Panthéon-Assas University referred to as Assas, Paris II, or Sorbonne-Assas, is a public university in Paris, France. Panthéon-Assas is renowned for excellence in law and described as the top law school in France, it is considered as the direct inheritor of the Paris Law School since most of the latter’s law professors went to Panthéon-Assas and its main campuses are the same ones of those of the Paris Law Faculty, from which its name comes. It provides law courses for the Sorbonne University and may become its faculty of law. Since its founding in 1971, it has produced two presidents, four prime ministers, the holders of thirty-seven other ministerships in France and around the world. Forty alumni of the university have been members of various parliaments as well; the majority of the nineteen campuses of Panthéon-Assas are located in the Latin Quarter, with the main campuses on place du Panthéon and rue d'Assas. The university is composed of five departments specializing in law and media, economics and private management, political science and hosts twenty-four research centres and five specialized doctoral schools.
Every year, the university enrolls 18,000 students, including 3,000 international students. When the University of Paris, founded in the middle of the 12th century, which ceased to exist on 31 December 1970, following the student protests of 1969, the Faculty of Law and Economics of Paris professors had to choose the future of the university. Most of the law professors of the faculty of law and economics wished only to restructure their faculty into a new university. In pursuit of this, they founded with one professors of economics founded the "University of law and social sciences of Paris" or "Paris II". Hence, it is considered as its direct inheritors; some law professors went to other universities inherited from the Sorbonne. The official name of the university was changed to "Panthéon-Assas" in 1990; the name Panthéon Assas is a reference to the main addresses of the pre-1968 faculty of law of Paris, which are now part of the university. The university is referred to as "Assas" or "Paris II" and "Sorbonne Law School".
Panthéon-Assas is providing law courses for the Sorbonne University and may become its faculty of law. The university has one in the city of Melun; the administration offices and postgraduate studies are located in the structure designed by Jacques-Germain Soufflot and built in the late eighteenth century for the faculty of law of the University of Paris, on the plaza that rings the Pantheon. It is registered among the national heritage sites of France; the largest campus of Panthéon-Assas is located on rue d'Assas and receives second-year to four-year law students. It was designed by Charles Lemaresquier, Alain le Normand and François Carpentier to accommodate the growing number of students at the University of Paris, it was built between 1963 on the former grounds of Société Marinoni. At the time of its inauguration, its main lecture theatre was the vastest in France, with 1,700 seats; the scene at the Cairo airport from OSS 117: Cairo, Nest of Spies was filmed in its entrance hall. The campus on rue de Vaugirard gathers first-year students.
It is located in the chapel wing of the defunct Jesuit College of the Immaculate Conception, where Charles de Gaulle had been a pupil. The structure is a national heritage site as well; the campus on rue Charcot receives master students of economics. South-east of Paris, the campus in Melun, which opened in 1987, gathers over a thousand first-cycle students who do not reside in Paris; the campus in Melun hosts local first-year students. It is located on Saint-Étienne Island, among Roman and Gothic remains; the Institute of Law and Economics of Pantheon-Assas University is located there. Assas building, going under renovation during the last ten years, has been redesigned and now hosts a modern learning center; the campus in Melun has an extension under work. The university houses five academic departments: one for private law and criminal sciences, one for public law and political science, one for Roman law and legal history, one for economics and management, one for journalism and communication.
In all, Panthéon-Assas comprises about two dozens of research centres, including the Institute of Higher International Studies, the Paris Institute of Comparative Law, the Paris Institute of Criminology. In July 2012, Panthéon-Assas became the first university in France to open preparatory classes for the bar school entrance examination, which were until this point the monopole of private preparatory schools. In 2013, the university set up a distance learning degree in law. Panthéon-Assas is governed by an administration council, a scientific council, a council for studies and university life. Members of these boards serve two year te
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Paris Diderot University
Paris Diderot University known as Paris 7, is a French university located in Paris, France. It was one of the heirs of the University of Paris, which ceased to exist in 1970. Professors from the faculties of Science, of Medicine and of Humanities chose to create a new multidisciplinary university, it adopted its current name in 1994 after the 18th-century French philosopher, art critic and writer Denis Diderot. With two Nobel Prize laureates, two Fields Medal winners and two former French Ministers of Education among its faculty or former faculty, the university is famous for its teaching in science in mathematics. Indeed, many fundamental results of the theory of probability have been discovered at one of its research centres, the Laboratoire de Probabilités et Modèles Aléatoires; the university is known for its teaching in psychology, which adopts a specific approach that draws from both psychopathology and psychoanalysis. The university hosts many other disciplines: with 2,300 educators and researchers, 1,100 administrative personnel and 26,000 students studying humanities, science or medicine.
