Technology is the collection of techniques, skills and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems; the simplest form of technology is the use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact on a global scale. Technology has many effects, it has allowed the rise of a leisure class.
Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; the use of the term "technology" has changed over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, it was used either to refer to the description or study of the useful arts or to allude to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the term "technology" rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution.
The term's meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into "technology." In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie, absent in English, which translates both terms as "technology." By the 1930s, "technology" referred not only to the study of the industrial arts but to the industrial arts themselves. In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that "technology includes all tools, utensils, instruments, clothing and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them." Bain's definition remains common among scholars today social scientists. Scientists and engineers prefer to define technology as applied science, rather than as the things that people make and use. More scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self.
Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. The Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary offers a definition of the term: "the use of science in industry, etc. to invent useful things or to solve problems" and "a machine, piece of equipment, etc., created by technology." Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, gave another definition of the concept. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole. Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as "the pursuit of life by means other than life," and as "organized inorganic matter."Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems, it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator.
Tools and machines need not be material. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as "a means to fulfill a human purpose."The word "technology" can be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; when combined with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology," it refers to the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field. Technology can be viewed as an activity that changes culture. Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, an
University of Lille Nord de France
The Community of Universities and Institutions Lille Nord de France is a French Groups of Universities and Institutions spread over multiple campuses and centered in Lille. It includes a European Doctoral College and federates universities, engineering schools and research centers. With more than one hundred thousand students, it is one of the largest university federations in France; the University of Lille, with nearly 70,000 students, is the main component. Founded as University of Douai in 1562, the university was renamed Université impériale de Douai-Lille in 1808 as Université de Lille with faculty expansion in the Lille region from mid-19th century onwards; the roots of the faculties in law and humanities date back from the 16th century. The university expanded into several campus and formed several universities/institutions in Lille region and North at the end of the 20th century; the universities and institutions came together as the Université Lille Nord de France. It is labeled I-Site in 2017 by the French government.
It benefits from an allocation of 500 million euros for its project « Université Lille Nord-Europe » which aims to classify it in the top 50 universities of Europe. The Community of Universities and Institutions Lille Nord de France includes the following establishments: University of Lille Artois University University of the Littoral Opal Coast University of Valenciennes and Hainaut-Cambresis École des Mines-Télécom de Lille-Douai École centrale de Lille Lille Catholic University Centre national de la recherche scientifique French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation Several institutions are associate members: Skema Business School CHU Lille University Hospital Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale École nationale supérieure des arts et industries textiles Arts et Métiers ParisTech École nationale supérieure d'architecture et de paysage de Lille École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille École supérieure d'art Dunkerque-Tourcoing École supérieure de journalisme de Lille Institut d'études politiques de Lille Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur sécurité Institut Pasteur de Lille Institut national de la recherche agronomique Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur sécurité Office national d'études et de recherches aérospatiales-Institut de mécanique des fluides de Lille Belgian universities and their research teamsIt participates in French competitiveness clusters: Pôle de compétitivité Industrie du commerce Pôle de compétitivité Industrie des transports Pôle de compétitivité Maîtrise énergétique des entraînements électriques Pôle de compétitivité Aquimer Pôle de compétitivité Matériaux et Applications pour une Utilisation Durable Pôle de compétitivité Nutrition Santé Longévité Pôle de compétitivité Technologies de l’Environnement Appliquées au Matières et aux Matériaux Pôle de compétitivité Textiles innovants 139 research labs and institutes are associated to the European Doctoral College Lille Nord-de-France.
