A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
A fraternity, or fraternal organization is an organization, club or fraternal order traditionally of men associated together for various religious or secular aims. Fraternity in the Western concept developed in the Christian context, notably with the religious orders in the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages; the concept was further extended with medieval confraternities and guilds. In the early modern era, these were followed by fraternal orders such as freemasons and odd fellows, along with gentlemen's clubs, student fraternities, fraternal service organizations. Members are referred to as a brother or – in religious context – Frater or Friar. Today, connotations of fraternities vary according to context including companionships and brotherhoods dedicated to the religious, academic, physical, or social pursuits of its members. Additionally, in modern times, it sometimes connotes a secret society regarding freemasonry, odd fellows, various academic, student societies. Although membership in fraternities was and still is limited to men since the development of orders of Catholic sisters and nuns in the Middle Ages and henceforth, this is not always the case.
There are mixed male and female fraternities and fraternal orders, as well as wholly female religious orders and societies, some of which are known as sororities in North America. Notable modern fraternities or fraternal orders that with time have evolved to more or less permit female members, include some grand lodges operating among freemasons and odd fellows. There are known fraternal organizations which existed as far back as ancient clan hero and goddess cults of Greek religions and in the Mithraic Mysteries of ancient Rome; the background of the modern world of fraternities can be traced back to the confraternities in the Middle Ages, which were formed as lay organisations affiliated with the Catholic Church. Some were groups of men and women who were endeavoring to ally themselves more with the prayer and activity of the church; these confraternities evolved into purely secular fraternal societies, while the ones with religious goals continue to be the format of the modern Third Orders affiliated with the mendicant orders.
Other yet took the shape as military orders during the Crusades, which provided inspiration for elements of quite a few modern fraternal orders. The development of modern fraternal orders was dynamic in the United States, where the freedom to associate outside governmental regulation is expressly sanctioned in law. There have been hundreds of fraternal organizations in the United States, at the beginning of the 20th century the number of memberships equaled the number of adult males; this led to the period being referred to as "the Golden age of fraternalism." In 1944 Arthur M. Schlesinger coined the phrase "a nation of joiners". Alexis de Tocqueville referred to the American reliance on private organization in the 1830s in Democracy in America. There are many attributes that fraternities may or may not have, depending on their structure and purpose. Fraternities can have differing degrees of secrecy, some form of initiation or ceremony marking admission, formal codes of behavior, dress codes disciplinary procedures differing amounts of real property and assets.
The only true distinction between a fraternity and any other form of social organizations is the implication that the members are associated as equals for a mutually beneficial purpose rather than because of a religious, commercial, or familial bond - although there are fraternities dedicated to each of these fields of association. On college campuses, fraternities may be divided into four different groups: social, service and honorary. Fraternities can be organized for many purposes, including university education, work skills, ethnicity, politics, chivalry, other standards of personal conduct, service, performing arts, family command of territory, crime. There is always an explicit goal of mutual support, while there have been fraternal orders for the well-off there have been many fraternities for those in the lower ranks of society for national or religious minorities. Trade unions grew out of fraternities such as the Knights of Labor; the ability to organize apart from the institutions of government and religion, was a fundamental part of the establishment of the modern world.
In Living the Enlightenment, Margaret C. Jacobs showed that the development of Jurgen Habermas's "public space" in 17th-century Netherlands was related to the establishment of lodges of Freemasons; the development of fraternities in England can be traced from guilds that emerged as the forerunners of trade unions and friendly societies. These guilds were set up to protect and care for their members at a time when there was no welfare state, trade unions or universal health care. Various secret signs and handshakes were created to serve as proof of their membership allowing them to visit guilds in distant places that are associated with the guild they belong. Over the next 300 years or so, the idea of "ordinary" people joining together to improve their situation met with varying degrees of opposition from "People in Power", depending on whether they were seen as a source of revenue or a threat to their power; when Henry VIII broke from the Roman Catholic Church, he viewed the guilds as supporters of the Pope, in 1545 expropriated
Bangor Daily News
The Bangor Daily News is an American newspaper covering a large portion of rural Maine, published six days per week in Bangor, Maine. The Bangor Daily News was founded on June 18, 1889. Known as the News or the BDN, the paper is published by Bangor Publishing Company, a local family-owned company, it is the only independently owned daily newspaper in the state. The BDN is notable in the newspaper business for having an large coverage area; the BDN's print circulation area covers a large portion of rural Maine, larger than Connecticut and includes eight of Maine's 16 counties, geographically covering 68% of the state, although the population in that area is less than in the remaining 32%. Online, the BDN has readership throughout the state; the BDN's home office is in Bangor, the BDN maintains offices in Augusta and Belfast. The BDN is the only news organization. On election night, the BDN calls the clerk of each town to get the unofficial numbers and distributes the results from its website; the BDN publishes online throughout the day, seven days a week, in print six days a week.
