Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems. Deserts, rain forests, plains and other areas including the most developed urban areas, all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the term in popular culture refers to animals that are untouched by human factors, most scientists agree that much wildlife is affected by human activities. Humans have tended to separate civilization from wildlife in a number of ways including the legal and moral sense; some animals, have adapted to suburban environments. This includes such animals as domesticated cats, dogs and gerbils; some religions declare certain animals to be sacred, in modern times concern for the natural environment has provoked activists to protest against the exploitation of wildlife for human benefit or entertainment. The global wildlife population decreased by 52 percent between 1970 and 2014, according to a report by the World Wildlife Fund.
Stone Age people and hunter-gatherers relied on both plants and animals, for their food. In fact, some species may have been hunted to extinction by early human hunters. Today, hunting and gathering wildlife is still a significant food source in some parts of the world. In other areas and non-commercial fishing are seen as a sport or recreation. Meat sourced from wildlife, not traditionally regarded as game is known as bush meat; the increasing demand for wildlife as a source of traditional food in East Asia is decimating populations of sharks, primates and other animals, which they believe have aphrodisiac properties. In November 2008 900 plucked and "oven-ready" owls and other protected wildlife species were confiscated by the Department of Wildlife and National Parks in Malaysia, according to TRAFFIC; the animals were believed to be sold in wild meat restaurants. Most are listed in CITES which restricts such trade. A November 2008 report from biologist and author Sally Kneidel, PhD, documented numerous wildlife species for sale in informal markets along the Amazon River, including wild-caught marmosets sold for as little as $1.60.
Many Amazon species, including peccaries, turtles, turtle eggs, armadillos are sold as food. Others in these informal markets, such as monkeys and parrots, are destined for the pet trade smuggled into the United States. Still other Amazon species are popular ingredients in traditional medicines sold in local markets; the medicinal value of animal parts is based on superstition. Many animal species have spiritual significance in different cultures around the world, they and their products may be used as sacred objects in religious rituals. For example, eagles and their feathers have great cultural and spiritual value to Native Americans as religious objects. In Hinduism the cow is regarded sacred. Muslims conduct sacrifices on Eid al-Adha, to commemorate the sacrificial spirit of Ibrāhīm in love of God. Camels, sheep and cows may be offered as sacrifice during the three days of Eid. Many nations have established their tourism sector around their natural wildlife. South Africa has, for example, many opportunities for tourists to see the country's wildlife in its national parks, such as the Kruger Park.
In South India, the Periar Wildlife Sanctuary, Bandipur National Park and Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary are situated around and in forests. India is home to many national parks and wildlife sanctuaries showing the diversity of its wildlife, much of its unique fauna, excels in the range. There are 89 national parks, 13 bio reserves and more than 400 wildlife sanctuaries across India which are the best places to go to see Bengal tigers, Asiatic lions, Indian elephants, Indian rhinoceroses and other wildlife which reflect the importance that the country places on nature and wildlife conservation; this subsection focuses on anthropogenic forms of wildlife destruction. The loss of animals from ecological communities is known as defaunation. Exploitation of wild populations has been a characteristic of modern man since our exodus from Africa 130,000 – 70,000 years ago; the rate of extinctions of entire species of plants and animals across the planet has been so high in the last few hundred years it is believed that we are in the sixth great extinction event on this planet.
