University of Minnesota School of Journalism and Mass Communication
The School of Journalism and Mass Communication is a journalism school at the University of Minnesota that offers programs in journalism and mass communication. It is located on the Minneapolis campus, it had 1,085 students, including 75 graduate students, enrolled as of spring semester 2008. The SJMC offers three undergraduate tracks: professional journalism, professional strategic communication and mass communication; the graduate program features M. A. degrees in mass communication, professional strategic communication and health journalism. A Ph. D. in mass communication is offered. The school has 31 faculty members, including professors, associate professors, assistant professors and lecturers. There were 27 adjunct instructors who taught during the 2007-2008 school year, many of whom have journalistic experience in the Twin Cities market; the School is accredited by the Accrediting Council for Mass Communication. It is part of the University of Minnesota College of Liberal Arts. Was one of the first 35 schools to be accredited by the American Council on Education for Journalism in 1948.
Albert R. Tims is the current director of the SJMC, he received his M. A. in Journalism at the University of Wisconsin - Madison and received a Ph. D. in mass communication at Madison as well. Tims became the permanent director a year later. Tims' academic focuses are theory and methodology, public opinion and political communication and media socialization. Murphy Hall was opened in 1940 and has been used to house the University of Minnesota's School of Journalism and Mass Communication since that time; the building, which cost $250,000 to build, was funded through a fund bequeathed by William J. Murphy. Journalism and public relations courses are taught in the hall at the undergraduate and doctorate levels; the building features library. It is located at 206 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 on the Northrop Mall area of the University of Minnesota's East Bank campus. Classes were first held in Murphy Hall during the winter quarter of 1940; the original building had four floors, housed multiple laboratories and was the home of the Minnesota Daily, the Ski-U-Mah, the Gopher and the Literary Review.
The chairman of the department at the time was Ralph D. Casey, who served in that capacity for over 30 years; the journalism department itself was founded on campus in 1922 but was housed in various locations across campus, including Folwell and Pillsbury Halls and the old Music Building. Before becoming an official department, journalism classes were offered on the St. Paul campus through the agriculture school. Floor plans for the original Murphy Hall called for advertising, typography and reporting laboratories, as well as an auditorium, a seminar room and a museum. Plans to connect to nearby Vincent Hall were laid out. William Murphy, a former publisher of the Star Tribune newspaper, left an interest-collecting fund for the soon-to-be-established department in 1918, citing a desire toward “the establishing and maintaining of a course of instruction in journalism.” Twenty-two years the gift paid for 55 percent of construction costs. The remaining funds came from a student publications. Murphy Hall underwent its first substantial update at the end of the 20th century, when most of the building's interior was gutted and renovated.
The $9.25 million project started in 1999 and was completed in April 2001. A new auditorium, conference center and library were added, as were new classrooms and a broadcast studio. Mark Yudof, the University president at the time, said the renovation was, "...a jumping off point for new directions and innovations. It is all exciting. It's catapulted the journalism school back to greatness..." The original stairwells, which featured opaque glass block windows, were retained, as was the Heggen Room, which had served as the school's library. The exterior of the building was left intact. Students were able to take journalism classes during the two-year renovation but were moved to nearby classrooms. Murphy Hall today is 27,000 square feet in total; the redesigned basement now features the Eric Sevareid Library, named after the former CBS broadcast journalist and SJMC alum, a digital resource lab. The library features a selection of magazines and newspapers from across the country, trade-related journals and books, study areas and eight computers for student use.
The lab has 52 computers for student use, video equipment for checkout and a recording studio, as well as areas for lectures. On the first floor, there is a 148-seat auditorium and various offices, including the student services office; the second and third floors house classrooms, faculty offices and areas for research. The fourth floor is home to the Silha Center for the Study of Media Ethics and Law, named after SJMC alum Otto Silha; the center, around since 1984, is directed by Jane Kirtley. As planned for in 1939, Murphy Hall connects with Vincent Hall, the nearby math building, via multiple skyways and an underground tunnel. Between the two buildings and underneath part of the walkway is a courtyard, which features seating and a small fountain; as of 2007, the Minnesota Daily, one of the nation's largest student-run newspapers and the fourth-largest paper in Minnesota, no longer has an office in Murphy Hall, though many of its employees take journalism classes in the building. The SJMC has 8,300 living alumni.
