Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna. Its capital is Bologna, it has an area of 22,446 km2, about 4.4 million inhabitants. Emilia-Romagna is one of the wealthiest and most developed regions in Europe, with the third highest GDP per capita in Italy. Bologna, its capital, has one of Italy's highest quality of life indices and advanced social services. Emilia-Romagna is a cultural and tourist centre, being the home of the University of Bologna, the oldest university in the world, containing Romanesque and Renaissance cities, a former Eastern Roman Empire capital such as Ravenna, encompassing eleven UNESCO heritage sites, being a centre for food and automobile production and having popular coastal resorts such as Cervia, Cesenatico and Riccione. In 2018, the Lonely Planet guide named Emilia Romagna as the best place to see in Europe; the name Emilia-Romagna is a legacy of Ancient Rome. Emilia derives from the via Aemilia, the Roman road connecting Piacenza to Rimini, completed in 187 BC and named after the consul Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
Romagna derives from Romània, the name of the Eastern Roman Empire applied to Ravenna by the Lombards when the western Empire had ceased to exist and Ravenna was an outpost of the east. Before the Romans took control of present-day Emilia-Romagna, it had been part of the Etruscan world and that of the Gauls. During the first thousand years of Christianity trade flourished, as did culture and religion, thanks to the region's monasteries. Afterwards the University of Bologna—arguably the oldest university in Europe—and its bustling towns kept trade and intellectual life alive, its unstable political history is exemplified in such figures as Matilda of Canossa and contending seigniories such as the Este of Ferrara, the Malatesta of Rimini, the Popes of Rome, the Farnese of Parma and Piacenza, the Duchy of Modena and Reggio. In the 16th century, most of these were seized by the Papal States, but the territories of Parma and Modena remained independent until Emilia-Romagna became part of the Italian kingdom between 1859 and 1861.
After the referendum of 2006, seven municipalities of Montefeltro were detached from the Province of Pesaro and Urbino to join that of Rimini on 15 August 2009. The municipalities are Casteldelci, Novafeltria, San Leo, Sant'Agata Feltria and Talamello. On 20 and 29 May 2012 two powerful earthquakes hit the area, they caused churches and factories to collapse. 200 were injured. The 5.8 magnitude quake left 14,000 people homeless. The region of Emilia-Romagna consists of nine provinces and covers an area of 22,446 km², ranking sixth in Italy. Nearly half of the region consists of plains while 27 % is 25 % mountainous; the region's section of the Apennines is marked by areas of badland erosion and caves. The mountains stretch for more than 300 km from the north to the south-east, with only three peaks above 2,000 m – Monte Cimone, Monte Cusna and Alpe di Succiso; the plain was formed by the gradual retreat of the sea from the Po basin and by the detritus deposited by the rivers. Marshland in ancient times, its history is characterised by the hard work of its people to reclaim and reshape the land in order to achieve a better standard of living.
The geology varies, with lagoons and saline areas in the north and many thermal springs throughout the rest of the region as a result of groundwater rising towards the surface at different periods of history. All the rivers rise locally in the Apennines except for the Po, which has its source in the Alps in Piedmont; the northern border of Emilia-Romagna follows the path of the river for 263 km. The region has a temperate broadleaved and mixed forests and the vegetation may be divided into belts: the Common oak-European hornbeam belt, now covered with fruit orchards and fields of wheat and sugar beet, the Pubescent oak-European hop-hornbeam belt on the lower slopes up to 900 m, the European beech-Silver fir belt between 1,000 and 1,500 m and the final mountain heath belt. Emilia-Romagna has two Italian National Parks, the Foreste Casentinesi National Park and the Appennino Tosco-Emiliano National Park. Emilia-Romagna has been a populated area since ancient times. Inhabitants over the centuries have radically altered the landscape, building cities, reclaiming wetlands, establishing large agricultural areas.
All these transformations in past centuries changed the aspect of the region, converting large natural areas to cultivation, up until the 1960s. The trend changed, agricultural lands began giving way to residential and industrial areas; the increase of urban-industrial areas continued at high rates until the end of the 2010s. In the same period and mountainous areas saw an increase in the registration of semi-natural areas, because of the abandonment of agricultural lands. Land use changes can have strong effects on ecological functions. Human interactions such as agriculture and deforestation affect soil function, e.g. food and other biomass production, storing and transformation, habitat and gene pool. In the Emilia-Romagna plain, which represents half of the region and where three quarters of the population of the region live, the agricultural land area has been reduced by 157 km2 while urban and industrial areas
A botanical garden or botanic garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, so on. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, other entertainment. Botanical gardens are run by universities or other scientific research organizations, have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden; the origin of modern botanical gardens is traced to the appointment of professors of botany to the medical faculties of universities in 16th century Renaissance Italy, which entailed the curation of a medicinal garden.