Destruction of wildlife does not always lead to an extinction of the species in question, the dramatic loss of entire species across Earth dominates any review of wildlife destruction as extinction is the level of damage to a wild population from which there is no return. The four most general reasons that lead to destruction of wildlife include overkill, habitat destruction and fragmentation, impact of introduced species and chains of extinction. Overkill happens whenever hunting occurs at rates greater than the reproductive capacity of the population is being exploited; the effects of this are noticed much more in slow growing populations such as many larger species of fish. When a portion of a wild population is hunted, an increased availability of resources is experienced increasing growth and reproduction as density dependent inhibition is lowered. Hunting, fishing and so on, has lowered the competition between members of a population. However, if this hunting continues at rate greater than the rate at which new members of the population can reach breeding age and produ
The Alaska Legislature is the state legislature of the U. S. state of Alaska. It is a bicameral institution consisting of the 40-member Alaska House of Representatives and the 20-member Alaska Senate. There are 40 House Districts and 20 Senate Districts. With a total of 60 lawmakers, the Alaska Legislature is the smallest bicameral state legislature in the United States and the second-smallest of all state legislatures. There are no term limits for either chamber; the Alaska Legislature meets in the Alaska State Capitol in Alaska. Unlike other state legislatures with longer sessions, the Alaska Legislature's comparatively short session allows many lawmakers to retain outside employment in the state's many seasonal industries, such as fishing and tourism. In this, the Alaska Legislature retains some of the volunteer nature that characterized most state legislatures until the middle of the 20th century; this has led to recurring but minor controversy around the potential for conflict of interest inherent in legislators' outside employment.
A candidate for legislative office must be a qualified voter and resident of Alaska for no less than three years, a resident of the district from which elected for one year preceding filing for office. A senator must be at least 25 years of age and a representative 21 years of age at the time the oath of office is taken; each chamber of the legislature may expel a member with the concurrence of two-thirds of the membership of that house. This has happened only once in the legislature's history. On February 5, 1982, the Alaska Senate of the 12th Legislature expelled Bethel senator George Hohman from the body. Hohman was convicted of bribery in conjunction with his legislative duties on December 24, 1981, had defiantly refused to resign from his seat. Expulsion was unnecessary during the more recent Alaska political corruption probe, as legislators targeted by the probe resigned, lost renomination or re-election, or did not seek re-election; the Alaska Constitution gives the legislature the authority to set the term start date.
Legislative terms begin on the second Monday in January following a presidential election year and on the third Tuesday in January following a gubernatorial election. Representatives have a two-year term, senators have a four-year term. One-half of the senators shall be elected every two years. Annual sessions are limited by statute to 90 calendar days. Special sessions of 30 calendar days may be convened by a consensus of two-thirds of each house. In the 2006 elections, a voter initiative was passed that reduced the statutory length of the session from 121 days to 90 days; the 2008 session was the first 90-day session. Although the session adjourned on time, opponents of the shorter session claimed that legislation was rushed and public input was jeopardized. Legislators introduce a bill by giving it to the Chief Clerk of the Alaska House of Representatives or the Secretary of the Alaska Senate. Bills submitted by the governor are introduced through a Rules Committee in either chamber; the chief clerk of the house or the senate secretary assigns each bill a number.
During session, a bill is introduced and first read by number, sponsor or sponsors, title. The bill is referred to a committee or multiple committees. Both chambers have the following committees: Finance. Committee chairs can choose whether or not to hear a bill, committees can vote to approve a bill in its original form or make modifications through a committee substitute. Once bills or substitutes are approved, the legislation is referred to the next committee of assignment or to the Rules Committee, which can further amend the bill or assign it to the chamber's daily calendar. Once the Rules Committee has scheduled a bill on the chamber floor, it appears on the calendar in Second Reading; the bill is again read by number, sponsor or sponsors, title, along with the standing committee reports. A motion is made on the floor to adopt any committee substitutes. Amendments can be offered and voted on. Third Reading is. After final passage in either the Alaska House of Representatives or Alaska Senate, a bill is engrossed and sent to the opposite house to go through the same process of introduction, committee referral, three readings.