Six doctoral schools are included with 3,000 registered PhD students. Altogether, the university research labs own an active portfolio of more than 170 invention patent families. SPI - Doctoral School of Engineering Sciences, supported by 22 research labs. SMRE - Doctoral School for Science of Matter, Environment, supported by 26 research labs. BSL - Doctoral School Biology - Health, supported by 47 research labs. SESAM - Doctoral School in Business, urban planning and management, supported by 11 research labs. SHS - Doctoral School in Social Sciences and Humanities, supported by 19 research labs. SJPG - Doctoral School for Law, Political Science, supported by 14 research labs. Mathematics and information theory: Émile Borel, Joseph Boussinesq, Henri Cartan, Albert Châtelet, Paul Dubreil, Joseph Kampé de Fériet, Szolem Mandelbrojt, Benoît Mandelbrot, Mohammad Ali Mojtahedi, Henri Padé, Paul Painlevé, Faustin-Archange Touadéra, Ernest Vessiot Biology, chemistry and medicine: Charles Barrois, Albert Calmette, Jean Théodore Delacour, Alfred Mathieu Giard, Camille Guérin, Claude Auguste Lamy, Louis Pasteur Law: René Cassin Literature and human sciences: Pierre Bourdieu, Henri Gouhier, Étienne Gilson, Victor Henry, Pierre Macherey, Vladimir Jankélévitch.
University institutes and research labs promote student and researchers mobility and cooperate in several university networks: ESDP Utrecht Network IMCC Compostela Group of Universities Mobility centre Doctoral college of Université Lille Nord de France Mobility centre Lille Nord Pas de Calais Histoire de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université de Lille
Sciences Po Lille
Sciences Po Lille - Institut d'études politiques de Lille referred to as Sciences Po Lille, is located in Lille, France and is part of the Conférence des Grandes Écoles. It was created as one of the French Institutes of Political Studies; the school's focus is on educating France's political and diplomatic personnel, but its academic focus spans not only the political and economic sciences, but law, finance, urban policy and journalism. Sciences Po Lille was created by decree in 1991; as all IEP, it aims to give its students training in the civil service, but it specialises in European and International studies. The institute has an agreement with the renowned school of Journalism Ecole Supérieure de Journalisme de Lille, it proposes selective dual degrees with universities in Spain and Germany. The curriculum at the IEP is at the crossroads of law, economics, political science and sociology. Students spend one year abroad. Entrance to the IEP can be achieved through selective exams. At the time of its establishment in 1991, Sciences Po Lille was located in the premises of the École Supérieure de Journalisme de Lille, 50 rue Gauthier de Châtillon.
Built in the 19th century, the building was located in the quartier latin of Lille, which used to be where all Lille's universities were located. The building turned out to be too small for both schools. Thus, in 1996, in order to keep growing, Sciences Po Lille moved into a bigger building, this time located in a working-class district called Moulins; the choice of this district was political. The municipality of Lille wished to enhance social diversity in the neighbourhood. Sciences Po Lille's students being from high income and educational backgrounds, its presence in the Moulins district was seen as a way to reinvigorate this southern part of Lille. Sciences Po Lille's new address became 84 rue de Trévise, near the metro station Porte de Valenciennes; the building is a former factory made of red bricks. To cope with the quick development of the school, a new relocation took place in January, 2017. Sciences Po Lille came back to its original area and established its campus rue Auguste-Angelier in the old quartier Latin of Lille.
This building of downtown Lille is 8200 square meters. It provides 40 rooms and a 1500 square meter library. Sciences Po Lille is one of the most selective French écoles. Students wishing to attend Sciences Po Lille must pass selective and competitive entrance exams composed of a general knowledge test, an history test, a language test; the rate of admission is, as with all Grandes écoles low: between 5 and 15% of candidates are admitted. There are two admission procedures for the Undergraduate Program; the two of them are collectively organized by Sciences Po Lille and six other Sciences Po: the "Concours Commun 1ere année". More than 10,000 high schoolers take this exam each year, only 1000 of them are admitted to one of the 7 Sciences Po of Lille, Aix-en-Provence, Rennes, Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Toulouse. Among them, 150 successful candidates get into Sciences Po Lille; the "Concours Filières Intégrées". This exam is organized to select the future students of the dual degrees with the university of Salamanca, the university of Kent and the university of Münster.