Among the notable alumni, both alive and deceased, are: John Finnegan Sr - Former senior VP and editor at the St. Paul Pioneer Press newspaper. Drafted and lobbied for the Minnesota Data Practices Act
GroupLens Research is a human–computer interaction research lab in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities specializing in recommender systems and online communities. GroupLens works with mobile and ubiquitous technologies, digital libraries, local geographic information systems; the GroupLens lab was one of the first to study automated recommender systems with the construction of the "GroupLens" recommender, a Usenet article recommendation engine, MovieLens, a popular movie recommendation site used to study recommendation engines, tagging systems, user interfaces. The lab has gained notability for its members' work studying open content communities such as Cyclopath, a computational "geo-wiki" being used in the Twin Cities to help plan the regional cycling system. In 1992, John Riedl and Paul Resnick attended the CSCW conference together. After they heard keynote speaker Shumpei Kumon talk about his vision for an information economy, they began working on a collaborative filtering system for Usenet news.
The system collected ratings from Usenet readers and used those ratings to predict how much other readers would like an article before they read it. This recommendation engine was one of the first automated collaborative filtering systems in which algorithms were used to automatically form predictions based on historical patterns of ratings; the overall system was called the "GroupLens" recommender, the servers that collected the ratings and performed the computation were called the "Better Bit Bureau". This name was dropped after a request from the Better Business Bureau. "GroupLens" is now used as a name both for this recommender system, for the research lab at the University of Minnesota. A feasibility test was done between MIT and the University of Minnesota and a research paper was published including the algorithm, the system design, the results of the feasibility study, in the CSCW conference of 1994. In 1993, Riedl and Resnick invited Joseph Konstan to join the team. Together, they decided to create a higher-performance implementation of the algorithms to support larger-scale deployments.
In summer 1995 the team gathered Bradley Miller, David Maltz, Jon Herlocker, Mark Claypool for "Hack Week" to create the new implementation, to plan the next round of experiments. In the Spring of 1996, the first workshop on collaborative filtering was put together by Resnick and Hal Varian at the University of California, Berkeley. There, researchers from projects around the US that were studying similar systems came together to share ideas and experience. In the summer of 1996, David Gardiner, a former Ph. D. student of Riedl's, introduced John Riedl to Steven Snyder. Snyder had been an early employee at Microsoft, but left Microsoft to come to Minnesota to do a Ph. D. in Psychology. He realized the commercial potential of collaborative filtering, encouraged the team to found a company in April 1996. By June, Snyder, Miller and Konstan had incorporated their company, by July they had their first round of funding, from the Hummer-Winblad venture capital company. Net Perceptions went on to be one of the leading companies in personalization during the Internet boom of the late 1990s, stayed in business until 2004.
Based on their experience and Konstan wrote a book about the lessons learned from deploying recommenders in practice. Recommender systems have since become ubiquitous in the online world, with leading vendors such as Amazon and Netflix deploying sophisticated recommender systems. Netflix offered a $1,000,000 prize for improvements in recommender technology. Meanwhile, research continued at the University of Minnesota; when the EachMovie site closed in 1997, the researchers behind it released the anonymous rating data they had collected, for other researchers to use. The GroupLens Research team, led by Brent Dahlen and Jon Herlocker, used this data set to jumpstart a new movie recommendation site called MovieLens, a visible research platform, including a detailed discussion in a New Yorker article by Malcolm Gladwell, a report in a full episode of ABC Nightline. Between 1997 and 2002 the group continued its research on collaborative filtering, which became known in the community by the more general term of recommender systems.
With Joe Konstan's expertise in user interfaces, the team began exploring interface issues in recommenders, such as explanations, meta-recommendation systems. In 2002, GroupLens expanded into social computing and online communities with the addition of Loren Terveen, known for his research of social recommender systems such as PHOAKS. In order to broaden the set of research ideas and tools they used, Riedl and Terveen invited colleagues in social psychology, economic and social analysis to collaborate; the new, larger team adopted the name CommunityLab, looked at the effects of technological interventions on the performance of online communities. For instance, some of their research explored technology for enriching conversation systems, while other research explored the personal and economic motivations for user ratings. In 2008 GroupLens launched Cyclopath, a computational geo-wiki for bicyclists within a city. In 2010, GroupLens won the annual ACM software system award. Brent Hecht joined the GroupLens faculty in 2013.