When a bill is not modified in the second house, that house can send it to the governor on Third Reading, through enrollment. If the bill is modified, the house of origin must vote to accept or reject amendments by the opposite house. A Fourth Reading, in the case of acceptance, will send the bill through enrollment. If amendments are rejected, the bill can be sent to conference, where members of the Senate and House hash out a final version and send it to a Fourth Reading in both houses; the governor can choose to veto the legislation. In the case of the veto, a two-third majority can override the veto. If signed or approved by a veto override, the legislation becomes law. Unlike in many states, the governor does not have the power of the pocket veto. Unlike many other state legislative chambers in the United States, both houses of the Alaska Legislature have a longstanding tradition of majority caucuses encompassing members of both major parties. Democrats caucusing with the majority are colloquially known as "Bush Democrats," a reference to the Alaskan bush country from which they hail.
Members of the minority party caucusing with the majority a
Morrill Land-Grant Acts
The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges in U. S. states using the proceeds of federal land sales. The Morrill Act of 1862 was enacted during the American Civil War and the Morrill Act of 1890 expanded this model. For 20 years prior to the first introduction of the bill in 1857, there was a political movement calling for the creation of agriculture colleges; the movement was led by Professor Jonathan Baldwin Turner of Illinois College. For example, the Michigan Constitution of 1850 called for the creation of an "agricultural school", though it was not until February 12, 1855, that Michigan Governor Kinsley S. Bingham signed a bill establishing the United States' first agriculture college, the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, known today as Michigan State University, which served as a model for the Morrill Act. On February 8, 1853, the Illinois Legislature adopted a resolution, drafted by Turner, calling for the Illinois congressional delegation to work to enact a land-grant bill to fund a system of industrial colleges, one in each state.
Senator Lyman Trumbull of Illinois believed it was advisable that the bill should be introduced by an eastern congressman, two months Representative Justin Smith Morrill of Vermont introduced his bill. Unlike the Turner Plan, which provided an equal grant to each state, the Morrill bill allocated land based on the number of senators and representatives each state had in Congress; this was more advantageous to the more populous eastern states. The Morrill Act was first proposed in 1857, was passed by Congress in 1859, but it was vetoed by President James Buchanan. In 1861, Morrill resubmitted the act with the amendment that the proposed institutions would teach military tactics as well as engineering and agriculture. Aided by the secession of many states that did not support the plans, this reconfigured Morrill Act was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on July 2, 1862; the previous day Lincoln signed a bill financing the transcontinental railroad with land grants. Less than two months earlier he signed the Homestead Act encouraging western settlement.
Together these actions, taken at a time when the Union Army was poorly performing, did much to define post–Civil War America. The purpose of the land-grant colleges was: without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactic, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life. Under the act, each eligible state received a total of 30,000 acres of federal land, either within or contiguous to its boundaries, for each member of congress the state had as of the census of 1860; this land, or the proceeds from its sale, was to be used toward establishing and funding the educational institutions described above. Under provision six of the Act, "No State while in a condition of rebellion or insurrection against the government of the United States shall be entitled to the benefit of this act," in reference to the recent secession of several Southern states and the contemporaneously raging American Civil War.
After the war, the 1862 Act was extended to the former Confederate states. If the federal land within a state was insufficient to meet that state's land grant, the state was issued scrip which authorized the state to select federal lands in other states to fund its institution. For example, New York selected valuable timber land in Wisconsin to fund Cornell University.p. 9 The resulting management of this scrip by the university yielded one third of the total grant revenues generated by all the states though New York received only one-tenth of the 1862 land grant.p. 10 Overall, the 1862 Morrill Act allocated 17,400,000 acres of land, which when sold yielded a collective endowment of $7.55 million.p. 8On September 12, 1862, the state of Iowa was the first to accept the terms of the Morrill Act which provided the funding boost needed for the fledgling State Agricultural College and Model Farm. The first land-grant institution created under the Act was Kansas State University, established on February 16, 1863, opened on September 2, 1863.