In its history, the BDN has only failed to publish once: on December 30, 1962, after an unexpected blizzard buried Bangor under five feet of snow. The BDN has adopted an aggressive online-first publishing strategy, which has led to it becoming the most-read news source in the state. Numbers from online analytics firm similarweb.com show the paper's website records nearly 2.5 million visits per month, making it the largest news site in the state. In addition to the Bangor Daily News, the Bangor Publishing Company publishes the St. John Valley Times, The Star-Herald in Presque Isle, Aroostook Republican and News in Caribou, The Piscataquis Observer in Dover-Foxcroft, the Houlton Pioneer Times, The Weekly, which covers Greater Bangor; the BDN has bureaus in 10 of 16 counties in Maine, a sharing agreement with the Sun Journal that provides stories from three more counties. In late 2006, cutbacks in the newsroom resulted in early retirements and elimination of some positions; those who were laid off were given severance packages.
Since the BDN has added most of the reporting positions back, though it has cut in other departments. As of April 2018, the BDN had a newsroom staff of 40 journalists spread across Maine. Like many newspapers, the BDN has found advertising revenue in the production of special advertising sections; the tabloid-sized sections are theme - or advertiser-based. Where many newspapers produce as many as two dozens special sections annually, the BDN produces between 80 and 90 special sections each year, doing so with a staff of three writers and four dedicated sales representatives. Typical themed special sections include the four-part Perspective series each April, highlighting regional business, the Experience Maine trio of sections, with Summer and Winter editions; the BDN produces annual sections for such entities as the Bangor Region Chamber of Commerce, the Small Business Administration and the Maine Emergency Management Agency. The Bangor Daily News prices are: $2.00 Saturday. Bangordailynews.com or bdnmaine.com
University of Maine
The University of Maine is a public research university in Orono, United States. The university was established in 1865 as a land grant college and is the flagship university of the University of Maine System; the University of Maine is one of only a few land and space grant institutions in the nation. With an enrollment of 11,000 students, UMaine is the state's largest university and the only institution in Maine classified as a research university by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education; the University of Maine's athletic teams, nicknamed the Black Bears, are Maine's only Division I athletics program. Maine's men's ice hockey team; the University of Maine was founded in 1862 as a function of the Morrill Act, signed by President Lincoln. Established in 1865 as the Maine State College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, the Maine College opened on September 21, 1868 and changed its name to the University of Maine in 1897. By 1871, curricula had been organized in Agriculture and electives.
The Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station was founded as a division of the university in 1887. The university developed the Colleges of Life Sciences and Agriculture and Science, Arts and Sciences. In 1912 the Maine Cooperative Extension, which offers field educational programs for both adults and youths, was initiated; the School of Education was established in 1930 and received college status in 1958. The School of Business Administration was formed in 1958 and was granted college status in 1965. Women have been admitted into all curricula since 1872; the first master's degree was conferred in 1881. Since 1923 there has been a separate graduate school. Near the end of the 19th century, the university expanded its curriculum to place greater emphasis on liberal arts; as a result of this shift, faculty hired during the early 20th century included Caroline Colvin, chair of the history department and the nation's first woman to head a major university department. In 1906, The Senior Skull Honor Society was founded to "publicly recognize, formally reward, continually promote outstanding leadership and scholarship, exemplary citizenship within the University of Maine community."On April 16, 1925, 80 women met in Balentine Hall — faculty and undergraduate representatives — to plan a pledging of members to an inaugural honorary organization.
