History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory and it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, collection, organization and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians and their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In Asia, a chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries, the modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the word history comes ultimately from Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning inquiry, knowledge from inquiry, or judge.
It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι, the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, the Athenian ephebes oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions. History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, and it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, and this time the loan stuck. In Middle English, the meaning of history was story in general, the restriction to the meaning the branch of knowledge that deals with past events, the formal record or study of past events, esp. human affairs arose in the mid-fifteenth century. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, and it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the sixteenth century. For him, historia was the knowledge of objects determined by space and time, in an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general.
In modern German and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are synthetic and highly inflected. The adjective historical is attested from 1661, and historic from 1669, Historian in the sense of a researcher of history is attested from 1531. Historians write in the context of their own time, and with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, in the words of Benedetto Croce, All history is contemporary history. History is facilitated by the formation of a discourse of past through the production of narrative. The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record, the task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of past. Therefore, the constitution of the archive is a result of circumscribing a more general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documents
Steward Observatory is the research arm of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Arizona. Its offices are located on the UA campus in Tucson, established in 1916, the first telescope and building were formally dedicated on April 23,1923. It now operates, or is a partner in telescopes at five locations in Arizona, one in New Mexico, one in Hawaii. It has provided instruments for three different space telescopes and numerous terrestrial ones, Steward has one of the few facilities in the world that can cast and figure the very large primary mirrors used in telescopes built in the past decade. Steward Observatory owes its existence to the efforts of American astronomer, in 1906, Douglass accepted a position as Assistant Professor of Physics and Geography at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona. Over the next 10 years, all of Douglass’ efforts to secure funding from the University and the Arizona Territorial Legislatures ended in failure. During this time period, Douglass served the University of Arizona as Head of the Dept.
of Physics and Astronomy, Interim President, and finally Dean of the College of Letters, Arts, & Sciences. Then on October 18,1916, University President Rufus von KleinSmid announced that a donor had given the University $60,000 “…to be used to buy a telescope of huge size. ”That donor was revealed to be Mrs. Lavinia Steward of Oracle. Mrs. Steward was a widow who had an interest in astronomy. Douglass made plans to use the Steward gift to construct a 36-inch diameter Newtonian reflecting telescope, the situation was further delayed by the fact that up until this time, the expertise in large telescope mirror making was in Europe. The war made it impossible to contract with a European company, so Douglass had to find an American glass company that was willing to develop this expertise. After a couple of failed castings, the Spencer Lens Co. of Buffalo, the telescope was finally installed in the observatory building in July 1922, and the Steward Observatory was officially dedicated on April 23,1923.
This installation is to be devoted to scientific research, scientific research is business foresight on a large scale. It is knowledge obtained before it is needed and this I believe is the essence of education wherever such education is not strictly vocational. The student learns many facts and has much training, so it is with the research institutions. In this Observatory I sincerely hope and expect that the boundaries of knowledge will be advanced along astronomical lines. Astronomy was the first science developed by our primitive ancestors thousands of years ago because it measured time, Steward Observatory manages three different observing locations in southern Arizona, Mount Graham International Observatory, Mount Lemmon Observatory, and Catalina Station on Mount Bigelow. It operates telescopes at two additional important observatories, Kitt Peak National Observatory and Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Steward is a partner in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III, which is located in New Mexico at Apache Point Observatory
Arizona Stadium is an outdoor college football stadium in Tucson, Arizona. On the campus of the University of Arizona, it is the field of the Arizona Wildcats of the Pac-12 Conference. Originally constructed in 1928 to hold 7,000 spectators, the seating capacity has been expanded numerous times since. As of 2016, the stadium has a capacity of 55,675. The facility includes various offices, including the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab. Located in central Tucson, Arizona Stadium has been home to University of Arizona Wildcats football since 1928, stadium capacity was 7,000, with the only seating located on the stadiums west side. Arizonas first game at the facility was October 12,1929, capacity was increased to 10,000 in 1938 when seats were constructed on the stadiums east side. 4,000 seats were added to both end zones in 1947, in 1950, a horseshoe configuration was constructed around the south end zone resulting in the addition of almost 8,700 seats. A multi-level press box and 10,000 seats were added to the west grandstand in 1965.