Before the Civil War, American engineers were educated at West Point. While the Congressional debate associated with the Morrill Act was focused on benefits to agriculture, the mechanic arts were included. After the Civil War, as the German University model began to replace the English College, with the encouragement of the Morrill Act, the engineering discipline was defined; because the Morrill Act excluded spending on buildings, engineering specific infrastructure such as textbooks and laboratories were developed. In 1866, there were around 300 American men with engineering degrees and six reputable colleges granting them. By 1911 the United States was graduating 3000 engineers a year, had a total of 38,000 degreed engineers; the Morrill Act coincided with the establishment of engineering in the American university. With a few exceptions, nearly all of the land-grant colleges are public. To mainta
A public university is a university, publicly owned or receives significant public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a national university is considered public varies from one country to another depending on the specific education landscape. In Egypt, Al-Azhar University was founded in 970 AD as a madrassa, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the world, formally becoming a university in 1961, it was followed by a lot of universities opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo University, Alexandria University, Assiut University, Ain Shams University, Helwan University, Beni-Suef University, Benha University, Zagazig University, Suez Canal University, where tuition fees are subsidized by the government. In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students who meet the criteria determined annually by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service receive government sponsorship, as part of their university or college fee is catered for by the government.
They are eligible for a low interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back the loan after completing higher education. In Nigeria public universities can be established by both the federal government and by state governments. Examples include the University of Lagos, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ibadan, University of Benin, University of Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University, Abia State University, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Gombe State University, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Federal University of Technology Yola, University of Maiduguri, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, University of Jos, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, University of Ilorin, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University South Africa has 23 public tertiary educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university. Prominent public South African universities include the University of Johannesburg, University of Cape Town, Nelson Mandela University, North-west University, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch, University of Witwatersrand, Rhodes University and the University of South Africa.
In Tunisia, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research controls all of the public universities. For some universities, the ministry of higher education coordinates with other ministries like: the Ministry of Public health or the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies. Admission in a public university in Tunisia is assured after succeeding in the Tunisian Baccalaureate: Students are classified according to a Formula score based on their results in the Baccalaureate; the students make a wishlist with the universities they want to attend on a state website dedicated for orientation. Thus, the high-ranking-students get priority to choose. Examples of Tunisian public universities: Carthage University, Carthage Ez-Zitouna University, Tunis Manouba University, Manouba Tunis El Manar University, Tunis Tunis University, Tunis Université Tunis Carthage University of Gabès, Gabès University of Gafsa, Gafsa University of Jendouba, Jendouba University of Kairouan, Kairouan University of Monastir, Monastir University of Sfax, Sfax University of Sousse, Sousse There are 40 public universities in Bangladesh.
The universities do not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission, which in turn deals with the government. Many private universities are established under the Private University Act of 1992. All universities in Brunei are public universities; these are major universities in Brunei: University of Brunei Darussalam Brunei Technological University Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University In mainland China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public and all important and significant centers for higher education in the country are publicly administered. The public universities are run by the provincial governments; some public universities are national. Private undergraduate colleges do exist, which are vocational colleges sponsored by private enterprises; the majority of such universities are not entitled to award bachelor's degrees. Public universities enjoy higher reputation domestically. Eight institutions are funded by the University Grants Committee.
The Academy for Performing Arts receives funding from the government. The Open University of Hong Kong is a public university, but it is self-financed; the Shue Yan University is the only private institution with the status of a university, but it receives some financial support from the government since it was granted university status. In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public. There are some private undergraduate colleges engineering schools, but a majority of these are affiliated to public universities; some of these private schools are partially aided by the national or state governments. India has an "open" public university, the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which offers distance education, in terms of the number of enrolled students is now the largest university in the world with over 4 million students. There are private educational institutes in Indonesia; the government (Ministry of Re
University of Alaska Anchorage
The University of Alaska Anchorage is a public research university located in Anchorage, Alaska. UAA administers four community campuses spread across Southcentral Alaska; these include Kenai Peninsula College, Kodiak College, Matanuska–Susitna College, Prince William Sound College. Between the community campuses and the main Anchorage campus, over 20,000 undergraduate and professional students are enrolled at UAA; this makes it the largest institution of higher learning in the University of Alaska System, as well as the state. UAA's main campus is located 4 miles southeast of its downtown area in the University-Medical District, adjacent to the Alaska Native Medical Center, Alaska Pacific University and Providence Alaska Medical Center. Nestled among an extensive green belt, close to Goose Lake Park, UAA has been recognized each of the past three years as a Tree Campus USA by the Arbor Day Foundation. Much of the campus is connected by a network of paved, outdoor trails, as well as an elevated, indoor "spine" that extends east to west from Rasmuson Hall, continuing through the student union and across UAA Drive before terminating inside the Consortium Library.