They consist of a written test in Contemporary Questions and a Language test. After which there is an oral test in the language of the program, where only half of the selected students will be chosen to go through; the "Concours Commun 2e année" Admission procedures for Graduate Programs: Procedure for French students. The selection process is done through an exam. About 60 students per year enroll directly in one of Sciences Po Lille's Master's programs without having attended the undergraduate program. International Graduate Admissions Procedure. Admission is based on the holistic assessment of each candidate's academic and professional background. International applicants are required to submit the following documents: a cover letter, two recommendation letters, a resume written in French, the copy of the applicant's academic degree, the student's academic record of the last three years prior to the application, a French Language Certificate. Special Entrance Exam for Chinese Applicants; this exam gives access to a limited number of Master's programs (Corporate and Government Communication.
The exam takes place in January in Shanghai. In order to be eligible for this exam, candidates must have a bachelor's degree, a B2 level in French language, a 90 TOEFL IBT/750 TOEIC/6 IELTS score; the exam is structured in two phases: a 4-hour written exam on a current political issue dealing with the world economy and international relations. Tuitions are based on the income of the student's family, they range from 0 euro to 3.200 euros a year. To tuition must be added health insurance, which costs about 200 euros for the full year. Sciences Po Lille's Master's programs a
École centrale de Lille
Located in the campus of Science and Technology of the University of Lille in Villeneuve-d'Ascq. It is one of the Centrale Graduate Schools, its different curricula lead to the following French & European degrees: Ingénieur Centralien de Lille Masters Recherche & Doctorat Mastères Spécialisés Massive open online course in project management. Academic activities and industrial applied research are performed in French and English languages. Students from a dozen of nationalities participate to the different curricula at École Centrale de Lille. Most of the 1300 graduate engineer students at École Centrale de Lille live in dedicated residential buildings nearby research labs and metro public transports on a science and technology campus, shared with 20,000 students from the University of Lille. École Centrale de Lille was founded as École des arts industriels et des mines de Lille in 1854, the same year when Louis Pasteur became the dean of Faculté des sciences de Lille and pioneered applied research with industry cooperations, with support of scientists such as Charles Frédéric Kuhlmann.
Between 1854 and 1871, students attending the two-year curriculum grew to 90 per annum. Baccalaureate was a prerequisite to admission to the engineering school. In 1872 lectures and research activities in the engineering school were reorganised into a three-year curriculum and developed within its Institut industriel du Nord, with a focus on civil engineering, mechanical engineering and manufacturing engineering. Electrical engineering full courses were added in 1892, automobile design has been taught from 1899 onwards. More than 200 students graduated in year 1914. Aerodynamics studies started in 1930. A stress on automatic control and computers was initiated in 1957. Came courses and research in computer science, supply chain management, materials science, micro-electronics and telecommunications. Since early 20th century, student admission has been based on a competitive exam after attending a classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles or similar undergraduate studies. École Centrale de Lille was located in Lille central district from 1854 to 1875.
Larger buildings with dedicated laboratories were inaugurated in 1875 nearby the Faculté des sciences de Lille. It moved in 1968 in the modern campus of Lille University of Science and Technology, in the south-east suburb of Lille. Admission to the Centralien engineering Programme implemented at École Centrale de Lille is possible after two/three year scientific undergraduate studies and requires success to either: an admission exam for the Bachelor of Science degree: CASTing - Concours d'Admission sur Titre Ingénieur a French nationwide selective exam with numerus clausus: concours Centrale-Supelec a selective application as per TIME double degrees procedures applicable in Europe a selective application as per TIME Overseas double degree procedures applicable for selected Universities and Institutes of Technology in Brasil, Chile, Indonesia, Korea a selective application as per IMCC procedure for one-semester or one-year accredited post-graduate study period in France and USA a specific application process for other international students presented by their originating University.