The east side of the received a second tier, consisting of 17,000 seats, in 1976. In 1981, the team stopped using the stadium and the track was removed. Permanent seating was placed at the end zone in 1988. Following the 1988 season, a new press box with luxury sky boxes was built, the sky boxes include a 319 loge seats on the first level,23 luxury suites between the 2nd and 3rd levels, and a media level on the 4th floor. Because the stadium was in place, the sky boxes are built so that the structure is cantilevered out over the edge of the stadium seats. Prior to the 1999 season, a new scoreboard with a monitor was installed. The Copper Bowl was a bowl game based in Tucson. In January 2011, it was announced that a new 5 and it is the seventh-largest video screen in college football. In September 2009, Arizona announced plans for the Lowell-Stevens Football Facility, the project broke ground after the conclusion of the 2011 season
Wilbur and Wilma
Wilbur and Wilma Wildcat are the official mascots at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona. In 1915, the schools first mascot, Rufus Arizona was brought to campus and he was a live desert bobcat, named for U of A president Rufus von KleinSmid. For the next fifty years, the school used live mascots, however, in 1959, the costumed version of the live bobcat mascots, began appearing at football games. He was extremely popular, and has stayed ever since, in 1986, Wilma Wildcat was created, and was even married to Wilbur. Originally, in honor of Arizonas Old West heritage, Wilbur wore a blue flat-topped cowboy hat, a blue vest, a cardinal bandana scarf around his neck and a holster with two pistols. Recently and Wilma have taken to wearing the teams athletics jerseys instead of their traditional outfits, the hat remains on Wilbur, and Wilma wears a cardinal-colored bow. The identities of the students portraying Wilbur and Wilma are kept confidential until the home basketball game of the season.
UA Traditions from Arizona. edu About Wilbur & Wilma from the Universitys cheerleading webpage
Arizona State University
Arizona State University is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix, metropolitan area, and four regional learning centers throughout Arizona. The 2016 university ratings by U. S. News & World Report rank ASU No.1 among the Most Innovative Schools in America for the year in a row. ASU is the largest public university by enrollment in the U. S and it had approximately 82,060 students enrolled in 2014, including 66,309 undergraduate and 15,751 graduate students. ASUs charter, approved by the board of regents in 2014, is based on the New American University model created by ASU President Crow, ASU is classified as a research university with very high research activity by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. The Center for Measuring University Performance ranks ASU 31st among top U. S. public research universities, ASU was classified as a Research I institute in 1994, making it one of the nations newest major research universities.
Students compete in 25 varsity sports, the Arizona State Sun Devils are members of the Pac-12 Conference and have won 23 NCAA championships. Along with multiple clubs and recreational facilities, ASU is home to more than 1,100 registered student organizations. To keep pace with the student populations growth, the university continuously renovates, the demand for new academic halls, athletic facilities, student recreation centers, and residential halls is being addressed with donor contributions and public-private investments. The campus consisted of a single, four-room schoolhouse on a 20-acre plot largely donated by Tempe residents George, classes began with 33 students on February 8,1886. The school accepted high school students and graduates, and awarded high school diplomas, in 1923 the school stopped offering high school courses and added a high school diploma to the admissions requirements. In 1925 the school became the Tempe State Teachers College and offered four-year Bachelor of Education degrees as well as two-year teaching certificates, in 1929, the legislature authorized Bachelor of Arts in Education degrees as well, and the school was renamed the Arizona State Teachers College.
Under the 30-year tenure of president Arthur John Matthews the school was given all-college student status, the first dormitories built in the state were constructed under his supervision. Of the 18 buildings constructed while Matthews was president, six are still in use, Matthews envisioned an evergreen campus, with many shrubs brought to the campus, and implemented the planting of Palm Walk, now a landmark of the Tempe campus. His legacy is being continued to this day with the campus having been declared a nationally recognized arboretum. During the Great Depression, Ralph W. Swetman was hired as president for a three-year term, although enrollment increased by almost 100 percent during his tenure due to the depression, many faculty were terminated and faculty salaries were cut. In 1933, Grady Gammage, president of Arizona State Teachers College at Flagstaff, became president of ASU, like his predecessor, Gammage oversaw construction of a number of buildings on the Tempe campus. He oversaw the development of the graduate programs.
The schools name was changed to Arizona State College in 1945, at the time, two other names considered were Tempe University and State University at Tempe
Bear Down is the official motto of the University of Arizona, located in Tucson, Arizona. It is the inspiration for Bear Down, the unofficial fight song of the schools Arizona Wildcats. The official fight song is Fight, the battle cry was created in 1926 by a popular student athlete, John Button Salmon. Salmon was the student body president, as well as the quarterback for the Wildcat football team and the catcher for the Wildcat baseball team. The day after the first game of the 1926 football season, although Salmons friends were not injured, Salmon suffered a severe spinal cord injury. In the aftermath of the accident, football coach Pop McKale visited him in the every day. During McKales last visit, Salmons last message to his teammates was, Tell the team to bear down. John Salmon died on October 18,1926, the following year, the University of Arizona student body adopted the slogan for use with all Wildcat athletic teams. 231129°N110. 950115°W /32.231129, -110.950115. The words are featured on the roof of the gymnasium.
