Alexandru Hristea Orăscu was a Romanian architect famous for his Neoclassicist and Renaissance-revival works. He studied architecture in Munich, he was the president of the Romanian Architects’ Society, served as rector of the University of Bucharest from 1885 to 1892. Metropolitan Cathedral, Iaşi Orascu as mathematician Architecture in Romania
Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at 44°25′57″N 26°06′14″E, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border. Bucharest was first mentioned in documents in 1459, it became the capital of Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media and art. Its architecture is a mix of historical, communist era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris". Although buildings and districts in the historic city centre were damaged or destroyed by war and above all Nicolae Ceaușescu's program of systematization, many survived and have been renovated. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an cultural boom. In 2016, the historical city centre was listed as "endangered" by the World Monuments Watch. According to the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants live within the city limits, a decrease from the 2002 census.
Adding the satellite towns around the urban area, the proposed metropolitan area of Bucharest would have a population of 2.27 million people. According to Eurostat, Bucharest has a functional urban area of 2,412,530 residents. Bucharest is the sixth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits, after London, Madrid and Paris. Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania and is one of the main industrial centres and transportation hubs of Eastern and Central Europe; the city has big convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional "shopping arcades", recreational areas. The city proper is administratively known as the "Municipality of Bucharest", has the same administrative level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six sectors, each governed by a local mayor; the Romanian name București has an unverified origin. Tradition connects the founding of Bucharest with the name of Bucur, a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, a shepherd or a hunter, according to different legends.
In Romanian, the word stem bucurie means "joy", it is believed to be of Dacian origin, hence the city Bucharest means "city of joy". Other etymologies are given by early scholars, including the one of an Ottoman traveller, Evliya Çelebi, who said that Bucharest was named after a certain "Abu-Kariș", from the tribe of "Bani-Kureiș". In 1781, Austrian historian Franz Sulzer claimed that it was related to bucurie, bucuros, or a se bucura, while an early 19th-century book published in Vienna assumed its name has been derived from "Bukovie", a beech forest. In English, the city's name was rendered as Bukarest. A native or resident of Bucharest is called a "Bucharester". Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements in antiquity until its consolidation as the national capital of Romania late in the 19th century. First mentioned as the "Citadel of București" in 1459, it became the residence of the famous Wallachian prince Vlad III the Impaler; the Ottomans appointed Greek administrators to run the town from the 18th century.
A short-lived revolt initiated by Tudor Vladimirescu in 1821 led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest. The Old Princely Court was erected by Mircea Ciobanul in the mid-16th century. Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the royal court. During the years to come, it competed with Târgoviște on the status of capital city after an increase in the importance of southern Muntenia brought about by the demands of the suzerain power – the Ottoman Empire. Bucharest became the permanent location of the Wallachian court after 1698. Destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years, hit by Caragea's plague in 1813–14, the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals by the Habsburg Monarchy and Imperial Russia, it was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution. An Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure.
On 23 March 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings. In 1862, after Wallachia and Moldavia were united to form the Principality of Romania, Bucharest became the new nation's capital city. In 1881, it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Romania under King Carol I. During the second half of the 19th century, the city's population increased and a new period of urban development began. During this period, gas lighting, horse-drawn trams, limited electrification were introduced; the Dâmbovița River was massively channelled in 1883, thus putting a stop to endemic floods like the 1865 flooding of Bucharest. The Fortifications of Bucharest were built; the extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris" of the east, with Calea Victoriei as its Champs-Élysées. Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by German forces as a result of the Battle of Bucharest, with the official capital temporarily moved to Iași, in
Colentina is a neighborhood in Bucharest's 2nd district located on the north-east of the city, named after the nearby Colentina River. A local folk etymology says that the name is derived from "colea-n-tină", this being the answer given by a spătar to Matei Basarab, who asked the former where he had defeated the Ottoman army; until the second half of the 18th century, the area of today's Colentina was forested, as it was on the map of Stolnic Constantin Cantacuzino. Archeologists found traces of small settlements in Colentina, dated from the 6th-7th century; the village of Colentina located near the Plumbuita Monastery was first mentioned on the map of H. C. Schütz of 1780 and on I. F. Schmidt's 1788 map. An Austrian map of 1791 shows the village as being located at the crossroad of the routes leading to Fundeni, Afumați, Ștefănești, Pipera with the high road bound for Bucharest; the earliest houses were built at the crossroad and around the Cârstienești Bridge across the Colentina river, close to the gate of the monastery.