The Centralien Programme lasts three years and results in a master's degree, augmented with international experience. Thus undergraduate studies + the Centralien Programme account for more than a cumulated 300 ECTS credit in the European education system. However, graduate students enrolled in the TIME double degree procedure are required to spend two-years at École Centrale de Lille and spend two years in the TIME-partner institute for a total of four years resulting in a double master's degree. Not to mention that 18% students attending courses at École Centrale de Lille are international students, all students enrolled in the Centralien Programme have an international exposure with opportunities to perform industry training and internship in enterprises worldwide, study abroad for 1 year in selected partner institutes providing Master courses, or be part of the 2+2 year TIME double degree programme. In addition to the Centralien Programme, École Centrale de Lille provides a range of master's degree cursus in science and engineering that are opened to applicants who have completed their undergraduate studies in other institutes.
Admission to Masters' second-year research cursus is possible for applicants who have performed their Master's first year in another institute and wish to focus on a research topic associated to Centrale Lille research labs. Admission to one of the 6 Masters from École Centrale de Lille is possible upon an application assessment process based on academic criteria. Note that Masters/Research workload is 60 ECTS credits and may be the starting point for doctorate studies; these 6 Masters and a larger number of Masters from other Centrale Graduate Schools and from partner institutes are possible as electives for a double degree alongside the Centralien Programme. Admission to one of the 6 Specialized Masters for Master-level specialization and continuing education in specific engineering
Lille is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders. On the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium, it is the capital of the Hauts-de-France region, the prefecture of the Nord department, the main city of the European Metropolis of Lille; as of 2015, Lille had a population of 232,741 within its administrative limits. Lille is the first city of the Métropole Européenne de Lille with a population of 1,182,127, making it the fourth largest urban area in France after Paris and Marseille. Archeological digs seem to show the area as inhabited by as early as 2000 BC, most notably in the modern-day quartiers of Fives and Vieux Lille; the original inhabitants of this region were the Gauls, such as the Menapians, the Morins, the Atrebates, the Nervians, who were followed by Germanic peoples: the Saxons, the Frisians and the Franks. The legend of "Lydéric and Phinaert" puts the foundation of the city of Lille at 640. In the 8th century, the language of Old Low Franconian was spoken here, as attested by toponymic research.
Lille's Dutch name is Rijsel. The French equivalent has the same meaning: Lille comes from l'île. From 830 until around 910, the Vikings invaded Flanders. After the destruction caused by Norman and Magyar invasion, the eastern part of the region was ruled by various local princes; the first mention of the town dates from 1066: apud Insulam. At the time, it was controlled by the County of Flanders; the County of Flanders thus extended to the left bank of the Scheldt, one of the richest and most prosperous regions of Europe. A notable local in this period was Évrard, who lived in the 9th century and participated in many of the day's political and military affairs. There was an important Battle of Lille in 1054. From the 12th century, the fame of the Lille cloth fair began to grow. In 1144 Saint-Sauveur parish was formed, which would give its name to the modern-day quartier Saint-Sauveur; the counts of Flanders and Hainaut came together with England and East Frankia and tried to regain territory taken by Philip II of France following Henry II of England's death, a war that ended with the French victory at Bouvines in 1214.
Infante Ferdinand, Count of Flanders was imprisoned and the county fell into dispute: it would be his wife, Countess of Flanders and Constantinople, who ruled the city. She was said to be well loved by the residents of Lille, who by that time numbered 10,000. In 1225, the street performer and juggler Bertrand Cordel, doubtlessly encouraged by local lords, tried to pass himself off as Baldwin I of Constantinople, who had disappeared at the battle of Adrianople, he pushed the counties of Flanders and Hainaut towards sedition against Jeanne in order to recover his land. She called her cousin, Louis VIII, he unmasked the imposter, whom Countess Jeanne had hanged. In 1226 the King agreed to free Infante Count of Flanders. Count Ferrand died in 1233, his daughter Marie soon after. In 1235, Jeanne granted a city charter by which city governors would be chosen each All Saint's Day by four commissioners chosen by the ruler. On 6 February 1236, she founded the Countess's Hospital, which remains one of the most beautiful buildings in Old Lille.