In 1939, the Arizona state legislature issued a decree that Bear Down would be the property of The University of Arizona. I had one of our agencys law librarian check the laws to see if this was put through as a bill - no luck. I checked Memorials and Resolutions, which is probably the closest we would have to something called a decree, finally, I even checked in the Governors records to see if this was issued as a proclamation, and found nothing. Doing a bit of googling, I see that this decree is mentioned several times and my suggestion to you is that you may want to spend a bit of time searching through newspapers to see if you can find information about an event happening in 1939 recognizing the phrase. Could it have, rather than the legislature, been the Arizona Board of Regents, might it be a different kind of document altogether. Unfortunately, we do not have the staff to do kind of research. You may want to contact the University of Arizona Special Collections to see if they can clarify this reference, in 2013 Arizonas football stadium installed a new artificial surface with Bear Down etched in the center of the field and running from end to end between the 15-yard lines.
Previously the phrase was painted on the field in two separate areas, was written by Jack K. Lee, the universitys future band director, in 1952. As related by Lee himself in years, Lee was one of applicants for the position of Director of Bands at the U of A
Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, United States, and home to the University of Arizona. The 2010 United States Census put the population at 520,116, the Tucson MSA forms part of the larger Tucson-Nogales combined statistical area, with a total population of 1,010,025 as of the 2010 Census. Tucson is the second-largest populated city in Arizona behind Phoenix, both of which anchor the Arizona Sun Corridor, the city is located 108 miles southeast of Phoenix and 60 mi north of the U. S. –Mexico border. Tucson is the 33rd largest city and the 53rd largest metropolitan area in the United States, Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, and South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown. Communities in the vicinity of Tucson include Casas Adobes, Catalina Foothills, Flowing Wells, Midvale Park, Tanque Verde, towns outside the Tucson metro area include Benson to the southeast and Oracle to the north, and Green Valley to the south.
The Spanish name of the city, Tucsón, is derived from the Oodham Cuk Ṣon, meaning base of the black, Tucson is sometimes referred to as The Old Pueblo. Tucson was probably first visited by Paleo-Indians, known to have been in southern Arizona about 12,000 years ago, recent archaeological excavations near the Santa Cruz River have located a village site dating from 2100 BC. The floodplain of the Santa Cruz River was extensively farmed during the Early Agricultural Period and these people constructed irrigation canals and grew corn and other crops while gathering wild plants and hunting. The Early Ceramic period occupation of Tucson saw the first extensive use of vessels for cooking. The groups designated as the Hohokam lived in the area from AD600 to 1450 and are known for their vast irrigation canal systems and their red-on-brown pottery. Jesuit missionary Eusebio Francisco Kino visited the Santa Cruz River valley in 1692, a separate Convento settlement was founded downstream along the Santa Cruz River, near the base of what is now A mountain.
Hugo OConor, the father of the city of Tucson, Arizona authorized the construction of a military fort in that location, Presidio San Agustín del Tucsón. During the Spanish period of the presidio, attacks such as the Second Battle of Tucson were repeatedly mounted by Apaches, eventually the town came to be called Tucson and became a part of Sonora after Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821. Tucson was not included in the Mexican Cession and Cookes road through Tucson became one of the important routes into California during the California Gold Rush, south of the Gila River, was obtained via treaty from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase on June 8,1854. Tucson became a part of the United States of America, although the American military did not formally take control until March 1856. In 1857, Tucson became a station on the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line. The Overland Mail Corporation attempted to continue running, following the Bascom Affair, devastating Apache attacks on the stations, from August 1861 to mid-1862, Tucson was the western capital of the Confederate Arizona Territory, the eastern capital being Mesilla.
In 1862, the California Column drove the Confederate forces out of Arizona and all of what is now Arizona were part of New Mexico Territory until 1863, when they became part of the new Arizona Territory
University of Arizona
The University of Arizona is a public research university in Tucson, United States. Founded in 1885, the UA was the first university in the Arizona Territory, the university operates two medical schools and is affiliated with the regions only academic medical centers. The university is home to the James E. Rogers College of Law and numerous other nationally ranked graduate. During the 2015-2016 academic year, there was an enrollment of 43,088 students. The University of Arizona is governed by the Arizona Board of Regents, the University of Arizona is one of the elected members of the Association of American Universities and is the only representative from the state of Arizona to this group. Known as the Arizona Wildcats, the teams are members of the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA. UA athletes have won titles in several sports, most notably mens basketball, baseball. The official colors of the university and its teams are UA Red. After the passage of the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the push for a university in Arizona grew, the University of Arizona was approved by the Arizona Territorys Thieving Thirteenth Legislature in 1885, which selected the city of Tucson to receive the appropriation to build the university.
