Campinas is a Brazilian municipality in São Paulo State, part of the country's Southeast Region. According to the 2010 Census, the city's population is 1,080,999, making it the fourteenth most populous Brazilian city and the third most populous municipality in São Paulo state; the city's metropolitan area, Metropolitan Region of Campinas, contains twenty municipalities with a total population of 3,656,363 people. Campinas means grass fields in Portuguese and refers to its characteristic landscape, which comprised large stretches of dense subtropical forests along the many rivers, interspersed with rolling hills covered by low-lying vegetation. Campinas' official crest and flag has a picture of the mythical bird, the phoenix, because it was reborn after a devastating epidemic of yellow fever in the 1800s, which killed more than 25% of the city's inhabitants; the city was founded on July 1774, by Barreto Leme. It was a simple outpost on the way to Minas Gerais and Goiás serving the "Bandeirantes" who were in search of precious minerals and Indian slaves.
In the first half of the 19th century, Campinas became a growing population center, with many coffee and sugarcane farms. The construction of a railway linking the city of São Paulo to Santos' seaport, in 1867, was important for its growth. In the second half of the 19th century, with the abolition of slavery and industrialization attracted many foreign immigrants to replace the lost manpower from Italy. Coffee became the city became wealthy. In consequence, a large service sector was established to serve the growing population, in the first decades of the 20th century, Campinas could boast of an opera house, banks, movie theaters, radio stations, a philharmonic orchestra, two newspapers, a good public education system, hospitals, such as the Santa Casa de Misericórdia, and the Casa de Saúde de Campinas, the most important Brazilian research center in agricultural sciences, the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, founded by Emperor Pedro II. The construction of the first Brazilian highway in 1938, between Campinas and São Paulo, the Anhanguera Highway, was a turning point in the integration of Campinas into the rest of the state.
Campinas was the birthplace of opera composer Carlos Gomes and of the President of the Republic Campos Salles. It was home for 49 years to Hércules Florence, reputed as one of the early inventors of photography and the mimeograph; the area of the city, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, is 795.697 square kilometres. It is located at 22°54′21″S, 47°03′39″W and is at a distance of 96 kilometres northwest of São Paulo, its neighboring cities are Jaguariúna and Pedreira, north. Most of the original vegetation of the city was devastated. Like 13 other municipalities in the metropolitan region of Campinas, the city is subject to severe environmental stress, Campinas is considered one of the areas liable to flooding and silting. To try to reverse this situation, several projects have been and are being conducted and planned, such as building corridors, such as regulation of the Management Plan of Environmental Preservation Area in Campinas. There are several environmental projects to combat the destruction of riparian forests located on the river london, which has a high level of pollution.
Today, Campinas houses the area of relevant ecological interest Mata de Santa Genebra, 251 acres, established in 1985 and regulated by the Brazilian Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, the city of Campinas, Fundação José Pedro de Oliveira. This is the now second largest urban forest of Brazil, behind only the Tijuca Forest, in Rio de Janeiro; the city has large forests, such as Jequitibás Wood, Forest Grove and the Germans of Guarantees. The city lies in a transition region between the tropical climates to the north and subtropical climates to the south, with many sources classifying it as having a humid subtropical climate, but others giving for it a tropical savanna climate. If it were not for the moderating effects of the city's altitude its climate would be tropical. Winters are dry and mild, summers rainy with warm to hot temperatures; the warmest month is February, with an average temperature of 24 °C, an average maximum of 29.1 °C and average minimum of 19.0 °C. The coldest month, sees respective temperatures of 17.8 °C, 24.2 °C and 11.4 °C average maximum and minimum.
Fall and spring are transitional seasons. The average annual rainfall is the driest month in August, when there is only 22.9 mm. In January, the rainiest month, the average is 280.3 mm. In recent years, the hot, dry days during the winter have been frequent surpassing 30 °C between July and September. In August 2010, for example, the rainfall in Campinas was only 0 mm. During the dry season and long dry
Preventive healthcare consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment. Just as health comprises a variety of physical and mental states, so do disease and disability, which are affected by environmental factors, genetic predisposition, disease agents, lifestyle choices. Health and disability are dynamic processes which begin before individuals realize they are affected. Disease prevention relies on anticipatory actions that can be categorized as primal, primary and tertiary prevention; each year, millions of people die of preventable deaths. A 2004 study showed that about half of all deaths in the United States in 2000 were due to preventable behaviors and exposures. Leading causes included cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, unintentional injuries and certain infectious diseases; this same study estimates that 400,000 people die each year in the United States due to poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle. According to estimates made by the World Health Organization, about 55 million people died worldwide in 2011, two thirds of this group from non-communicable diseases, including cancer and chronic cardiovascular and lung diseases.
This is an increase from the year 2000, during which 60% of deaths were attributed to these diseases. Preventive healthcare is important given the worldwide rise in prevalence of chronic diseases and deaths from these diseases. There are many methods for prevention of disease, it is recommended that adults and children aim to visit their doctor for regular check-ups if they feel healthy, to perform disease screening, identify risk factors for disease, discuss tips for a healthy and balanced lifestyle, stay up to date with immunizations and boosters, maintain a good relationship with a healthcare provider. Some common disease screenings include checking for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, screening for colon cancer, depression, HIV and other common types of sexually transmitted disease such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, colorectal cancer screening, a Pap test, screening for osteoporosis. Genetic testing can be performed to screen for mutations that cause genetic disorders or predisposition to certain diseases such as breast or ovarian cancer.
However, these measures are not affordable for every individual and the cost effectiveness of preventive healthcare is still a topic of debate. Preventive healthcare strategies are described as taking place at the primal, primary and tertiary prevention levels. In the 1940s, Hugh R. Leavell and E. Gurney Clark coined the term primary prevention, they worked at the Harvard and Columbia University Schools of Public Health and expanded the levels to include secondary and tertiary prevention. Goldston notes that these levels might be better described as "prevention and rehabilitation", though the terms primary and tertiary prevention are still in use today; the concept of primal prevention has been created much more in relation to the new developments in molecular biology over the last fifty years, more in epigenetics, which point to the paramount importance of environmental conditions - both physical and affective - on the organism during its fetal and newborn life. Primal prevention has been propounded as a separate category of "health promotion".
This health promotion par excellence is based on the'new knowledge' in molecular biology, in particular on epigenetic knowledge, which points to how much affective - as well as physical - environment during fetal and newborn life may determine each and every aspect of adult health. This new way of promoting health consists in providing future parents with pertinent, unbiased information on primal health and supporting them during their child's primal period of life; this includes adequate parental leave - ideally for both parents - with kin caregiving and financial help where needed. Another related concept is primordial prevention which refers to all measures designed to prevent the development of risk factors in the first place, early in life. Primary prevention consists of traditional "health promotion" and "specific protection." Health promotion activities are non-clinical life choices. For example, eating nutritious meals and exercising daily, that both prevent disease and create a sense of overall well-being.
Preventing disease and creating overall well-being, prolongs our life expectancy. Health-promotional activities do not target a specific disease or condition but rather promote health and well-being on a general level. On the other hand, specific protection targets a type or group of diseases and complements the goals of health promotion. Food is much the most basic tool in preventive health care; the 2011 National Health Interview Survey performed by the Centers for Disease Control was the first national survey to include questions about ability to pay for food. Difficulty with paying for food, medicine, or both is a problem facing 1 out of 3 Americans. If better food options were available through food banks, soup kitchens, other resources for low-income people and the chronic conditions that come along with it would be better controlled A "food desert" is an area with restricted access to healthy foods due to a lack of supermarkets within a reasonable distance; these are ofte
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, organ, or organism. More it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals; the field encompasses drug composition and properties and drug design and cellular mechanisms, organ/systems mechanisms, signal transduction/cellular communication, molecular diagnostics, toxicology, chemical biology and medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities. The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics studies the effects of a drug on biological systems, Pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on a drug. In broad terms, pharmacodynamics discusses the chemicals with biological receptors, pharmacokinetics discusses the absorption, distribution and excretion of chemicals from the biological systems.
Pharmacology is not synonymous with pharmacy and the two terms are confused. Pharmacology, a biomedical science, deals with the research and characterization of chemicals which show biological effects and the elucidation of cellular and organismal function in relation to these chemicals. In contrast, pharmacy, a health services profession, is concerned with application of the principles learned from pharmacology in its clinical settings. In either field, the primary contrast between the two are their distinctions between direct-patient care, for pharmacy practice, the science-oriented research field, driven by pharmacology; the origins of clinical pharmacology date back to the Middle Ages in Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, Peter of Spain's Commentary on Isaac, John of St Amand's Commentary on the Antedotary of Nicholas. Clinical pharmacology owes much of its foundation to the work of William Withering. Pharmacology as a scientific discipline did not further advance until the mid-19th century amid the great biomedical resurgence of that period.
Before the second half of the nineteenth century, the remarkable potency and specificity of the actions of drugs such as morphine and digitalis were explained vaguely and with reference to extraordinary chemical powers and affinities to certain organs or tissues. The first pharmacology department was set up by Rudolf Buchheim in 1847, in recognition of the need to understand how therapeutic drugs and poisons produced their effects. Early pharmacologists focused on natural substances plant extracts. Pharmacology developed in the 19th century as a biomedical science that applied the principles of scientific experimentation to therapeutic contexts. Today pharmacologists use genetics, molecular biology and other advanced tools to transform information about molecular mechanisms and targets into therapies directed against disease, defects or pathogens, create methods for preventative care and personalized medicine; the word "pharmacology" is derived from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "drug, spell" and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of".
The discipline of pharmacology can be divided into many sub disciplines each with a specific focus. Clinical pharmacology is the basic science of pharmacology with an added focus on the application of pharmacological principles and methods in the medical clinic and towards patient care and outcomes. Neuropharmacology is the study of the effects of medication on central and peripheral nervous system functioning. Psychopharmacology known as behavioral pharmacology, is the study of the effects of medication on the psyche, observing changed behaviors of the body and mind, how molecular events are manifest in a measurable behavioral form. Psychopharmacology is an interdisciplinary field which studies behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs, it incorporates approaches and techniques from neuropharmacology, animal behavior and behavioral neuroscience, is interested in the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of action of psychoactive drugs. Another goal of behavioral pharmacology is to develop animal behavioral models to screen chemical compounds with therapeutic potentials.
People in this field use small animals to study psychotherapeutic drugs such as antipsychotics and anxiolytics, drugs of abuse such as nicotine and methamphetamine. Ethopharmacology is a term, in use since the 1960s and derives from the Greek word ἦθος ethos meaning character and "pharmacology" the study of drug actions and mechanism. Cardiovascular pharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the entire cardiovascular system, including the heart and blood vessels. Pharmacogenetics is clinical testing of genetic variation that gives rise to differing response to drugs. Pharmacogenomics is the application of genomic technologies to drug discovery and further characterization of older drugs. Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of the effects of drugs in large numbers of people. Safety pharmacology specialises in detecting and investigating potential undesirable pharmacodynamic effects of new chemical entities on physiological functions in relation to exposure in the therapeutic range and above.
Systems pharmacology is
Medical genetics is the branch of medicine that involves the diagnosis and management of hereditary disorders. Medical genetics differs from human genetics in that human genetics is a field of scientific research that may or may not apply to medicine, while medical genetics refers to the application of genetics to medical care. For example, research on the causes and inheritance of genetic disorders would be considered within both human genetics and medical genetics, while the diagnosis and counselling people with genetic disorders would be considered part of medical genetics. In contrast, the study of non-medical phenotypes such as the genetics of eye color would be considered part of human genetics, but not relevant to medical genetics. Genetic medicine is a newer term for medical genetics and incorporates areas such as gene therapy, personalized medicine, the emerging new medical specialty, predictive medicine. Medical genetics encompasses many different areas, including clinical practice of physicians, genetic counselors, nutritionists, clinical diagnostic laboratory activities, research into the causes and inheritance of genetic disorders.
Examples of conditions that fall within the scope of medical genetics include birth defects and dysmorphology, mental retardation, mitochondrial disorders, skeletal dysplasia, connective tissue disorders, cancer genetics and prenatal diagnosis. Medical genetics is becoming relevant to many common diseases. Overlaps with other medical specialties are beginning to emerge, as recent advances in genetics are revealing etiologies for neurologic, cardiovascular, ophthalmologic, renal and dermatologic conditions; the medical genetics community is involved with individuals who have undertaken elective genetic and genomic testing. In some ways, many of the individual fields within medical genetics are hybrids between clinical care and research; this is due in part to recent advances in science and technology that have enabled an unprecedented understanding of genetic disorders. Clinical genetics is the practice of clinical medicine with particular attention to hereditary disorders. Referrals are made to genetics clinics for a variety of reasons, including birth defects, developmental delay, epilepsy, short stature, many others.
Examples of genetic syndromes that are seen in the genetics clinic include chromosomal rearrangements, Down syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Neurofibromatosis, Turner syndrome, Williams syndrome. In the United States, Doctors who practice clinical genetics are accredited by the American Board of Medical Genetics and Genomics. In order to become a board-certified practitioner of Clinical Genetics, a physician must complete a minimum of 24 months of training in a program accredited by the ABMGG. Individuals seeking acceptance into clinical genetics training programs must hold an M. D. or D. O. degree and have completed a minimum of 24 months of training in an ACGME-accredited residency program in internal medicine, pediatrics and gynecology, or other medical specialty. Metabolic genetics involves the diagnosis and management of inborn errors of metabolism in which patients have enzymatic deficiencies that perturb biochemical pathways involved in metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids.
Examples of metabolic disorders include galactosemia, glycogen storage disease, lysosomal storage disorders, metabolic acidosis, peroxisomal disorders and urea cycle disorders. Cytogenetics is the study of chromosomes and chromosome abnormalities. While cytogenetics relied on microscopy to analyze chromosomes, new molecular technologies such as array comparative genomic hybridization are now becoming used. Examples of chromosome abnormalities include aneuploidy, chromosomal rearrangements, genomic deletion/duplication disorders. Molecular genetics involves the discovery of and laboratory testing for DNA mutations that underlie many single gene disorders. Examples of single gene disorders include achondroplasia, cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, hereditary breast cancer, Huntington disease, Marfan syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Rett syndrome. Molecular tests are used in the diagnosis of syndromes involving epigenetic abnormalities, such as Angelman syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Prader-willi syndrome, uniparental disomy.
Mitochondrial genetics concerns the diagnosis and management of mitochondrial disorders, which have a molecular basis but result in biochemical abnormalities due to deficient energy production. There exists some overlap between molecular pathology. Genetic counseling is the process of providing information about genetic conditions, diagnostic testing, risks in other family members, within the framework of nondirective counseling. Genetic counselors are non-physician members of the medical genetics team who specialize in family risk assessment and counseling of patients regarding genetic disorders; the precise role of the genetic counselor varies somewhat depending on the disorder. Although genetics has its roots back in the 19th century with the work of the Bohemian monk Gregor Mendel and other pioneering scientists, human genetics emerged later, it started to develop, albeit during the first half of the 20th century. Mendelian inheritance was studied in a number of important disorders such as albinism and hemophilia.
Mathematical approaches were devised
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Anesthesiology, anaesthesia or anaesthetics is the medical speciality concerned with the total perioperative care of patients before and after surgery. It encompasses anesthesia, intensive care medicine, critical emergency medicine, pain medicine. A physician specialised in this field of medicine is called an anesthesiologist, anaesthesiologist or anaesthetist, depending on the country; the core element of the specialty is the study and use of anesthesia and anesthetics, since the 19th century anesthesiology has developed from an experimental field with non-specialist practitioners using novel, untested drugs and techniques into what is now a refined and effective field of medicine. In some countries, anesthesiologists comprise the largest single cohort of doctors in hospitals, their role can now extend far beyond the traditional role of anesthesia care in the operating room, into fields such as providing pre-hospital emergency medicine, running intensive care units, transporting critically ill patients between facilities, prehabilitation programs to optimize patients for surgery.
Various names are used for the specialty, those doctors who practise it, in different parts of the world: In North America and China, the medical study and application of anesthetics is called anesthesiology, a physician in the specialty is called an anesthesiologist. In these countries, the word "anesthetist" is used to refer to advanced non-physician providers of anesthesia services such as anesthesiologist assistants and nurse anesthetists. In some countries that are current or former members of the Commonwealth of Nations–namely, United Kingdom, New Zealand and South Africa–the medical specialty is instead referred to as anaesthesia or anaesthetics, with an extra "a"; as such, in these countries the same term may be used to refer to the overall medical specialty, the medications and techniques that are used, the resulting state of loss of sensation. The term anaesthetist is used only to refer to a physician practising in the field; some countries which used "anaesthesia" and "anaesthetist", such as Ireland and Hong Kong, have transitioned to "anaesthesiology" and "anaesthesiologist", or are in the process of transition.
In most other parts of the world, the spelling anaesthesiology is most used when writing in English, a physician practising it is termed an anaesthesiologist. This is the spelling adopted by the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists and most of its most of its member societies, as well as the European Society of Anaesthesiology, it is the most used term found in the titles of medical journals; as a specialty, the core element of anesthesiology is the practice of anesthesia. This comprises the use of various injected and inhaled medications to produce a loss of sensation in patients, making it possible to carry out procedures that would otherwise cause intolerable pain or be technically unfeasible. Safe anesthesia requires in-depth knowledge of various invasive and non-invasive organ support techniques that are used to control patients' vital functions while under the effects of anaesthetic drugs. Anesthesiologists are expected to have expert knowledge of human physiology, medical physics, pharmacology, as well as a broad general knowledge of all areas of medicine and surgery in all ages of patients, with a particular focus on those aspects which may impact on a surgical procedure.
In recent decades, the role of anesthesiologists has broadened to focus not just on administering anesthetics during the surgical procedure itself, but beforehand in order to identify high-risk patients and optimize their fitness, during the procedure to maintain situational awareness of the surgery itself so as to improve safety, as well as afterwards in order to promote and enhance recovery. This has been termed "perioperative medicine"; the concept of intensive care medicine arose in the 1950s and 1960s, with anesthesiologists taking organ support techniques that had traditionally been used only for short periods during surgical procedures, applying these therapies to patients with organ failure, who might require vital function support for extended periods until the effects of the illness could be reversed. The first intensive care unit was opened by Bjørn Aage Ibsen in Copenhagen in 1953, prompted by a polio epidemic during which many patients required prolonged artificial ventilation.
In many countries, intensive care medicine is considered to be a subspecialty of anesthesiology, anesthesiologists rotate between duties in the operating room and the intensive care unit. This allows continuity of care when patients are admitted to the ICU after their surgery, it means that anesthesiologists can maintain their expertise at invasive procedures and vital function support in the controlled setting of the operating room, while applying those skills in the more dangerous setting of the critically ill patient. In other countries, intensive care medicine has evolved further to become a separate medical specialty in its own right, or has become a "supra-specialty" which may be practiced by doctors from various base specialties such as anesthesiology, emergency medicine, general medicine, surgery or neurology. Anesthesiologists have key roles in major trauma, airway management, caring other patients outside the operating theatre who have critical emergencies that pose an immediate threat to life, a
Barão Geraldo is a district of the municipality of Campinas, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It is named after Barão Geraldo de Rezende, a baron of the Empire of Brazil who owned a large farm in the region, in the 19th century. Barão Geraldo is 15 km from downtown Campinas and it is connected to it via the Rodovia Campinas-Paulínia highway. Barão Geraldo is famous for hosting the main campus of the State University of Campinas; the university campus is surrounded by typical suburban communities, the Cidade Universitária Campineira, so named because many professors and a large number of students reside there. The University itself and the surrounding residential communities were built on a former coffee and sugarcane plantation. Barão Geraldo is one of the greenest districts of Campinas, it has several lakes and the Mata of Santa Genebra, a large preservation area where the original rain forest which covered the region in the past can be seen and is studied by the University. It still has a large diversity of plants and animals, including the capybara and the spotted jaguars.
Near UNICAMP, the district hosts a large high-tech industrial zone. It is considered the main part of the so-called Brazilian Silicon Valley; the expansion of its technological park has attracted other institutions, which are planned to settle in Barão Geraldo in the near future, such as the Technological Center of the Brazilian Army, the Research and Development Center of Natura cosmetics company and others. Barão Geraldo is a major health care destination in the state, with the large University Clinics Hospital, the Centro Médico de Campinas, the Centro Infantil Domingos A. Boldrini, the Centro de Oncologia Campinas; the district has about 45,000 inhabitants living in 70 sections. Portal Barão Geraldo Barão Geraldo On-Line Barão Em Foco