It was in her honour that the hospital of the Regional Medical University of Lille was named "Jeanne of Flanders Hospital" in the 20th century. The Countess died in 1244 in the Abbey of Marquette; the rule of Flanders and Hainaut thus fell to her sister, Margaret II, Countess of Flanders to Margaret's son, Guy of Dampierre. Lille fell under the rule of France after the Franco-Flemish War; the county of Flanders fell to the Duchy of Burgundy next, after the 1369 marriage of Margaret III, Countess of Flanders, Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Lille thus became one of the three capitals of said along with Brussels and Dijon. By 1445, Lille counted some 25,000 residents. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, was more powerful than the King of France, made Lille an administrative and financial capital. On 17 February 1454, one year after the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, Philip the Good organised a Pantagruelian banquet at his Lille palace, the still-celebrated "Feast of the Pheasant". There the Duke and his court undertook an oath to Christianity.
In 1477, at the death of the last duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, Mary of Burgundy married Maximilian of Austria, who thus became Count of Flanders. The 16th and 17th centuries were marked by a boom in the regional textile industry, the Protestant revolts, outbreaks of the Plague. Lille came under the rule of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1519; the Low Countries fell to his eldest son Philip II of Spain in 1555. The city remained under Spanish Habsburg rule until 1668. Calvinism first appeared in the area in 1542. In 1566 the countryside around Lille was affected by the Iconoclastic Fury. In 1578, the Hurlus, a group of Protestant rebels, stormed the castle of the Counts of Mouscron, they were removed four months by a Catholic Wallon regiment, after which they tried several times between 1581 and 1582 to take the city of Lille, all in vain. The Hurlus were notably held back by the legendary Jeanne Maillotte. At the same time, at the call of Elizabeth I of England, the north of the Seventeen Provinces, having gained a Protestant majority, su
Social science is a category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. Social science as a whole has many branches; these social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, communication studies, history, human geography, linguistics, political science, public health, sociology. The term is sometimes used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science. Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are eclectic, using multiple methodologies.
The term "social research" has acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods. The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650, which saw a revolution within natural philosophy, changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was "scientific". Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and were influenced by the Age of Revolutions, such as the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution; the social sciences developed from the sciences, or the systematic knowledge-bases or prescriptive practices, relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities. The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in the grand encyclopedia of Diderot, with articles from Jean-Jacques Rousseau and other pioneers; the growth of the social sciences is reflected in other specialized encyclopedias. The modern period saw "social science" first used as a distinct conceptual field.
Social science was influenced by positivism, focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative. Auguste Comte used the term "science sociale" to describe the field, taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier. Following this period, there were five paths of development that sprang forth in the social sciences, influenced by Comte on other fields. One route, taken was the rise of social research. Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe. Another route undertaken was initiated by Émile Durkheim, studying "social facts", Vilfredo Pareto, opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories. A third means developed, arising from the methodological dichotomy present, in which social phenomena were identified with and understood; the fourth route taken, based in economics, was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science. The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values. In this route and prescription were non-overlapping formal discussions of a subject.
Around the start of the 20th century, Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters. After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution, various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure; the development of social science subfields became quantitative in methodology. The interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behaviour and environmental factors affecting it, made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodology. Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine, neuropsychology and the history and sociology of science. Quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century, statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics.
Statistical methods were used confidently. In the contemporary period, Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences. Researchers continue to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed "grand theory" with the various midrange theories that, with considerable success, continue to provide usable frameworks for massive, growing data banks; the social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the research of, sometime distinct in approach toward, the field. The term "social science" may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte, Durkheim and Weber, or more to all disciplines outside of "noble science" and arts. By the late 19th century, the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law, health and trade, art. Around the start of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.
The social science disciplines are branches of knowledge taught and researched at the college or university level. Social science disciplines are defined and rec