Lana Yarosh joined the GroupLens faculty in 2014. A third professor, Haiyi Zhu, joined in 2015. Haiyi has published research on
Hennepin County Medical Center
Hennepin County Medical Center, is a Level I trauma center and safety net hospital in Minneapolis, the county seat of Hennepin County. The primary 455-bed facility is on six city blocks across the street from U. S. Bank Stadium, with neighborhood clinics in the Minneapolis Whittier and East Lake neighborhoods, the suburban communities of Brooklyn Center, Brooklyn Park, Golden Valley, St. Anthony and Richfield. A new clinic in the North Loop neighborhood downtown opened in 2017. HCMC has recognized trauma surgery specialists, transplant services, stroke specialists, advanced endoscopy/hepatobilliary center, hyperbaric oxygen chamber. A new outpatient clinic building opened in 2018. In March 2018, the provider that operates HCMC was rebranded as Hennepin Healthcare. However, the hospital retained the name HCMC; the original hospital building, established in 1887 as Minneapolis City Hospital, before being referred to as "General Hospital" or "City Hospital," sat a block from its current main location.
Ownership was transferred to the county in 1964, when it was renamed Hennepin County General Hospital. The hospital took its current name in 1974. By the late 1960s, the hospital was a disorganized patchwork of buildings, leading to the decision to clear and rebuild the facility; the current hospital facility was completed in 1976 and renamed Hennepin County Medical Center, following a $25 million bond passed by voters in 1969. The hospital expanded in 1991, it gained Level I trauma center status in the first such site in the state. The hospital underwent a governance change in January 2007, which created a new governing entity with greater autonomy from the county government; the hospital's public mission did not change, but this transition was made to ensure the long-term viability of the hospital. In 2012 the hospital partnered with NorthPoint Health and Wellness Center, Metropolitan Health Plan, Hennepin County's Human Services and Public Health Department to form an accountable care organization called Hennepin Health.
By February 2013, Hennepin Health had enrolled 6,000 clients. In 2015, the Hennepin County Board allocated $192 million for a new outpatient center which features multiple clinics across from the HCMC entrance; the building opened in March 2018. In 2018, HCMC became Hennepin Healthcare. HCMC has independent residency programs in dentistry, pharmacy practice, emergency medicine, internal medicine, combined internal medicine/emergency medicine, family medicine, general surgery, podiatric surgery, psychiatry. In addition, it is a rotating site for many programs from the University of Minnesota, including orthopedic surgery and maxillofacial surgery, ophthalmology, neurology, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics and many medical subspecialty fellowships, it has independent fellowships in critical care medicine, sleep medicine and nephrology. NASA astronaut Kjell Lindgren is a graduate of the Emergency Medicine residency program, he was selected to NASA's 20th astronaut class in 2009, spent 141 days in space on Expedition 44/45 in 2015.
Students from UCIMED, a medical school in Costa Rica, are given the opportunity to complete an internship at the hospital. The initiative started thanks to an agreement signed on February 2006. Many of the students from UCIMED go on to work as residents at HCMC. HCMC provides emergency medical services for the cities of Minneapolis, Golden Valley, Eden Prairie, St. Louis Park, Hopkins, St. Anthony, Excelsior, Tonka Bay and the majority of the city of Minnetonka. Hennepin EMS uses 37 type III ambulances, 4 medical director vehicles, 3 Community Paramedic vehicles and 2 EMS Command units in its fleet. All 911 response vehicles are equipped with state of the art equipment, two state certified paramedics staff each rig. Hennepin EMS logs over 80,000 911 calls every year from an urban/suburban population base of 770,000. List of hospitals in Minnesota DaVita Clinical Research Nathanson and Thomas R. Mattison. “Origins of a Modern Medical Center: Minneapolis City Hospital, 1887–1907,” Minnesota History 63, 114–23.
Illustrated. Hennepin Healthcare
U.S. News & World Report
U. S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, consumer advice and analysis. Founded as a newsweekly magazine in 1933, U. S. News transitioned to web-based publishing in 2010. U. S. News is best known today for its influential Best Colleges and Best Hospitals rankings, but it has expanded its content and product offerings in education, money, careers and cars; the rankings are popular in North America but have drawn widespread criticism from colleges and students for their dubious and arbitrary nature. The ranking system by U. S. News is contrasted with the Washington Monthly and Forbes rankings. United States News was founded in 1933 by David Lawrence, who started World Report in 1946; the two magazines covered national and international news separately, but Lawrence merged them into U. S. News & World Report in 1948, he subsequently sold the magazine to his employees. The magazine tended to be more conservative than its two primary competitors and Newsweek, focused more on economic and education stories.
It eschewed sports and celebrity news. Important milestones in the early history of the magazine include the introduction of the "Washington Whispers" column in 1934 and the "News You Can Use" column in 1952. In 1958, the weekly magazine's circulation passed one million and reached two million by 1973. Since 1983, it has become known for its influential ranking and annual reports of colleges and graduate schools, spanning across most fields and subjects. U. S. News & World Report is America's oldest and best-known ranker of academic institutions, covers the fields of business, medicine, education, social sciences and public affairs, in addition to many other areas, its print edition was included in national bestseller lists, augmented by online subscriptions. Additional rankings published by U. S. News & World Report include medical specialties and automobiles. In October 1984, publisher and real estate developer Mortimer Zuckerman purchased U. S. News & World Report. Zuckerman is formerly the owner of the New York Daily News.