Soon after, the Plumbuita Monastery, which owned the land in Colentina built and rented grocer's shops, inns, as well as agricultural land. In early 19th century, among the renters was the Paharnic Andronache Teohari, whose name was given to the Andronache estate in Northern Colentina, the name being still in use today; the houses were built along the road towards Bucharest, while the houses on the island of the monastery were still spread out. Due to this, in 1837, the ocârmuitor of the Ilfov County asked the hegumen of the monastery to plots for the peasants on the domains to build their houses according to a plan; the people who settled in Colentina were a heterogenous mix: some were Romanians from across Wallachia, others were Greeks, Bulgarians or Serbs. During the 1821 revolts that preceded the Greek War of Independence, Alexander Ypsilantis and the Filiki Eteria, coming from Moldavia settled on the field on the Bucharest-ward bank of Colentina; the same place was used for the consecration of the flags of the first national militia in 1830 and the place where the first soldiers of the National Army took their oath of allegiance in 1834.
After this, for a long time, the same field was used for military exercises. The 1863 law on the secularization of monastery estates in Romania made the Colentina estate property of the state and in March 1864, the rural commune of Colentina-Fundeni was created, which had three component villages: Plumbuita and Fundeni, it was around this time. Toward the end of the 19th century, Colentina continued to keep its agricultural economy, much of the land being owned by the large landowners, while the inhabitants owned only a sixth of the agricultural land; the commune had six abattoirs, three in Colentina and three in Plumbuita, killing around 12000 cows each year, the meat being sold in Bucharest and to the 26 pubs and 5 inns that Colentina had at the time. In the 1890s, the village of Colentina had a population of 254, the village of Plumbuita 288 and the village of Fundeni 279; the 1899 Romanian Census shows that three more villages were created in the commune: Andronache and Boldu, on the northern part of the former Plumbuita estate, while the Tei village was created around the Ghica Palace, the commune having a population of 1048, of which 46 foreign citizens, most of which Transylvanian refugees.
In 1939, together with Pipera, Plumbuita and Fundeni were made part of Bucharest. The neighborhood suffered a lot of modifications in the mid 1970s and 1980s when houses were replaced with 8 to 10 storey apartment blocks, like in Tei and Calea Mosilor and has been the home of Arab and Chinese immigrants to Romania. Alecsandru Dinca Nicolae Ghinea, "Așezări sătești din sec. XV-XIX pe teritoriul orașului București", in București - Materiale de istorie și muzeografie, VII, 1969. Constantin C. Firescul vieții sale, Istoria Bucureştilor. Din cele mai vechi timpuri pînă în zilele noastre, Bucharest, 1966
National Theatre Bucharest
The National Theatre Bucharest is one of the national theatres of Romania, located in the capital city of Bucharest. It was founded as the Teatrul cel Mare din Bucureşti in 1852, its first director being Costache Caragiale, it became a national institution in 1864 by a decree of Prime Minister Mihail Kogălniceanu, was named as the National Theatre in 1875. In April 1836, the Societatea Filarmonica — a cultural society founded by Ion Heliade Rădulescu and Ion Câmpineanu — bought the Câmpinencii Inn to build a National Theatre on the site, began to collect money and materials for this purpose. In 1840, Obşteasca Adunare proposed to Alexandru II Ghica, the Prince of Wallachia, a project to build a National Theatre with state support; the request was approved on June 4, 1840. Prince Gheorghe Bibescu adopted the idea of founding the theatre and chose a new location, on the spot of the former Filaret Inn. There were several reasons to favor this locations: it was centrally located, right in the middle of Podul Mogoşoaiei.
