method, substituted less-expensive extracts rather than traditional ingredients. Schlitz experimented with continuous fermentation designing and building a new brewery around the process in Baldwinsville, New York; the reformulated product resulted in a beer that not only lost much of the flavor and consistency of the traditional formula, but spoiled more rapidly losing public appeal. In 1976, concern was growing that the Food and Drug Administration would require all ingredients to be labeled on their bottles and cans.
To prevent having to disclose the artificial additive of the silica gel, Uihlein switched to an agent called "Chill-garde" which would be filtered out at the end of production, so would be considered nondisclosable. The agent reacted badly with a foam stabilizer, used and Schlitz recalled 10 million bottles of beer, costing it $1.4 million. As part of its efforts to reverse the sales decline, Schlitz launched a disastrous 1977 television ad campaign created by Leo Burnett & Co. In each of the ads, a burly Schlitz drinker threatens an off-screen speaker who wants him to switch to a rival beer. Audiences found the campaign menacing and the ad industry dubbed it "Drink Schlitz or I'll kill you." The company responded by pulling the campaign after firing Burnett. The ultimate blow to the company was another crippling strike at the Milwaukee plant in 1981. About 700 production workers went on strike on June 1, 1981; the company was acquired by Stroh Brewery Company of Detroit, Michigan. The Baldwinsville brewery was purchased by Anheuser-Busch in 1981 to supplement production of the upcoming Budweiser Light – now Bud Light – release in 1982.
Because of the nonstandard brewery design, Baldwinsville is unique and c
German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language. This includes literature written in Germany, the German parts of Switzerland and Belgium, South Tyrol in Italy and to a lesser extent works of the German diaspora. German literature of the modern period is in Standard German, but there are some currents of literature influenced to a greater or lesser degree by dialects. Medieval German literature is literature written in Germany, stretching from the Carolingian dynasty; the Old High German period is reckoned to run until about the mid-11th century. Middle High German starts in the 12th century; the Baroque period was one of the most fertile times in German literature. Modern literature in German begins with the authors of the Enlightenment; the Sensibility movement of the 1750s–1770s ended with Goethe's best-selling Die Leiden des jungen Werther. The Sturm und Drang and Weimar Classicism movements were led by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller. German Romanticism was the dominant movement of the late early 19th centuries.
Biedermeier refers to the literature, the visual arts and interior design in the period between the years 1815, the end of the Napoleonic Wars, 1848, the year of the European revolutions. Under the Nazi regime, some authors went into exile and others submitted to censorship; the Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded to German language authors thirteen times, or the third most after English and French language authors, with winners including Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Günter Grass. Periodization is not an exact science but the following list contains movements or time periods used in discussing German literature, it seems worth noting that the periods of medieval German literature span two or three centuries, those of early modern German literature span one century, those of modern German literature each span one or two decades. The closer one nears the present, the more debated the periodizations become. Medieval German literature Old High German literature Middle High German literature Late medieval German literature/Renaissance Early Modern German literature Humanism and Protestant Reformation Baroque Enlightenment Modern German literature 18th- and 19th-century German literature Empfindsamkeit / Sensibility Sturm und Drang / Storm and Stress German Classicism Weimar Classicism or, depending on Schiller's or Goethe's death German Romanticism Biedermeier Young Germany Poetic Realism Naturalism 20th-century German literature 1900–1933 Fin de siècle Symbolism Expressionism Dada New Objectivity 1933–1945 National Socialist literature Exile literature 1945–1989 By country Federal Republic of Germany German Democratic Republic Austria Switzerland Other By thematic or group Post-war literature Group 47 Holocaust literature Contemporary German literature Medieval German literature refers to literature written in Germany, stretching from the Carolingian dynasty.
The Old High German period is reckoned to run until about the mid-11th century, though the boundary to Early Middle High German is not clear-cut. The most famous work in OHG is the Hildebrandslied, a short piece of Germanic alliterative heroic verse which besides the Muspilli is the sole survivor of what must have been a vast oral tradition. Another important work, in the northern dialect of Old Saxon, is a life of Christ in the style of a heroic epic known as the Heliand. Middle High German proper runs from the beginning of the 12th century, in the second half of the 12th century, there was a sudden intensification of activity, leading to a 60-year "golden age" of medieval German literature referred to as the mittelhochdeutsche Blütezeit; this was the period of the blossoming of MHG lyric poetry Minnesang. One of the most important of these poets was Walther von der Vogelweide; the same sixty years saw the composition of the most important courtly romances. These are written in rhyming couplets, again draw on French models such as Chrétien de Troyes, many of them relating Arthurian material, for example, Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach.
The third literary movement of these years was a new revamping of the heroic tradition, in which the ancient Germanic oral tradition can still be discerned, but tamed and Christianized and adapted for the court. These high medieval heroic epics are written in rhymed strophes, not the alliterative verse of Germanic prehistory; the Middle High German period is conventionally taken to end in 1350, while the Early New High German is taken to begin with the German Renaissance, after the invention of movable type in the mid-15th century. Therefore, the literature of the late 14th and the early 15th century falls, as it were, in the cracks
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
German-English Academy Building
The German-English Academy Building is a school built in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1891 for the German-English Academy, which became the University School of Milwaukee. The Academy played an important role during a time when Milwaukee was known as "the most German city in America." The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is now owned by the Milwaukee School of Engineering. Since 2012, it has been leased to the company Direct Supply as a technology center, it is beside the Grohmann Museum. The 3½-story building was designed by Charles D. Crane and Carl C. Barkhausen, the latter was himself an alumnus of the German-English Academy. Barkhausen was trained in architecture in Germany; the structure consists with the entrance in the linking section between them. The south wing – now by the Grohmann Museum – housed the academy's classrooms. To the right of the entrance is the south wing's attached neo-Gothic pavilion, topped by a prominent gable end with three arched windows.
