University of California, Santa Cruz

The University of California, Santa Cruz is a public research university in Santa Cruz, California. It is one of 10 campuses in the University of California system. Located 75 miles south of San Francisco at the edge of the coastal community of Santa Cruz, the campus lies on 2,001 acres of rolling, forested hills overlooking the Pacific Ocean and Monterey Bay. Founded in 1965, UC Santa Cruz began with the intention to showcase progressive, cross-disciplinary undergraduate education, innovative teaching methods and contemporary architecture; the residential college system consists of ten small colleges. Although some of the original founders had outlined plans for an institution like UCSC as early as the 1930s, the opportunity to realize their vision did not present itself until the City of Santa Cruz made a bid to the University of California Regents in the mid-1950s to build a campus just outside town, in the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains; the Santa Cruz site was selected over a competing proposal to build the campus closer to the population center of San Jose.

Santa Cruz was selected for the beauty, rather than the practicality, of its location and its remoteness led to the decision to develop a residential college system that would house most of the students on-campus. The formal design process of the Santa Cruz campus began in the late 1950s, culminating in the Long Range Development Plan of 1963. Construction had started by 1964, the university was able to accommodate its first students in 1965; the campus was intended to be a showcase for contemporary architecture, progressive teaching methods, undergraduate research. According to founding chancellor Dean McHenry, the purpose of the distributed college system was to combine the benefits of a major research university with the intimacy of a smaller college. UC President Clark Kerr shared a passion with former Stanford roommate McHenry to build a university modeled as "several Swarthmores" in close proximity to each other. Roads on campus were named after UC Regents. In 2019, the University of California, Santa Cruz was elected to the Association of American Universities.

Along with UCI, UC Santa Cruz was the youngest university to gain admittance to the AAU. On December 9th, 2019, over 200 graduate student-workers initiated a wildcat strike by withholding Fall quarter grades with the following demands: a COLA of $1,412/month to address the housing crisis in Santa Cruz, a promise of non-retaliation against those participating in the strike, a cap on tuition for undergraduate students, to ensure that the increase in graduate student-worker pay would not increase the rent-burden and precarity of their students. On February 10th, 2020, graduate student-workers responded to disciplinary threats from UCSC administrators with a full teaching strike. UCSC administrators' called in police from various counties to serve. 17 students were arrested, several were injured, but UCSC presently denies the claims of police brutality and excessive force. On February 27th, 2020, UC Davis and UC Santa Barbara joined the strike. On February 28th, 2020, 54 graduate student-workers were terminated.

Although the city of Santa Cruz exhibited a strong conservation ethic before the founding of the university, the coincidental rise of the counterculture of the 1960s with the university's establishment fundamentally altered its subsequent development. Early student and faculty activism at UCSC pioneered an approach to environmentalism that impacted the industrial development of the surrounding area; the lowering of the voting age to 18 in 1971 led to the emergence of a powerful student-voting bloc. A large and growing population of politically liberal UCSC alumni changed the electorate of the town from predominantly Republican to markedly left-leaning voting against expansion measures on the part of both town and gown. Plans for increasing enrollment to 19,500 students and adding 1,500 faculty and staff by 2020, the anticipated environmental impacts of such action, encountered opposition from the city, the local community, the student body. City voters in 2006 passed two measures calling on UCSC to pay for the impacts of campus growth.

A Santa Cruz Superior Court judge invalidated the measures, ruling they were improperly put on the ballot. In 2008, the university, city and neighborhood organizations reached an agreement to set aside numerous lawsuits and allow the expansion to occur. UCSC agreed to local government scrutiny of its north campus expansion plans, to provide housing for 67 percent of the additional students on campus, to pay municipal development and water fees. George Blumenthal, UCSC's 10th Chancellor, intended to mitigate growth constraints in Santa Cruz by developing off-campus sites in Silicon Valley; the NASA Ames Research Center campus is planned to hold 2,000 UCSC students – about 10% of the entire university's future student body as envisioned for 2020. In April 2010, UC Santa Cruz opened its new $35 million Digital Arts Research Center; the $72 million Coastal Biology Building opened on 21 October 2017 on the Coastal Science Campus. The new campus houses the Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Department and faculty interested in the study of ecology and evolution in ocean and freshwater environments.