The August 13, 1843, report of the commission charged with building the theatre determined that construction would cost 20,300 Austrian guilder of which only 13,000 gold coins were available. In 1846, a new commission engaged the Vienese architect A. Hefft, who came up with an acceptable plan. Construction got under way in 1848. In August 1849, after Prince Barbu Dimitrie Ştirbei took power, he ordered that construction be completed; the theatre was inaugurated on December 31, 1852, with the play Zoe sau Amantul împrumutat, described in the newspapers of the time as a "vaudeville with songs". The building was built in the baroque style, with 338 stalls on the main floor, three levels of loges, a luxurious foyer with staircases of Carrara marble and a large gallery in which students could attend free of charge. For its first two years, the theatre was lit with tallow lamps, but from 1854 it used rape oil lamps. In 1875, at the time its name was changed to Teatrul Naţional, its director was the writer Alexandru Odobescu.
The historic theatre building on Calea Victoriei — now featured on the 100-leu banknote — was destroyed during the Luftwaffe bombardment of Bucharest on August 24, 1944. The current National Theatre is located about half a kilometre away from the old site, just south of the Hotel Intercontinental at Piaţa Universităţii, has been in use since 1973; the new edifice reconstructed from 2010 to 2014, was inaugurated to the end of the year 2014, with 7 halls, as the Grand Hall with 900 seats, is the biggest and the latest theater edifice of Europe. The Bucharest National Theater presents its performances in four halls: Grand Hall, Amphitheater Hall, Atelier Hall and Studio Room 99. In over 150 years of existence, the Bucharest National Theater presented on stage many of the most significant pieces of universal dramaturgy, it has had successful performances both in and outside the country: France, Austria, Italy, Spain, Greece, etc. List of concert halls Official site Media related to National Theatre Bucharest at Wikimedia Commons
Berceni is a district of southern Bucharest. Berceni is locally known as the place through where the wind comes in Bucharest. Geographically, it has a trapezoidal shape, bordered by Oltenitei Road and Turnu Magurele Street in the north and south, respectively. Built during the 1960s, it is a typical Communist-era working class district, lacking any major green spaces or cultural attractions, it has a population of 110,000. Some map would be useful here. Https://www.google.com/maps/place/Berceni,+Bucharestfirstname.lastname@example.org,26.1020178,14.78z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x40b1fe41c69f7dc9:0x7aa404e0b3338385!8m2!3d44.3892215!4d26.1182032 It is believed that the name comes from the hussars of Miklós Bercsényi, who were first mentioned after the suppression of the Hungarian Kuruc War led by Francis II Rákóczi. They settled in the neighborhood of Bucharest. Another theory claims. There is a village of Berceni, situated to the south and is outside Bucharest city limits
Cezar Lăzărescu was a Romanian architect and urban planner. Starting in the years after his graduation in 1952 and until after the 1977 Vrancea earthquake, he conceived a significant number of buildings and city plans in Romania and abroad, his father, Alexandre Lăzărescu, was an army corps colonel on duty far from Bucharest. His mother, Sophia Lăzărescu Georgescu, was a housewife. Having attended an art school herself, she taught him how to draw and paint. After attending a small public school, where the short illustrated fairy tale books he wrote brought him the admiration of his teachers and classmates, he was admitted to the Gheorghe Lazăr National College, one of the best high schools in Bucharest. Inspired by the exciting environment and the many extracurricular activities, he performed well in school, he contributed to several art exhibitions organised by his high school and in 1942 opened his own exhibition at the Athenaeum, a prestigious venue. His college years were over the background of World War II and the post-war era, during which he and his mother Sophia had to struggle to make ends meet.