Paris Diderot University is a founding member of the higher education and research alliance Sorbonne Paris Cité, a public institution for scientific co-operation, bringing together four renowned Parisian universities and four higher education and research institutes. Based at the Jussieu Campus, in the 5th arrondissement, the university moved to a new campus in the 13th arrondissement, in the Paris Rive Gauche neighbourhood; the first buildings were brought into use in 2006. The university has two in other places of the general area. In 2012, the university completed its move in its new ultramodern campus. There are: PRG - Main campus Jussieu Campus - former Main campus Charles V - English studies RFF Building - Administrative offices Javelot - Geography and social science Chateau des Rentiers - Linguistics Garancière - Odontology Xavier-Bichat - Medicine Lariboisière Saint-Louis - Medicine St Louis Hospital - Hematology Rue de Paradis - Medicine Paris Diderot University offers courses in many fields, each taught in a different sections of the university called UFR - Unité de Formation et de Recherche.
UFR of Life Sciences UFR of Chemistry UFR of Computer Sciences UFR of Mathematics UFR of Physics UFR of Science of the Earth and Planets UFR of English studies UFR of Cross-cultural and Applied Languages studies UFR of Geography and Social sciences UFR of Languages and Cultures in East Asia studies UFR of Letters and Cinema UFR of Linguistics UFR of Psychoanalytical Studies UFR of Social Sciences UFR of Medicine UFR of Odontology There are: 1 Diplôme universitaire de technologie 27 Different bachelor's degrees 32 Different master's degrees 1 Engineering school 24 different Ph. Ds Jaak Aaviksoo, Estonian Minister of Defense Claude Allègre, Minister of National Education from 1997 to 2000 and member of the Académie des sciences Artur Avila, 2014 Fields Medal Jean-Luc Bennahmias, French Member of the European Parliament Bernard Cerquiglini, rector of the Agence universitaire de la Francophonie Michel Ciment, French journalist and president of FIPRESCI Vincent Courtillot, member of the Académie des sciences Jean Dausset, Nobel Prize in Medicine 1980 Luc Ferry, French Minister of National Education from 2002 to 2004 Julia Kristeva, Bulgarian-French psychoanalyst and feminist Thierry Morand, French biocontainment expert and entrepreneur.
Élisabeth Roudinesco, French historian and psychoanalyst Jean-Michel Savéant, member of the Académie des sciences Laurent Schwartz, 1950 Fields Medal, Justin E. H. Smith and professor of history and philosophy of science George Fitzgerald Smoot, Nobel Prize in Physics 2006 for the discovery of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation Stefano Zacchiroli, Former Debian Project Leader. University homepage Map of facilities
Pantheon-Sorbonne University known as Paris 1, is a multidisciplinary public research university in Paris, France. It focuses on the areas of humanities, political science, social sciences and finance, it is one of the thirteen inheritors of the world's second oldest academic institution, the University of Paris — colloquially referred to as the Sorbonne —, shortly before the latter ceased to exist on December 31, 1970, as a consequence of the French cultural revolution of 1968 referred to as "the French May". The double origin of the founders is now found in the name of the university: Panthéon for law and Economics, Sorbonne for humanities. Pantheon-Sorbonne is multidisciplinary, has three main domains: Economic and Management Sciences, Human Sciences, Legal and Political Sciences. Pantheon-Sorbonne's headquarters is located on the Place du Panthéon in the Latin Quarter, an area in the 5th and the 6th arrondissements of Paris; the university occupies part of the historical Sorbonne campus.
