Frank-Peter Bischof

Frank-Peter Bischof is an East German sprint canoer who competed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Competing in two Summer Olympics, he won a bronze medal in the K-4 1000 m event at Montreal in 1976. Bischof won five medals at the ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships with two golds, two silvers, a bronze, his wife, won the gold in the women's K-2 500 m event at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. ICF medalists for Olympic and World Championships – Part 1: flatwater: 1936–2007 at WebCite. Additional archives: Wayback Machine. ICF medalists for Olympic and World Championships – Part 2: rest of flatwater and remaining canoeing disciplines: 1936–2007 at WebCite Frank-Peter Bischof at Olympics at Frank-Peter Bischof at the International Olympic Committee

List of caliphal governors of Medina

In early Islamic history, the governor of Medina was an official who administered the city of Medina and its surrounding territories. During the era of the Rashidun and early Abbasid caliphates, the governor was appointed by the caliph, remained in office until he died or was dismissed; the governorship was one of the chief administrative positions in the Hijaz and carried with it certain symbolic privileges, including the opportunity to lead the annual Muslim pilgrimage. Known in pre-Islamic times as Yathrib, Medina became the residence of the Islamic prophet Muhammad following his Hijrah from Mecca in 622 AD. Under Muhammad and the first three Rashidun caliphs, Medina acted as the capital of a increasing Muslim Empire, but its remoteness from the emerging power centers of Syria and Iraq undermined its political importance. Following the assassination of the third caliph'Uthman ibn Affan in July 656 and the outbreak of the First Fitna or civil war, his successor'Ali ibn Abi Talib was compelled to depart from Medina in order to assert his authority in Iraq, the city lost its status as the capital of the Islamic state.

With the departure of'Ali from Medina, administration of the city was delegated to a number of representatives appointed by him. These representatives remained in control of Medina until 660, when an army dispatched the Umayyad Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan arrived at the city and forced'Ali's governor to flee to Iraq. Following the ascendency of the Umayyads in 661, Medina's loss of its political significance became permanent; the Umayyad caliphs, who were based in the region of Syria, had few incentives to relocate to the Hijaz, they made their residence in the area of Damascus. Although Medina continued to retain its religious importance as one of the Holy Cities of Islam, it became something of a political backwater under the Umayyads and its old elites, the Ansar, were reduced to acting as a "pious opposition" to the new regime; as the Umayyads had no interest in returning the capital to Medina, they instead dispatched governors to administer the city on their behalf. Governors were selected by the caliph and remained in office until they died or were dismissed in favor of a replacement candidate.

In addition to Medina itself, they were sometimes given jurisdiction over Mecca and al-Ta'if, were selected by the caliphs to act as leader of the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. In an effort to ensure that Umayyad interests were represented in the city, the caliphs selected blood or marital relatives for the position, but a few governors, such as with the Ansari Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Amr ibn Hazm, were exceptions to this rule. Governors assigned to Medina during this period played no role in the Muslim conquests due to the lack of active military fronts near the Hijaz, but they were forced to deal with internal challenges to Umayyad rule. During the Second Fitna the Medinese threw off their allegiance to Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah and expelled all of the Umayyads in the city. Shortly afterwards Medina came under the nominal control of the anti-caliph Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr, but the Umayyads took back the city near the end of the Fitna and their hold on it was thereafter secure until the last years of their rule.

Umayyad control of Medina came to an end during the period of the Third Fitna. The administrative situation of Medina was little changed by the coming of the Abbasids, who were centered in the region of Iraq. Governors of Medina continued to be appointed by the caliph and were selected to lead several of the annual pilgrimages. Like their predecessors, the Abbasid caliphs chose members of their own dynasty for the governorship, but they often appointed individuals from other families who were related to the Abbasids in some capacity. In the first decades of Abbasid rule Medina was the scene of Alid rebel movements, but these were minor affairs and were put down by the government; the short-lived revolt of Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya in 762, briskly defeated despite having had strong support from among the Medinese elite served as a demonstration as to how far the city had declined in terms of actual political influence, Muhammad's choice to base the rebellion in Medina was criticized by Muslim historians for prioritizing the city's religious significance over any sound strategic considerations.

A revolt by Muhammad's nephew al-Husayn ibn Ali ibn al-Hasan was brief and ended in failure at the Battle of Fakhkh near Mecca in 786, while the seizure of Medina by a lieutenant of the pro-Alid rebel Abu al-Saraya al-Sari ibn Mansur in 815 during the Fourth Fitna was temporary and the city was soon restored to Abbasid control. Two major sources for the identities of governors of Medina, the annalists Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari and Khalifah ibn Khayyat, give regular updates down to the mid-780s, but provide only sporadic information after that time; the cessation of coverage, as well as available numismatic evidence, indicate that Medina may have been declining in importance during this period, that it was being superseded by Mecca as the primary administrative center of the Hijaz. In the ninth and tenth centuries the Hijaz was