This organization was called "The All Maine Women" because only those women connected with the University of Maine were elected as members. On April 22, 1925, the new members were inducted into the honor society; when the University of Maine System was incorporated, in 1968, the school was renamed by the legislature over the objections of the faculty to the University of Maine at Orono. This was changed back to the University of Maine in 1986; the University of Maine is the flagship of the University of Maine System. The president of the university is Joan Ferrini-Mundy; the senior administration governs cooperatively with the Chancellor of the University of Maine system, James H. Page and the sixteen members of the University of Maine Board of Trustees; the Board of Trustees has full legal authority for the university system. It appoints the Chancellor and each university President, approves the establishment and elimination of academic programs, confers tenure on faculty members, sets tuition rates/operating budgets.
UMaine is one of a handful of colleges in the United States whose Student Government is incorporated. Student Government was formed in 1978 and incorporated in 1987, it is classified as a 501 not-for-profit corporation. It consists of a legislative branch, which passes resolutions, an executive branch, which helps organize on-campus entertainment and guest speakers, works with new and existing student organizations, performs other duties. Other organizations fall under the umbrella of Student Government Inc. including representative boards, community associations, many other student groups. The Maine Campus, the student newspaper, is incorporated and does not operate under or receive money from student government. Situated on Marsh Island, between the Penobscot and Stillwater rivers, the University of Maine is the nation's only land grant university on an island. Occupying the small city of Orono, population ~9,500, the 660-acre campus has an enrollment of 10,901 students; the campus has thirty-seven academic buildings, thirty administrative buildings, eighteen residence halls, eighteen specific laboratory facilities, fourteen Greek life houses, ten sports facilities, five museums, three dining facilities, two convenience stores, a student union, a cafe, a pub, an 87,000-square-foot state of the art recreation and fitness center, a 200'x200' air supported athletic/recreational dome.
In 1867, the university rejected a campus plan by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, who designed Central Park in New York City and the White House grounds in Washington, D. C; the plan's broad concepts, including the Front Lawn, were adopted during the school's first fifty years, were oriented toward the Stillwater River. A second master plan was produced in 1932 by Carl Rust Parker of the Olmsted Brothers firm, which reoriented the campus center to the Mall, an open grassy area between the Raymond H. Fogler Library and the Memorial Gym; the Mall is further bordered by five academic halls. T
Elementary school is a school for students in their first school years, where they get primary education before they enter secondary education. The exact ages vary by country. In the United States, elementary schools have 6 grades with pupils aged between 6 and 13 years old, but the age can be up to 10 or 14 years old as well. In Japan, the age of pupils in elementary school ranges from 6 to 12, after which the pupils enter junior high school. Elementary school is only one part of compulsory education in Western countries. Elementary school were first established in 1870. Most of these schools were converted into Primary schools during the late 1940s. Elementary school: were first promoted in 1647 in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Today, there are approximately 92,858 elementary schools Elementary schools in Japan were first established by 1875. National Center for Education Statistics Elementary Schools with Education and Crime Statistics Educational stage Primary school Grammar school Virtual reality in primary education
Colby College is a private liberal arts college in Waterville, Maine. 1,800 students from more than 60 countries are enrolled annually. The college offers 54 major fields of 30 minors, it was founded in 1813 as the Maine Literary and Theological Institution until it was renamed after the city it resides in with Waterville College. The donations of Christian philanthropist Gardner Colby saw the institution renamed again to Colby University before concluding on its final and current title, reflecting its liberal arts college curriculum. Located in central Maine, the 714-acre Neo-Georgian campus sits atop Mayflower Hill and overlooks downtown Waterville and the Kennebec River Valley. Along with fellow Maine institutions Bates College and Bowdoin College, Colby competes in the New England Small College Athletic Conference and the Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Consortium. Colby is ranked as the 18th best liberal arts in the country according to U. S. News & World Report and is ranked 61st among all institutions of higher learning according to Forbes.