Tucson had hoped to receive the appropriation for the mental hospital. Tucson was largely disappointed with receiving what was viewed as an inferior prize. Construction of Old Main, the first building on campus, began on October 27,1887, and classes met for the first time in 1891 with 32 students in Old Main, which is still in use today. Because there were no schools in Arizona Territory, the university maintained separate preparatory classes for the first 23 years of operation. The University of Arizona offers 334 fields of study leading to bachelors, doctoral, academic departments and programs are organized into colleges and schools. Currently, grades are given on a strict 4-point scale with A worth 4, B worth 3, C worth 2, D worth 1 and E worth zero points. In 2004, there were discussions with students and faculty that may lead the UA towards eventual usage of the grading system in future years. As of December 2015, the university uses the 4-points scale. The Center for World University Rankings in 2015 ranked Arizona 68th in the world, the 2015–16 Times Higher Education World University Rankings rated University of Arizona 163rd in the world and the 2016/17 QS World University Rankings ranked it 233rd
Territorial Cup Series
The Territorial Cup Series is the yearlong competition between the Arizona Wildcats and Arizona State Sun Devils. With the end of the 2011-2012 season, State Farms sponsorship of the series concluded, the universities are currently seeking new sponsorship. The series includes head to head competitions in 20 different sports, the two additional sports of Mens Indoor Track & Field and Womens Sand Volleyball are the recent additions in the competition. In the 2013-2014 school year, Womens Sand Volleyball became a varsity intercollegiate sport for both Arizona and ASU. The name comes from the Territorial Cup, which is the trophy awarded to the winner of the football game. Points are awarded for all sports in both schools maintain an intercollegiate team. Each sport is one point, which is awarded to the winner of the head-to-head match up between the two teams. If the head-to-head match up ends in a tie, each team receives ½ point, in baseball and softball, all games, both conference and non-conference, count as one point combined.
In swimming and diving, cross country and track and field, in addition, games between the schools in Pac-12 tournament and NCAA tournament play will count towards the series as well. Should the two universities finish tied, the winner shall be decided by whichever school finishes higher in the Directors Cup standings, if they should tie in the Directors Cup standings, the winner of the Territorial Cup Trophy in football that year will be the final tiebreaker. Prior to the current point system, there had a dispute between the two universities over the winner of the 2012-2013 edition, under the rules at the time, Arizona would have won with their victory in the baseball series. However, the sponsor had dropped the series and had not updated the rules, ASU claimed the Mens indoor track and field, which was not initially part of the scoring, and won the tiebreaker by finishing higher in the Directors Cup final standings. One university must accumulate at least 10½ points to win the Territorial Cup Series Trophy outright, Territorial Cup Series University of Arizona Athletics Arizona State University Athletics
Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes, Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of the Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. It is often defined in terms of the two branches of geography and physical geography. Geography has been called the world discipline and the bridge between the human and the physical sciences, Geography is a systematic study of the Earth and its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with cartography and place names, although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena, because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is highly interdisciplinary.
The interdisciplinary nature of the approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places. are not geography. know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself and this is a description of the world—that is Geography. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause, just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main fields, human geography and physical geography. The former largely focuses on the environment and how humans create, manage. The latter examines the environment, and how organisms, soil, water. The difference between these led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science and it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns.
Physical geography can be divided into broad categories, Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns. It encompasses the human, cultural, and it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include, emergency management, environmental management, geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography
A book is a set of written, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of paper, parchment, or other materials, fastened together to hinge at one side, with text and/or images printed in ink. A single sheet within a book is a leaf, and each side of a leaf is a page, a set of text-filled or illustrated pages produced in electronic format for reading on a computer screen, smartphone or e-reader device is known as an electronic book, or e-book. The term books may refer the body of works of literature. In library and information science, a book is called a monograph, to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines, journals, in novels and sometimes other types of books, a book may be divided into several large sections, called books. An avid reader or collector of books or a lover is a bibliophile or colloquially. A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookshop or bookstore, Books are sold in some department stores and newspaper vendors. Books can be borrowed from libraries, google has estimated that as of 2010, approximately 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published.
In some wealthier nations, printed books are giving way to the usage of electronic or e-books, the word book comes from Old English bōc, which in turn comes from the Germanic root *bōk-, cognate to beech. Similarly, in Slavic languages буква is cognate with beech, in Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word букварь or буквар refers specifically to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing. It is thus conjectured that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood, the Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense, originally meant block of wood. When writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, tree bark, metal sheets, the study of such inscriptions forms a major part of history. The study of inscriptions is known as epigraphy, the Ancient Egyptians would often write on papyrus, a plant grown along the Nile River. At first the words were not separated from other and there was no punctuation.
Texts were written right to left, left to right. The technical term for that last type of writing is boustrophedon, a tablet might be defined as a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. See stylus, the instrument used to write on a tablet, clay tablets were flattened and mostly dry pieces of clay that could be easily carried, and impressed with a stylus. They were used as a medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age. Tablets were used by traders to record sales of such as bushels of grain