He had remarkable academic achievements and was involved in numerous extracurricular professional and social activities. In the early 1950s he was drafted to the Danube – Black Sea canal works, where he was put in charge of a team of young architects who were commissioned to design workers' lodgings close to Cernavodă, near the seaside, he worked next on healthcare facilities and holiday camps in North and South Eforie, on the shores of Lake Techirghiol, in Mangalia. Socialist realism, the mandatory architectural style for any public building of this period, led to the production of cheap-looking housing projects, decorated in a pompous faux-classical way, meant to put on display the "luxurious life" of the working class; this architectural style were mandated by law in all countries of the Soviet Empire. Any public building or dwelling was required to be done in this style; the paid vacation time introduced by the "workers' union" gave rise to a pressing need to create, in just a few months' time, an impressive number of beds in tourist residences on the Black Sea coast.
A local Party leader asked the team led by Lăzărescu to build a hotel complex for the "worker's union" in North Eforie by the beginning of the summer. Faced with an unsolvable problem, with little "political oversight", Lăzărescu created, with his team, a vast building complex in a style reminiscent of American architecture far from the Socialist realism required by law. An investigation followed, with the looming threat of a prison sentence. Along with the local Party leader, Lăzărescu was summoned to the office of the General Secretary of the Worker's Party, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej. To Lăzărescu's surprise, Gheorghiu-Dej congratulated him, telling him how pleased he was with the result. Subsequently, Gheorghiu-Dej appointed Lăzărescu to lead the development of the Romanian Black Sea coast; this was to become the main building effort. In the following period, Lăzărescu developed the Southern coast in the areas of Eforie, Lake Techirghiol, Mangalia, the Northern seaside in the area of Mamaia. Sewage facilities and energy distribution networks in these areas were rudimentary at best, so the team needed to rebuild everything from scratch.
The team led by Lăzărescu comprised many talented architects who would become well known, such as A. Borgovan, V. Ghiorghiu, G. Cristea, D. Ghiorghiu, A. Coveianu, L. Popovici, T. Adam, V. Petrea and many others. Held together by the magnitude of the challenge and the shared vision of a modern architecture, the team created a number of remarkable buildings. Many of these have maintained their modern minimalistic character today, due to the purity of their shapes and the fluidity of the architectural expression. Examples include the "Perla Mării" restaurant, the vacation camps located between North and South Eforie, the "Melody" bar and casino, the Villa Marina, others); the technical approach is as daring as the aesthetic one: Mamaia was built on a low stretch of sand between the lake and the sea, which required building an innovative sewage system. At the same time as the development of the Black Sea coast, Lăzărescu was put in charge of building luxury villas for the government on the seaside, in North Eforie and Mamaia in Bucharest and in other parts of the country.
These luxury villas were built with materials supplied by French and Italian companies such as Perrier-Rolin, Zilli, or Barovier & Toso in Murano. Along with the design of the Otopeni International Airport, these were some of the few occasions on which Lăzărescu worked with his wife, Ileana Lăzărescu, on interior decoration. On the opposite end of the spectrum from the Socialist realism that represented Soviet domination, the influence of American architects Richard Neutra and Mies Van der Rohe can be felt in a number of buildings Lăzărescu designed in Bucharest, such as in the "Lake 1" and "Lake 2" villas. Additional style elements of these buildings stem from the commissioned requirements, the environment of the buildings, the influence of Romanian monastic architecture, Nordic Classicism, Swiss architecture. Several high-ranking Party officials commissioned Lăzărescu
Spiru C. Haret was a Romanian-Armenian mathematician and politician, he made a fundamental contribution to the n-body problem in celestial mechanics by proving that using a third degree approximation for the disturbing forces implies instability of the major axes of the orbits, by introducing the concept of secular perturbations in relation to this. As a politician, during his three terms as Minister of Education, Haret ran deep reforms, building the modern Romanian education system, he was made a full member of the Romanian Academy in 1892. He founded the Astronomical observatory in Bucharest, appointing Nicolae Coculescu as its first director; the crater Haret on the Moon is named after him. Haret was born in Iaşi, Moldavia, to an old Armenian family, showed an early talent for mathematics, publishing two textbooks when he was still a high school student. In 1869 he entered the University of Bucharest, where he studied mathematics. In 1870, while a student in his second term, he became teacher of mathematics at Nifon Seminary in Bucharest, but quit the following year in order to continue his studies.