In 1993, U. S. News & World Report entered the digital world by providing content to CompuServe and in 1995, the website usnews.com was launched. In 2001, the website won the National Magazine Award for General Excellence Online. In 2007, U. S. News & World Report published its first list of the nation's best high schools, its ranking methodology includes state test scores and the success of poor and minority students on these exams, schools' performance in Advanced Placement exams. Starting in June 2008, the magazine reduced its publication frequency in three steps. In June 2008, citing the decline overall magazine circulation and advertising, U. S. News & World Report announced that it would become a biweekly publication, starting January 2009, it hoped advertisers would be attracted to the schedule, which allowed ads to stay on newsstands a week longer. However, five months the magazine changed its frequency again, becoming monthly. In August 2008, U. S. News revamped its online opinion section.
The new version of the opinion page included daily new op-ed content as well as the new Thomas Jefferson Street blog. An internal memo was sent on November 5, 2010, to the staff of the magazine informing them that the "December issue will be our last print monthly sent to subscribers, whose remaining print and digital replica subscriptions will be filled by other publishers." The memo went on to say that the publication would be moving to a digital format but that it would continue to print special issues such as "the college and grad guides, as well as hospital and personal finance guides." Prior to going defunct, U. S. News was the lowest-ranking news magazine in the U. S. after Time and Newsweek. A weekly digital magazine, U. S. News Weekly, introduced in January 2009, continued to offer subscription content until it ceased at the end of April 2015; the company is owned by U. S. News & World Report, L. P. a held company based in the Daily News building in New York City. The editorial staff is headquartered in Washington, D.
C. The company's move to the Web made it possible for U. S. News & World Report to expand its service journalism with the introduction of several consumer-facing rankings products; the company returned to profitability in 2013. The editorial staff of U. S. News & World Report is based in Washington, D. C. and Brian Kelly has been the chief content officer since April 2007. The company is owned by media proprietor Mortimer Zuckerman; the first of the U. S. News & World Report's famous rankings was its "Who Runs America?" surveys. These ran in the spring of each year from 1974 to 1986; the magazine would have a cover featuring persons selected by the USN & WR as being the ten most powerful persons in the United States. Every single edition of the series listed the President of the United States as the most powerful person, but the #2 position included such persons as Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Federal Reserve Chairmen Paul Volcker and Arthur Burns and US Senator Edward Kennedy. While most of the top ten each year were officials in government others were included, including TV anchormen Walter Cronkite and Dan Rather, Chase Manhattan Bank Chairman David Rockefeller, AFL-CIO leader George Meany, consumer advocate Ralph Nader.
The only woman to make the top ten list was First Lady Rosalynn Carter in 1980. In addition to these overall top ten persons, the publication included top persons in each of several fields, including Education, Finance and many other areas; the surv
Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things, it is an old science. Anatomy is inherently tied to developmental biology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, phylogeny, as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate and long timescales. Anatomy and physiology, which study the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, they are studied together. Human anatomy is one of the essential basic sciences; the discipline of anatomy is divided into microscopic anatomy. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight. Gross anatomy includes the branch of superficial anatomy. Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, in the study of cells.
The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human body. Methods have improved advancing from the examination of animals by dissection of carcasses and cadavers to 20th century medical imaging techniques including X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging. Derived from the Greek ἀνατομή anatomē "dissection", anatomy is the scientific study of the structure of organisms including their systems and tissues, it includes the appearance and position of the various parts, the materials from which they are composed, their locations and their relationships with other parts. Anatomy is quite distinct from physiology and biochemistry, which deal with the functions of those parts and the chemical processes involved. For example, an anatomist is concerned with the shape, position, blood supply and innervation of an organ such as the liver; the discipline of anatomy can be subdivided into a number of branches including gross or macroscopic anatomy and microscopic anatomy.
Gross anatomy is the study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye, includes superficial anatomy or surface anatomy, the study by sight of the external body features. Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures on a microscopic scale, along with histology, embryology. Anatomy can be studied using both invasive and non-invasive methods with the goal of obtaining information about the structure and organization of organs and systems. Methods used include dissection, in which a body is opened and its organs studied, endoscopy, in which a video camera-equipped instrument is inserted through a small incision in the body wall and used to explore the internal organs and other structures. Angiography using X-rays or magnetic resonance angiography are methods to visualize blood vessels; the term "anatomy" is taken to refer to human anatomy. However the same structures and tissues are found throughout the rest of the animal kingdom and the term includes the anatomy of other animals.