Overall, its campus includes over 25 buildings in Paris, such as the Centre Pierre Mendès France, the Maison des Sciences Économiques, among others. In 2018, Pantheon-Sorbonne was globally ranked 299th by QS World University Rankings, 501-600th by The Times Higher Education By world reputation, it was ranked 71-80th in 2017 by The Times Higher Education, it was ranked by the 2019 QS World University Ranking by Subject as being 1st in France in Archaeology, Law, Geography and Economics. In the French Eduniversal rankings, it is ranked 1st of France in Economics, 4th in Law and 14th in Business; the historic University of Paris first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was reorganised in 1970 as 13 autonomous universities after the student protests of the French May. Following months of conflict between students and authorities at the University of Paris at Nanterre, the administration shut down that university on May 2, 1968. Students of the University of Paris protested the closure and the threatened expulsion of several students at Nanterre on May 3, 1968.
After the student protests of May and June 1968, thirteen universities succeeded to the University of Paris, which ceased to exist. Pantheon-Sorbonne University was established in 1971 by Professors François Luchaire, Henri Bartoli and Hélène Ahrweiler from two faculties of the historical University of Paris — colloquially referred to as the Sorbonne — after the French May of 1968, which resulted in the division of one of the world's oldest academic institution; the double origin of the founders – Luchaire and Bartoli from the Faculty of Law and Economics and Ahrweiler from the Faculty of Letters – is now found in the name of the university: Panthéon for law and Economics, Sorbonne for humanities. While Paris-Sorbonne University and Sorbonne Nouvelle succeeded the faculty of humanities of the University of Paris, Panthéon-Assas University the faculty of law and economics, Pierre and Marie Curie University and Paris Descartes University the faculty of sciences, Panthéon-Sorbonne University was founded on a wish for interdisciplinarity by bringing together disciplines.
Indeed, most of the law professors of the faculty of law and economics of the University of Paris wished only to restructure their faculty into a university. However, most of the faculty's economists and political scientists and some public law professors sought to create a university which would extend beyond the disciplinary compartmentalisation; the name of the university show this interdisciplinarity: the Sorbonne building is the traditional seat of the Humanities studies in Paris, the Panthéon building is, with the Assas building, the traditional seat of the law studies. Sorbonne building: Panthéon-Sorbonne occupies part of this historical seat, rebuilt at the end of the 19th century, it is shared with Sorbonne University. Albert Châtelet Center: called Calvin, it is a secondary building of the Sorbonne. Rue d'Ulm Center: like Calvin, a secondary building of the Sorbonne. Place du Panthéon Building (not to be confused with the actual Panthéon: Pantheon-Sorbonne occupies part of the historical seat of the Law Faculty of the University of Paris.
It is shared with Panthéon-Assas. Institute of Geography: located in the Rue Saint-Jacques, it houses one of the oldest and richest collections of maps in France. Institute of Philosophy of Sciences and Techniques: located in the Rue du Four. Mahler Center: located in the 4th arrondissement, it houses an historical and legal studies institute. Saint-Charles Center: located in the 15th arrondissement. Founded in 1973, it houses the School of Cinema. Pierre Mendès-France Center: called Tolbiac, it is located in the 13th arrondissement. Founded in 1973, it is the main center of the University. Freshmen and Sophomores in Humanities are educated at Tolbiac. Tolbiac Center: a secondary building of the Mendès-France Center. René Cassin Center: located in the 13th arrondissement. Founded in 1990, it houses the main part of Law School. Economi
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
University of Upper Alsace
University of Upper Alsace is a multidisciplinary teaching and research centre based in the two cities of Mulhouse and Colmar, France. Research and teaching at UHA concentrates on science, economics, management and humainities. In 2017, UHA has more than 8000 students with about a hundred courses offered; the founding of UHA was driven among them was Jean-Baptiste Donnet. The special geographical situation of UHA, which lies close to the Swiss and German borders, is favourable to the emergence of single courses leading to double or triple degrees that are recognized in the neighbouring countries. Together with Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, University of Basel, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, as well as Strasbourg University, the university of Upper Alsace is a member of the EUCOR, a trinational cross-border alliance of five universities on the Upper Rhine in the border region between Germany and Switzerland; the university consists of four faculties: FLSH - Faculte des Lettres, Langues et Sciences Humaines FSESJ - Faculte des Sciences Economiques, Sociales et Juridiques FST - Faculte des Sciences et Techniques PEPS - Pluridisciplinaire d'Enseignement Professionnalisé Supérieurtwo institutes of technology: IUT DE COLMAR - Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Colmar IUT DE MULHOUSE - Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Mulhouseand two schools of engineering: ENSCMu - Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Mulhouse ENSISA - Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Ingénieurs Sud Alsace
French Guiana is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas. It borders Brazil to the east and Suriname to the west. Since 1981, when Belize became independent, French Guiana has been the only territory of the mainland Americas, still part of a European country. With a land area of 83,534 km2, French Guiana is the second-largest region of France and the largest outermost region within the European Union, it has a low population density, with only 3.6 inhabitants per square kilometre. Half of its 296,711 inhabitants in 2019 lived in the metropolitan area of its capital. 98.9% of the land territory of French Guiana is covered by forests, a large part of, primeval rainforest. The Guiana Amazonian Park, the largest national park in the European Union, covers 41% of French Guiana's territory. Since December 2015 both the region and the department have been ruled by a single assembly within the framework of a new territorial collectivity, the French Guiana Territorial Collectivity.