The 2,000-acre UCSC campus is located 75 miles south of San Francisco, in the Ben Lomond Mountain ridge of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Elevation varies from 285 feet at the campus entrance to 1,195 feet at the no

Midnight Son

Midnight Son is a 2011 vampire horror film written and directed by Scott Leberecht, produced by Matt Compton, starring Zak Kilberg. A trailer was released late October 2010. Jacob is a young man in Los Angeles, California who lives a life of isolation by day and works as a security guard by night; this is due to a rare skin disorder developed in his youth that prevents him from being exposed to sunlight. His world opens up when he meets and falls in love with a local bartender and secret druggie, Mary departing a relationship with a drug dealer. Beginning to crave blood, as everyday food no longer cures his hunger, Jacob suspects he may be a vampire, though his physician, Dr. Barnes, diagnoses him to be anemic, his condition worsens and he goes from consuming animal blood to depending on human blood for medical sustenance, a necessity which brings out his violent tendencies on people in the city. Jacob, longing to be normal, hides his deteriorating condition from Mary, their romantic relationship suffers because of it.

Searching for blood at a hospital, Jacob comes in contact with an immoral hospital physician named Marcus, who alongside his younger, misguided brother, helps Jacob by milking a patient for blood in exchange for money, a grim method Jacob is against. Shortly, Detective Ginslegh narrows his focus on Jacob during a homicide investigation. While on security one night, Jacob assaults a disobedient man. Fascinated with Jacob’s paintings and attempting to help him monetize it, Mary interests her friend, who works at an art gallery. However, his relationship with Mary, suspicious there is more complications to his health, falls apart. In desperation, Jacob approaches Marcus to help him get more blood, but Marcus turns him down for opposing his actions. After Marcus hits him, Jacob lashes back and causes Marcus an injury on broken glass, leaving him to bleed heavily. Jacob reconciles with Mary, confessing to her he is suffering from severe anemia, which plays a role in his skin sensitivity; when they decide to ditch a party at the gallery, Russell tracks and follows them to a quiet location, shooting Mary to avenge his missing brother who he believes Jacob killed.

Jacob is able to scare him away. He sucks the bullet out of Mary’s chest and soon realizes he passed on his contagious case of anemia to her. Jacob keeps her isolated in his home and not wanting to harm Mary, attempts to convince Detective Ginslegh that he infected and killed the girl in the homicide case whose body burned during sunrise, but there is mysteriously no evidence for an arrest. Jacob finds out Marcus is alive, he is left with a burn on his face from escaping daylight, after Jacob had sucked his blood, infected him and left him for dead. Morally corrupt, Marcus forces Jacob and Russell to dismember and dump the dead old man’s body they used to extract blood from. After Marcus decides to dumb the body instead, they revolt against him, with Russell using a cinderblock to knock Marcus unconscious before running away. Jacob chains leaves him to burn at the break of dawn, he returns home the next night, Detective Ginslegh follows him there, looking to arrest him for harming Mary, who starves for blood.

In an act of need, Jacob kills Detective Ginslegh, providing blood for Mary to feast on. In the end, they begin their new found life together. Zak Kilberg as Jacob Maya Parish as Mary Larry Cedar as Detective Ginslegh Jo D. Jonz as Marcus Kevin McCorkle as Dr. Barnes Juanita Jennings as Liz Billy Louviere as The Junkie Tracey Walter as Janitor Midnight Son received positive reviews from critics. Rotten Tomatoes rated the film "Fresh" with 95% of critical reviews being positive. Philip French of The Observer newspaper said it was "a frightening story, plausibly developed within a brief running time, the central love between the male protagonist addicted to blood and a girl addicted to cocaine is oddly moving." The Daily Telegraph's Robbie Collin stated that "Horror films driven by ideas are thin on the ground, but behind the gory façade of Scott Leberecht's debut feature there ticks some cleverly assembled clockwork." Vampire film Official website Midnight Son on IMDb