In 1874, at age 23, he graduated with a degree in mathematics. After graduation, Haret won a scholarship competition organized by Titu Maiorescu and went to Paris in order to study mathematics at the Sorbonne. There he earned a mathematics diploma in 1875 and a physics diploma in 1876. Two years he earned his Ph. D. by defending his thesis, Sur l’invariabilité des grandes axes des orbites planétaires, in front of examiners led by Victor Puiseux. In this work he proved a result fundamental for the n-body problem in astronomy, the thesis being published in Vol. XVIII of the Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris. Haret was the first Romanian to obtain a Ph. D. degree in Paris. After his return to Romania in 1878, Haret abandoned scientific research and dedicated the rest of his life to improving Romanian education, underdeveloped at the time, both as professor and as politician, he was appointed professor of rational mechanics at the Science Faculty in Bucharest. The next year, Haret became a correspondent member of the Romanian Academy, receiving full membership in 1892.
He kept the professorship at the Science Faculty until his retirement in 1910, when he was followed as professor of mechanics by Dimitrie Pompeiu. From 1882 he was a professor of analytical geometry at the Bridges and Roads' School in Bucharest. After retirement, Haret lectured at the informal People's University. Haret was the Minister of Public Education in three liberal governments, between 1897–1899, 1901–1904 and 1907–1910; as Minister of Education he ran a complete reform building the modern Romanian education system. Haret’s major scientific contribution was made in 1878, in his Ph. D. thesis Sur l’invariabilité des grandes axes des orbites planétaires. At the time it was known that planets disturb each other’s orbits, thus deviating from the elliptic motion described by Johannes Kepler’s First Law. Pierre Laplace and Joseph Louis Lagrange had studied the problem, both of them showing that the major axes of the orbits are stable, by using a first degree approximation of the perturbing forces.
In 1808 Siméon Denis Poisson had proved that the stability holds when using second degree approximations. In his thesis, Haret proved by using third degree approximations that the axes are not stable as believed, but instead feature a time variability, which he called secular perturbations; this result implies that planetary motion is not stable. Henri Poincaré considered this result a great surprise and continued Haret’s research, which led him to the creation of chaos theory. Félix Tisserand recommended the extension of Haret's method to other astronomic problems and, much in 1955, Jean Meffroy restarted Haret’s research using new techniques. Soon after his return to Romania, Haret abandoned research, focusing for the rest of his life on teaching and, as Minister of Education, on the reform of the education system, he only published an article on the secular acceleration of the Moon in 1880 and one on Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. In 1910 he published Social mechanics. M. Stavinschi and V. Mioc, Astronomical Researches in Poincaré's and Romanian Works, Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy Ion Bulei, Atunci când veacul se năştea... lumea româneasca 1900–1908, Editura Eminescu, pp. 82–96 Institute Romanian Liga "Spiru Haret" Biography at The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, St Andrew's University Constantin Schifirneț: Spiru Haret, reformatorul societãţii româneşti Constantin Schifirneț: Spiru Haret and School Legislation Reform, „Revista română de sociologie”, serie nouă, anul XXV, nr.
3–4, pp. 311–326, 2014 http://www.revistadesociologie.ro/pdf-uri/nr.3-4-2014/07-CSchifirnet.pdf