The north wing, now next to the parking lot, contained the gymnasiums. Each wing is covered by a steep hip roof; the north wing has a wide five-windowed dormer that is, in turn, covered by a hip roof, which emerges from the slope of the main roof. The back of the building has a similar wide dormer, but in gray; the north side of the building has a large gable-fronted dormer. In 1851 some of Milwaukee's wealthy German immigrants formed the Milwaukee Schulverein. Many of the founders were Forty-Eighters, progressives who had left Germany after the German revolutions of 1848–49 failed. Unhappy with Milwaukee's public schools, wanting instruction in German as well as English, they started a private school called the German-English Academy. Aside from teaching German, the Academy brought in other ideas from German education at the time: singing and domestic science classes. In 1873 the Academy offered the first kindergarten in Milwaukee. Classes met in the home of Peter Engelmann, the first teacher, but soon outgrew that.
In 1891-1892 a new home was built with two blocks. The Pfister/Vogel family financed the southern classroom block, it is 3.5 stories, in Romanesque Revival style, with a limestone foundation, cream-brick walls, bands of windows, small towers on the corners, small arcades, a hip roof. The Milwaukee Turner Society funded the northern gymnasium block, similar, but with arcades of large windows to let light into the gymnasium, with towering chimneys. Designs on the gymnasium's terra cotta spandrels depict Indian clubs and other Turner athletic equipment. Both blocks were designed by Charles D. Crane and Carl C. Barkhausen, achieving a unified design; the new building allowed study of manual arts for boys, domestic science for girls, phy-ed for both. It housed labs for physics and chemistry; the Academy produced many teachers for Milwaukee's public school system and "in 1900, the Superintendent of Schools credited'Engelmann's School' with being the model for the public school system."During WWI, amidst suspicion of all things German, the German-English Academy changed its name to the Milwaukee University School.
In 1927 that school moved to River Hills. The building was converted in 1930 with extensive changes to the interior. In 1933 the Milwaukee School of Engineering resumed using it for education. In 1982 the facade was restored and the interior remodeled as offices
Robert Koehler was a German-born painter and art teacher who spent most of his career in the United States of America. Koehler was born in Hamburg. There he attended the historic German-English Academy, he graduated from the academy in 1865, but continued his lessons with the school's drawing master, Henry Vianden, who had graduated from Munich's Royal Academy of Fine Arts. He apprenticed himself to a lithography firm. In 1871, he went to New York City for eye surgery, stayed to work as a lithographer. After studying drawing in the night classes of the National Academy of Design, Koehler went to Munich to study fine art at the Royal Academy in 1873, studying with Karl von Piloty and Ludwig Thiersch, he returned to New York after two years because of depleted funds. In 1879, he was able to return to Munich with means furnished by George Ehret, of New York, whose attention had been drawn to the young artists's ambition and capabilities. On his second trip, he studied under Franz Defregger, his friendships with William Merritt Chase and Frank Duveneck date from this time.
Koehler's work while in Munich won him silver and bronze awards from the Academy, Bavaria's Cross of the Order of St. Michael. Koehler set himself up as head of a private art school, he began to exhibit in the National Academy, New York, in 1877. In 1885 he took charge of a private school of art in that city, he organized the American department of the international art exhibition at Munich in 1883, was appointed by the Bavarian authorities to act in the same capacity in the exhibition of 1888. In 1892 Robert Koehler returned to New York City to work as a portrait artist; the following year he moved to Minneapolis, accepting an offer to be the director of the Minneapolis School of Fine Arts. Koehler was involved with the establishment of Minneapolis' Museum of Fine Art, now the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, he was a pioneer of art appreciation in the region. Koehler was president of the Minnesota State Art Commission from 1903 to 1910, member of the Artists' League of Minneapolis, honorary member of the Minnesota State Art Society, honorary member of the Alumni Association of the Minneapolis School of Art, member of the Society of Western Artists, member of the Institute des Beaux Arts et des Lettres of Paris, France.
He received bronze and silver medals at the Munich Academy, honorable mention at the Paris World's Fair, 1889, bronze medal at the International Art Exhibition at Buenos Aires in 1910, the cross of the Order of Saint Michael of Bavaria in 1888. Three notable paintings, "The Carpenter's Family," "At the Cafe," and his masterpiece "The Strike" were selected for display at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Koehler continued working in Minneapolis, painting portraits and landscapes, teaching painting, arranging exhibitions, he retired as director in 1914. He died in Minneapolis at age 66. Holy-day Occupation Her Only Support The Socialist The Strike At the Cafe First Snow Portrait of Alvina Roosen Rainy Evening on Hennepin Avenue Herbjørn Gausta Study Head Violet Portrait of Dean Wulling The Carpenter's Family The Family Bible Salve Luna a portrait at the Alexandria, Minnesota public library portrait of Etta Chadbourn Ross at the Etta C. Ross Memorial Library Museum at Blue Earth, Minnesota Wilson, J. G..
"Koehler, Robert". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. Harold L. Van Doren. "Koehler, Robert". Dictionary of American Biography. V, Part 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 484–485. Colles Baxter Larkin. "Koehler, Robert". American National Biography. 12. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 857–858. Dennis, James M.. Robert Koehler's The Strike: The Improbable Story of an Iconic 1886 Painting of Labor Protest. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-25133-8. Works by or about Robert Koehler at Internet Archive Robert Koehler's The Strike Works by or about Robert Koehler in libraries "Ask Art: Robert Koehler". Retrieved 17 April 2011