History of pound sterling in Oceania

The pound sterling was the currency of many, but not all parts of the British Empire. This article looks at the history of the pound sterling in the Australia, New Zealand, Pacific region; the British victory at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 heralded the beginning of a new world order in which Britain would be the supreme world power for the next one hundred years. At the time of Waterloo, the British Empire consisted of the New World territories in the West Indies and North America, retained following the loss of the Thirteen Colonies. In addition to this, there was the penal colony of New South Wales, the Rock of Gibraltar at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea, the territories controlled by the British East India Company. Victory in the Napoleonic Wars brought spoils to Britain which added more territories such as Malta, British Guiana, Mauritius to the empire, it was the beginning of a golden era for Britain, the new Royal Mint at Tower Hill coined a new gold sovereign in 1817. At the same time, the Spanish Empire was in decline with revolutions underway in the New World.

The silver Spanish pieces of eight that had formed the staple international currency for nearly four hundred years were minted at the New World mints at Potosí, Lima. The supplies of these silver dollars were cut off due to revolutionary wars, since Britain had formally adopted a successful gold specie standard in 1821, the British government decided in 1825 to introduce the sterling coinage in all of its colonies. An imperial order-in-council was issued to set ratings for the sterling coinage against the already-circulating Spanish and other foreign coins, for the purposes of facilitating the transition to sterling. While this measure was remarkably unsuccessful in the British North American colonies and in some of the British West Indies, the situation in New South Wales was different due to the absence of any fully entrenched monetary system; as such, the British sterling currency was adopted in New South Wales with relative ease, as this region of British influence expanded over the course of the nineteenth century to incorporate the rest of the Australian continent, New Zealand and a large number of Pacific islands, the British sterling currency followed.

From the latter half of the 19th century until the outbreak of the First World War, a monetary union, based on the British gold sovereign existed in a part of the British Empire. This sterling part of the British Empire consisted of Australia, New Zealand, the British Islands in the Pacific, British Southern Africa, British West Africa, the British West Indies, Gibraltar and the South Atlantic territories, it had been the plan of the British government in 1825 to have sterling coinage circulating in all of the British colonies. But, by the 1860s, the British government had given up trying to impose sterling coinage in territories such as Canada, British India, Hong Kong against resistance from existing entrenched practices, just as the British East India Company has given up trying to impose the rupee on the Straits Settlements. India and the Straits Settlements adopted a sterling exchange standard, leaving only Canada, British Honduras, Hong Kong outside the sterling system; this sterling monetary union existed throughout much the same period that the Latin Monetary Union existed, in both cases, the First World War was the major factor that signalled the end of the union.

In both cases, the union was maintained by virtue of the gold specie standard. During the period of monetary union, a standard issue of sterling coinage, minted at the Royal Mint at Tower Hill, London circulated in the United Kingdom and its dependencies such as Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and its dependencies such as Western Samoa, as well as in Fiji and the British Western Pacific Territories; as regards paper money, banknotes were issued by banks in England, Ireland and New Zealand. In 1910, Australia introduced its own coinage in the likeness of sterling coinage, it was much the same as the United Kingdom's coinage, differing in the use of distinctive Australian symbols on the reverse. At the same time, the law prohibited Australian banks from issuing banknotes, such authority was reserved for the newly formed Commonwealth Bank; this left an interesting situation in which Australian private banknotes were limited to circulation in New Zealand, such Australian notes were marked with the words New Zealand.

This action by Australia in issuing its own national variety of sterling coinage had no practical effect on the monetary union as such. These Australian coins were minted at the Royal Mint at Tower Hill, despite the fact that there were three Royal Mint branches operating in Australia at that time; the reason was that these Australian branch mints, in Sydney and Perth, only had the facilities to mint gold sovereigns. However, by 1916, the Australian varieties of sterling coinage were being minted locally. With the suspension of gold coin payouts on the outbreak of the First World War, the binding factor was removed and paper money in the respective territories became unanchored and hence free to float, to the extent that the common coinage would permit. In the case of Australia, there was no complication because distinct Australian coins existed. In the case of New Zealand and Fiji, the situation could have proved to be problematic, but the issue didn't arise until the Great Depression; the Great Depression was the catalyst that forced more dramatic shifts in the exchange rates between the various pound units, by 1934 both New Zealand and Fiji began to issue their own varieties of the sterling coinage.

Australia returned