UAA is divided into six teaching units at the Anchorage campus: the College of Arts and Sciences, College of Business and Public Policy, the Community and Technical College, College of Education, College of Engineering and the College of Health. UAA offers master's degrees and graduate certificates in select programs, the ability to complete certain PhD programs through cooperating universities through its Graduate Division; as of May 2012, the university is accredited to confer doctoral degrees. UAA is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Universities. In 2019, UAA's School of Education lost its accreditation from the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation. In 1954, the Anchorage Community College was founded and began offering evening classes to 414 students at Elmendorf Air Force Base. In 1962, the ACC, other community colleges around the state were incorporated into the University of Alaska statewide system. Five years ACC began offering both day and evening classes at the current campus location.
ACC provided academic study for associate degrees and the first two years of work toward baccalaureate degrees. In the late 1960s, strong interest in establishing a four-year university in Anchorage brought about the birth of the University of Alaska, Anchorage Senior College. While ACC administered the lower division college, ASC administered upper division and graduate programs leading to baccalaureate and master's degrees, as well as continuing education for professional programs. In 1971, the first commencement was held at West Anchorage High School, where 265 master's, baccalaureate and associate degrees were awarded. ASC moved to the Consortium Library Building in 1973; the following year, when the first classroom and office facility was completed, daytime courses were offered for the first time. In 1977, ASC was renamed the University of Alaska, Anchorage. Ten years ACC and UA,A merged to become what is now known as the University of Alaska Anchorage. Since 1987, the university has continued to expand.
More than 200 programs, ranging from certificate programs to associate, master's, doctoral degrees are offered at campuses in Anchorage and community campuses and extension centers throughout Southcentral Alaska. The university's mission is to discover and disseminate knowledge through teaching, research and creative expression; the University of Alaska Anchorage is an open-access university with 17,000 students. In addition to thousands of students from across the state, the university retains a large commuter population from in and around Anchorage, many of whom are non-traditional or returning students. Nearly ten percent of the student population is from outside of the United States. UAA has the largest population of student veterans in the state; the University of Alaska Anchorage partners with the University of Washington School of Law and Willamette University College of Law in Salem, Oregon to provide qualified students with the opportunity to earn a baccalaureate degree and law degree on an accelerated schedule in six years rather than the usual seven.
These are referred to as 3+3 programs or an Accelerated JD Program because students spend three years as undergraduates and three years in law school. UAA offers Associate of Applied Science and Bachelor of Science degrees in: Air Traffic Control Aviation Administration Professional PilotingAn associate of applied science degree is offered in: Aviation MaintenanceThe University of Alaska Aviation Technology division is part of Center of Excellence for General Aviation, a collaborative research effort between the following member universities: Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Florida A&M University University of North Dakota Wichita State University College of Arts and Sciences College of Business and Public Policy College of Education College of Health and Social Welfare Community and Technical College School of Engineering School of Nursing School of Social Work University Honors Program Graduate Division UAA/APU Consortium Library Alvin S. Okeson Library Carolyn Floyd Library Alaska Advantage Education Grant GEAR UP University of Alaska Grant As a center of research and understanding, UAA sponsors research, public service and other activities related to northern populations and in support of local and regional
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua