Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College
Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College is a private Swedish institution for higher education and research. The university college has departments for education in nursing, social work, church music and psychotherapy as well as research within the field of social science, welfare rights, health care science and ethics, palliative care, diaconal research and worklife ethics and psychotherapy research; the aims of the research programme are in line with the university college's diaconal history. In 1851, the first nurse training course in Sweden was launched by Marie Cederschiöld under the auspices of Ersta diakoni; the first oriented programme at national level began at the turn of the last century in the form of diaconal training at the Stora Sköndal Foundation. Today Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College is owned by Ersta diakoni, Stora Sköndal Foundation and Bräcke diakoni, divided into three campuses located in Södermalm, Stora Sköndal, south of Stockholm and Hisingen, Gothenburg; the historical background has resulted in human health and vulnerability being the focus of study and explains how research fields have developed and given the university its specific profile.
Department of diaconal studies, church music and theology Department of social sciences Department of health care sciences Institute for commissioned education Institute for organisational and worklife ethics Library Official website for Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College
Archive.today is an archive site which stores snapshots of web pages. It retrieves one page at a time similar to WebCite, smaller than 50MB each, but with support for modern sites such as Google Maps and Twitter. Archive.is uses headless browsing to record what embedded resources need to be captured to provide a high-quality memento, creates a PNG image to provide a static and non-interactive visualization of the representation. Archive.today can capture individual pages in response to explicit user requests. Since July 2013, archive.is supports the Memento Project application programming interface. Archive.today was founded in 2012. The site branded itself as archive.today, but in May 2015 changed the primary mirror to archive.is. In January 2019, it began to deprecate the archive.is domain in favor of the archive.today mirror. In March 2019 the site was blocked by several Australian internet providers in the aftermath of the Christchurch mosque shootings in an attempt to limit distribution of the footage of the attack.
According to GreatFire.org, archive.is has been blocked in China since March 2016, archive.li since September 2017, archive.fo since July 2018. On July 21, 2015, the operators blocked access to the service from all Finnish IP addresses, stating on Twitter that they did this in order to avoid escalating a dispute they had with the Finnish government. In Russia, only HTTP access is possible. CloudFlare's 18.104.22.168 does not resolve archive.is domains. Archive.is records only text and images, excluding video, xml and other non-static content. It keeps track of the history of snapshots saved, returning to the user a request for confirmation before adding a new snapshot of an saved Internet address; the research toolbar enables advanced keywords operators. A couple of quotation marks address the search to an exact sequence of keywords present in the title or in the body of the webpage, whereas the insite operator restricts it to a specific Internet domain. Once a web page is archived, it cannot be deleted directly by any Internet user.
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The Karolinska Institute is a research-led medical university in Solna within the Stockholm urban area of Sweden. It covers areas such as biochemistry, pharmacology, anatomy and medical microbiology, among others, it is recognised as Sweden's best university and one of the largest, most prestigious medical universities in the world. It is the highest ranked in all Scandinavia; the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Medicine. The assembly consists of fifty professors from various medical disciplines at the university; the current rector of Karolinska Institute is Ole Petter Ottersen, who took office in August 2017. The Karolinska Institute was founded in 1810 on the island of Kungsholmen on the west side of Stockholm. A second campus was established more in Flemingsberg, south of Stockholm; the Karolinska Institute is ranked among the top medical universities internationally in a number of ranking tables. The Karolinska Institute is Sweden's third oldest medical school, after Uppsala University and Lund University.
It is one of Sweden's largest centres for training and research, accounting for 30% of the medical training and more than 40% of all academic medical and life science research conducted in Sweden. The Karolinska University Hospital, located in Solna and Huddinge, is associated with the university as a research and teaching hospital. Together they form an academic health science centre. While most of the medical programs are taught in Swedish, the bulk of the Ph. D. projects are conducted in English. The institute's name is a reference to the Caroleans; the Karolinska Institute was founded by King Karl XIII on 13 December 1810 as an "academy for the training of skilled army surgeons" after one in three soldiers wounded in the Finnish War against Russia died in field hospitals. Indeed, a report of the time came to the conclusion that "the medical skills of the army barber-surgeons are manifestly inadequate, so Sweden needs to train surgeons in order to better prepare the country for future wars."
Just one year in 1811, the Karolinska Institute was granted license to train not only surgeons but medical practitioners in general. As one of KI's first professors, Jöns Jacob Berzelius laid the foundations of the newly inaugurated institute's scientific orientation, which in 1816 is granted the name Carolinska Institutet; this name, didn't make an impact at the time and so was expanded to Carolinska Medico Chirurgiska institutet, which proved more popular when preceded by the epithet Kongliga, as introduced in 1822. This original institute was situated in the Royal Bakery on Riddarholmen and within a just a couple of years had grown to encompass four professorships in anatomy, natural history and pharmacy, theoretical medicine and practical medicine. At around the same time Anders Johan Hagströmer, a professor of anatomy and surgery from the Collegium Medicum, was appointed the institute's first inspector, a post equivalent to today's president. In the same year, the institute moved to the old Glasbruk quarter on Norr Mälarstrand, beside what is now the City Hall.
The move across the waters of Riddarfjärden was accomplished with the help of barges, one of, said to have capsized, consigning parts of Hagströmer's collection of preparations to the lake bed. Despite this his library survives intact and today forms part of the KI-Swedish Society of Medicine museum at the institute's Hagströmer Library. In 1861 the institute reached a significant milestone in being awarded the right to confer its own degrees. This, in turn, led to an increase in the size of the student body, necessitating the demolition of the old building on the Glasbruk plot and its replacement with a new, larger one; this new institute building was built in stages during the 1880s and into the first decade of the 20th century. Although it had gained the right to confer general degrees, KI wasn't licensed to confer medical degrees until 1874. Though the institute could run courses in medicine, the right to confer medical degrees was exclusively that of Uppsala University. Following on from this change in the institute's status the first doctoral thesis was defended at KI by Alfred Levertin, on the subject of "Om Torpa Källa".
Just shortly thereafter the Medical Students' Union was formed. The next decade was one of firsts. By 1880 the Karolinska Institute had started to accept women and so it was in 1884 that Karolina Widerström became the first woman to obtain a bachelor's degree in medicine from the institute. Anna Stecksén became the first woman to obtain a doctorate from the university. Just five years following the death of Alfred Nobel in 1895, the Karolinska Institute received the right to select the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Since this assignment has given the Karolinska Institute a broad contact network in the field of medical science. Indeed, over the years, five of the institute's own researchers have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. By 1930 the Swedish parliament had decided that a new teaching hospital was needed and
Dance education is the transferring of dance performance skills and knowledge of dance to students through teaching and training, or acquiring such knowledge and skills through research. In general, a dance education curriculum is designed to impart dance performance skills, or knowledge of dance, or both to students. Knowledge-oriented curricula may cover any of a diverse range of topics, including dance notation, human anatomy, dance history, cultural aspects of dance. A curriculum may involve the study of one or more dance genres, including formal genres such as ballet, contemporary, jazz and tap dance, informal and social genres such as line and sequence dancing. Professional and vocational dance education is offered by both private institutions. Private institutions, which are known as dance schools or dance colleges, are focused on dance education, whereas public institutions cover a broad range of topics. Examples of private institutions include the School of American Ballet. Many public and private universities and colleges offer minor programs in dance, or major programs with academic degrees such as Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Fine Arts, Master of Fine Arts in dance.
Some public secondary education institutions offer comprehensive dance education curricula. For example, Jefferson High School offers concentrated vocational dance education in conjunction with its pre-professional dance company, The Jefferson Dancers. Ballet training National Dance Education Organization Competitive dance Media related to Dance education at Wikimedia Commons
A folk dance is developed by people that reflect the life of the people of a certain country or region. Not all ethnic dances are folk dances. For example, ritual dances or dances of ritual origin are not considered to be folk dances. Ritual dances are called "Religious dances" because of their purpose; the terms "ethnic" and "traditional" are used when it is required to emphasize the cultural roots of the dance. In this sense, nearly all folk dances are ethnic ones. If some dances, such as polka, cross ethnic boundaries and cross the boundary between "folk" and "ballroom dance", ethnic differences are considerable enough to mention, they share some or all of the following attributes: Dances are held at folk dance gatherings or social functions by people with little or no professional training to traditional music. Dances not designed for public performance or the stage, though they may be arranged and set for stage performances. Execution dominated by an inherited tradition from various international cultures rather than innovation.
New dancers learn informally by observing others or receiving help from others. More controversially, some people define folk dancing as dancing for which there is no governing body or dancing for which there are no competitive or professional institutions; the term "folk dance" is sometimes applied to dances of historical importance in European culture and history. For other cultures the terms "ethnic dance" or "traditional dance" are sometimes used, although the latter terms may encompass ceremonial dances. There are a number of modern dances, such as hip hop dance, that evolve spontaneously, but the term "folk dance" is not applied to them, the terms "street dance" or "vernacular dance" are used instead; the term "folk dance" is reserved for dances which are to a significant degree bound by tradition and originated in the times when the distinction existed between the dances of "common folk" and the dances of the modern ballroom dances originated from folk ones. Varieties of European folk dances include: Sword dances include long sword dances and rapper dancing.
Some choreographed dances such as contra dance, Scottish country dance, modern Western square dance, are called folk dances, though this is not true in the strictest sense. Country dance overlaps with contemporary folk ballroom dance. Most country dances and ballroom dances originated from folk dances, with gradual refinement over the years. People familiar with folk dancing can determine what country a dance is from if they have not seen that particular dance before; some countries' dances have features that are unique to that country, although neighboring countries sometimes have similar features. For example, the German and Austrian schuhplattling dance consists of slapping the body and shoes in a fixed pattern, a feature that few other countries' dances have. Folk dances sometimes evolved long before current political boundaries, so that certain dances are shared by several countries. For example, some Serbian and Croatian dances share the same or similar dances, sometimes use the same name and music for those dances.
International folk dance groups exist in cities and college campuses in many countries, in which dancers learn folk dances from many cultures for recreation. Balfolk events are social dance events with live music in Western and Central Europe, originating in the folk revival of the 1970s and becoming more popular since about 2000, where popular European partner dances from the end of the 19th century such as the schottische, polka and waltz are danced, with additionally other European folk dances from France, but from Sweden and other countries. Attan - The national dance of Pakistan. Folk dance of Pashtuns tribes of Pakistan including the unique styles of Quetta and Waziristan in Pakistan. Lewa - Baluch folk dance in Pakistan. Khattak Dance - Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Chitrali Dance - Chitral, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Azerbaijani dances Kurdish dance Dabke, a folk dance of the Levant Thabal chongba Assyrian folk dance Armenian dance Bhangra, a Punjabi harvest dance in Pakistan and music style that has become popular worldwide.
Bihu, an Assamese dance celebrating the arrival of spring, traditionally the beginning of the Assamese New Year Garba Circular Devotional dance from Gujarat danced the world over Kalbelia is one of the most sensuous dance forms of Rajasthan, performed by the kalbelia tribe Khigga, a common folk dance among Assyrian people Israeli folk dance Odori, Japanese traditional dance danced in long parades in the streets where anyone can join in Buyō, typical dance of the Japanese geishas or dance artists Kyushtdepdi - The national dance of Turkmenistan Yangge Romvong Bon dance Rimse Kachāshī Nongak Cariñosa Tinikling Singkil Maglalatik Binasuan Pandanggo Pista Kuratsa Magkasuyo Sayaw sa Bangko Itik-itik kuratsa La Jota Moncadena Balse Marikina Paraguanen Kuntao Silat Amil Bangsa Benjan Lerion Kalesa Zapin Bamboo dance Baile Folklorico Hula Haka List of ethnic and folk dances sorted by origin Dance basic topics, a list of general dance topics Balfolk, contemporary folk dance practised across Europe Elizabeth Burchinal, authority on American folk dance Folk Dance Hawaii Folk dancing at Curlie Dancilla Folklore People Community Folk Dance Folklore Festivals Folklore Festivals Society for International Folk Dancing