This assembly, the French Guiana Assembly, has replaced the former regional council and departmental council, which were both disbanded. The French Guiana Assembly is in charge of departmental government, its president is Rodolphe Alexandre. Before European contact, the territory was inhabited by Native Americans, most speaking the Arawak language, of the Arawakan language family; the people identified as Lokono. The first French establishment is recorded in 1503, but France did not establish a durable presence until colonists founded Cayenne in 1643. Guiana was developed as a slave society, where planters imported Africans as enslaved laborers on large sugar and other plantations in such number as to increase the population. Slavery was abolished in the colonies at the time of the French Revolution. Guiana was designated as a French department in 1797. But, after France gave up its territory in North America in 1803, it developed Guiana as a penal colony, establishing a network of camps and penitentiaries along the coast where prisoners from metropolitan France were sentenced to forced labor.
During World War II and the fall of France to German forces, Félix Éboué was one of the first to support General Charles de Gaulle of Free France, as early as June 18, 1940. Guiana rallied Free France in 1943, it abandoned its status as a colony and once again became a French department in 1946. After De Gaulle was elected as president of France, he established the Guiana Space Centre in 1965, it is now operated by Arianespace and the European Space Agency. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, several hundred Hmong refugees from Laos immigrated to French Guiana, fleeing displacement after United States involvement in the Vietnam War. In the late 1980s, more than 10,000 Surinamese refugees Maroons, arrived in French Guiana, fleeing the Surinamese Civil War. More French Guiana has received large numbers of Brazilian and Haitian economic migrants. Illegal and ecologically destructive gold mining by Brazilian garimpeiros is a chronic issue in the remote interior rain forest of French Guiana. Integrated in the French central state in the 21st century, Guiana is a part of the European Union, its official currency is the euro.
The region has the highest nominal GDP per capita in South America. A large part of Guiana's economy derives from jobs and businesses associated with the presence of the Guiana Space Centre, now the European Space Agency's primary launch site near the equator; as elsewhere in France, the official language is standard French, but each ethnic community has its own language, of which French Guianese Creole, a French-based creole language, is the most spoken. The region still faces such problems as poor infrastructure, high costs of living, high levels of crime and common social unrest. Guiana is derived from an Amerindian language and means "land of many waters"; the addition of the adjective "French" in most languages other than French is rooted in colonial times, when five such colonies had been named along the coast, subject to differing powers. French Guiana and the two larger countries to the north and west and Suriname, are still collectively referred to as "the Guianas" and constitute one large landmass known as the Guiana Shield.
French Guiana was inhabited by indigenous people: Kalina, Emerillon, Palikur and Wayana. The French attempted to create a colony there in the 18th century in conjunction with its settlement of some Caribbean islands, such as Guadeloupe and Saint-Domingue. Bill Marshall, Professor of Comparative Cultural Studies at the University of Stirling wrote of French Guiana's origins: The first French effort to colonize Guiana, in 1763, failed utterly, as settlers were subject to high mortality given the numerous tropical diseases and harsh climate: all but 2,000 of the initial 12,000 settlers died. During operations as a penal colony beginning in the mid-19th century, France transported 56,000 prisoners to Devil's Island. Fewer than 10% survived their sentence. Île du Diable was the site of a small prison facility, part of a larger penal system by the same name, which consisted of prisons on