On February 27, 1813, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, led by Baptists, adopted a petition to establish the Maine Literary and Theological Institution. It was moved to Waterville and used 179 acres of land donated by citizens. In 1818, trustees assigned the institution to Rev. Jeremiah Chaplin and classes began a vacant Waterville home. After Maine separated from Massachusetts in 1820, the first Maine legislature affirmed the Massachusetts charter for the institution, but made significant changes. Students could no longer be denied admission based on religion, the institution was prohibited from applying a religious test when selecting board members, the trustees now had the authority to grant degrees; the Maine Literary and Theological Institution was renamed Waterville College on February 5, 1821, four years the theological department was discontinued. In 1828 the trustees decided to turn the somewhat informal preparatory department of the college into a separate school, to, given the name Waterville Academy (most called the Coburn Classical Institute.
In 1833, Rev. Rufus Babcock became Colby's second president, students formed the nation's first college-based anti-slavery society. In 1845, the college's first Greek Society was formed, a chapter of Delta Kappa Epsilon, followed by chapters of Zeta Psi in 1850 and Delta Upsilon in 1852. During the Civil War, many young men were called away from school to join the fight. Shannon, Henry C. Merriam, Benjamin Butler. Twenty-seven Waterville College students perished in the war, more than 100 men from the town. In the years following the war, as was the case at many American colleges, Waterville College was left with few students remaining to pay the bills and a depleted endowment; the college was on the verge of closing. On August 9, 1865, prominent Baptist philanthropist Gardner Colby attended Waterville College's commencement dinner, unbeknownst to anyone in attendance except college president James Tift Champlin, announced a matching $50,000 donation to the college. Trustees of the college voted to construct a library and chapel to honor the Colby men who died in the war, called the Memorial Hall.
The college remained isolated from neighboring Bates College, Bowdoin College due to relative location in Waterville, coupled with socio-economic and political differences. At the 1871 commencement, a Martin Milmore sculpture based on the Lion of Lucerne was added as the centerpiece of the building. In the fall of 1871, Colby University was the first all-male college in New England to accept female students; the national Sigma Kappa sorority was founded at Colby in 1874 by the college's first five female students. However the college resegregated them in 1890. One of the buildings is named after the first woman to attend, Mary Caffrey Low, the valedictorian of the Class of 1875. In 1874, based on the success of its partnership with the Coburn Classical Institute, Colby created relationships with Hebron Academy and Houlton Academy In 1893, the Higgins Classical Institute was deeded to Colby - the last preparatory school that the university would acquire. Students published the first issue of The Colby Echo in 1877.
On January 25, 1899, Colby president Nathaniel Butler Jr.'73, renamed the "university" Colby College. In 1920, Colby celebrated its centennial, marking not the date of the original charter, but the date of its charter from the new State of Maine in 1820. Franklin W. Johnson was appointed president of the college in June 1929; that same year saw the public release of the Maine Higher Education Survey Report, which gave Colby's campus a less than desirable review. Criticisms included a cramped location of just 28 acres located between the Kennebec River and the Maine Central Railroad Company tracks through Waterville, an aging physical plant, proximity to the unpleasant odors of a pulp mill and the soot of the railroad. Using the report as justification, President Johnson presented a proposal to move the college to a more adequate location to the Trustees on June 14, 1929; the campaign to raise funds for the move was complicated by the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression, competing offers for the college's contemplated location emerged.
Most notably, William H. Gannett offered a site in Augusta - a financially attractive option for the college, but a troublesome prospect for the town of Waterville. A joint effort between Waterville citizens and the college raised more than $100,000 to purchase 600 acres near the outskirts of the city on Mayflower
Beal College is a small private college located in Bangor, Maine, USA. The College specializes in certificate and associate degree programs in healthcare, trades, law enforcement and other high-demand careers. Beal's newest programs include Welding. Founded in 1891, the College was named Bangor Business College but was named after its primary founder, Mary Beal, it was first located in downtown Bangor, before moving to a larger facility in 1972. In 2004 Beal moved to a new campus, located at 99 Farm Road in Bangor. An academic year is divided into 6 equal terms, allowing a student to start and complete school quickly. Beal is accredited by the Accrediting Commission of Career Colleges; the Medical Assisting program is further accredited by the American Association of Medical Assistants and the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs and graduates can receive official certification status. The Health Information Management program is accredited by the Commission on Accreditation for Health Informatics and Information Management Education and are eligible for RHIT certification.
The Welding Technology Programs, Welding Test Center is accredited by the American Welding Society which provides the students with the opportunity to obtain several Nationally recognized certifications. Official website