The term zootomy is sometimes used to refer to non-human animals. The structure and tissues of plants are of a dissimilar nature and they are studied in plant anatomy; the kingdom Animalia contains multicellular organisms that are motile. Most animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues and these animals are known as eumetazoans, they have an internal digestive chamber, with two openings. Metazoans do not include the sponges. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither chloroplasts. Vacuoles, when present, are much smaller than those in the plant cell; the body tissues are composed of numerous types of cell, including those found in muscles and skin. Each has a cell membrane formed of phospholipids, cytoplasm and a nucleus. All of the different cells of an animal are derived from the embryonic germ layers; those simpler invertebrates which are formed from two germ layers of ectoderm and endoderm are called diploblastic and the more developed animals whose structures and organs are formed from three germ layers are called triploblastic.
All of a triploblastic animal's tissues and organs are derived from the three germ layers of the embryo, the ectoderm and endoderm. Animal tissues can be grouped into four basic types: connective, epithelial and nervous tissue. Connective tissues are fibrous and made up of cells scattered among inorganic material called the extracellular matrix. Connective tissue holds them in place; the main types are loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, fibrous connective tissue and bone. The extracellular matrix contains proteins, the chief and most abundant of, collagen. Collagen plays a major part in maintaining tissues; the matrix can be modified to form a skeleton to protect the body. An exoskeleton is a thickened, rigid cuticle, stiffened by mineralization, as in crustaceans or by the cross-linkin
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Maureen Reed is a physician, the chair of the Board of Regents of the University of Minnesota, Director of the Parks and Trails Council of Minnesota, Medical Director and Vice-President of the not-for-profit health care provider HealthPartners, Executive Director of the Nobel Peace Prize Forum. She ran as a Democrat in the sixth congressional district of Minnesota in 2010. Reed was born to a family that lost their farm in the Great Depression, she grew up in Redwood Falls, Minnesota, a small rural town in south-western Minnesota, her father worked for the local Ford dealership. She married Jim Hart, they have lived in Grant, Minnesota since 1981. Reed graduated with a B. A. from the University of Minnesota in 1975 and from the University of Minnesota Medical School in 1979. She did part of her medical training at the VA hospital in Minneapolis, completing her residency in Internal Medicine at the University of Minnesota in 1982. For the next eleven years she practiced internal medicine at the Aspen Medical Group and served as president of the group from 1991-1992.
In 1993, she became the vice president and medical director of HealthPartners, a position she held until 2004. She continued to practice part-time internal medicine at the Fremont Community Clinic in north Minneapolis, a clinic serving uninsured and under-insured patients. During her tenure as vice president and medical director at HealthPartners, Reed created and implemented an outcomes-based payment approach for primary care groups, specialty care groups, hospitals, she led the team whose measurement efforts subsequently spawned the Minnesota Community Measurement. In the 1980s and 1990s Reed traveled with her husband to East Africa to study and review rural public health projects. On one trip to Uganda, she and a team from HealthPartners worked with local dairy farmers to develop a plan that allowed them to pool their resources and provide better access to health care; the Minnesota Legislature elected Reed to serve on the University of Minnesota's Board of Regents in 1997 and 2003. She was the vice chair of the audit committee, vice chair of the Education Planning and Policy Committee, chair of the Education Planning and Policy Committee, board vice chair, board chair.
She served as the interim executive director of the Parks and Trails Council of Minnesota from May 2008 to November 2008. Reed is a member of the Medical Reserve Corps and was deployed in the aftermaths of the 2005 Louisiana Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the 2007 Interstate 35-W bridge collapse, she was the Independence Party of Minnesota's candidate for lieutenant governor in 2006. She served on the Minnesota Governor's Health Care Transformation Task Force in 2007-2008. In 2011 Reed became the Executive Director of the Nobel Peace Prize Forum, recasting it as a high-tech international event, securing participation by multiple Nobel Laureates, surpassing the Norwegian Nobel Institute's attendance, publicity and mission goals, she resigned from the Forum in 2014 and subsequently joined the teaching faculty of Gustavus Adolphus College and the University of Minnesota Undergraduate Honors Program. Reed ran as a Democrat for the 6th Congressional District seat held by Republican Michele Bachmann.
She withdrew from the race after the district convention. She continued to champion health care reform. Reed For Congress 2010 Maureen Reed's Official Web Site Reed on Facebook Reed on Twitter