However, the objectives and audience of today’s botanic gardens more resembles that of the grandiose gardens of antiquity and the educational garden of Theophrastus in the Lyceum of ancient Athens. The early concern with medicinal plants changed in the 17th century to an interest in the new plant imports from explorations outside Europe as botany established its independence from medicine. In the 18th century, systems of nomenclature and classification were devised by botanists working in the herbaria and universities associated with the gardens, these systems being displayed in the gardens as educational "order beds". With the rapid rise of European imperialism in the late 18th century, botanic gardens were established in the tropics, economic botany became a focus with the hub at the Royal Botanic Gardens, near London. Over the years, botanical gardens, as cultural and scientific organisations, have responded to the interests of botany and horticulture. Nowadays, most botanical gardens display.
The role of major botanical gardens worldwide has been considered so broadly similar as to fall within textbook definitions. The following definition was produced by staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium of Cornell University in 1976, it covers in some detail the many functions and activities associated with botanical gardens: A botanical garden is a controlled and staffed institution for the maintenance of a living collection of plants under scientific management for purposes of education and research, together with such libraries, herbaria and museums as are essential to its particular undertakings. Each botanical garden develops its own special fields of interests depending on its personnel, extent, available funds, the terms of its charter, it may include greenhouses, test grounds, an herbarium, an arboretum, other departments. It maintains a scientific as well as a plant-growing staff, publication is one of its major modes of expression; this broad outline is expanded: The botanic garden may be an independent institution, a governmental operation, or affiliated to a college or university.
If a department of an educational institution, it may be related to a teaching program. In any case, it is not to be restricted or diverted by other demands, it is not a landscaped or ornamental garden, although it may be artistic, nor is it an experiment station or yet a park with labels on the plants. The essential element is the intention of the enterprise, the acquisition and dissemination of botanical knowledge. A contemporary botanic garden is a protected natural urban green area, where a managing organization creates landscaped gardens and holds documented collections of living plants and/or preserved plant accessions containing functional units of heredity of actual or potential value for purposes such as scientific research, public display, sustainable use and recreational activities, production of marketable plant-based products and services for improvement of human well-being; the "New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening" points out that among the various kinds of organisations now known as botanical gardens are many public gardens with little scientific activity, it cites a more abbreviated definition, published by the World Wildlife Fund and IUCN when launching the ’’Botanic Gardens Conservation Strategy’’ in 1989: "A botanic garden is a garden containing scientifically ordered and maintained collections of plants documented and labelled, open to the public for the purposes of recreation and research."
This has been further reduced by Botanic Gardens Conservation International to the following definition which "encompasses the spirit of a true botanic garden": "A botanic garden is an institution holding documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation and education." Worldwide, there are now about 1800 botanical gardens and arboreta in about 150 countries of which about 550 are in Europe, 2
University of Catania
The University of Catania is a university located in Catania, Sicily. Founded in 1434, it is the oldest university in Sicily, the 13th oldest in Italy, the 29th oldest university in the world. With a population of over 60,000 students, it is the main university in Sicily. Following the Italian higher education reform introduced by the law 240/10 and adopted by the University of Catania in its new Statute, faculties have been deactivated and departments have been reorganized; the University of Catania has now 17 departments, the Faculty of Medicine, two special didactic units established in the decentralized offices of Ragusa and Syracuse. That, additionally to the traditional assignments of scientific research, are in charge of the organization and management of educational activities. A special didactic unit is the school of excellence "Scuola Superiore di Catania", a higher education centre of the University of Catania conceived in 1998 to select the best young minds and offer them a course of studies including analysis and experimentation.
The university was founded by King Alfonso V of Aragon on 19 October 1434. A charter was granted after two royal councillors convinced the king to accept the founding of a "Studium Generale" in Catania, with the papal recognition arriving ten years from Pope Eugene IV. Alfonso V with this gesture wanted to compensate the city for moving the Sicilian capital from Catania to Palermo; the activity of the Atheneum started a year in 1445, with 6 professors and 10 students. The first four faculties were Medicine, Philosophy and Civil Law and Theology. Lessons were held in a building in Piazza del Duomo, next to the Cathedral of St. Agatha, moved to the Palazzo dell'Università in the late 1690s; this building remains the seat of the university to this day. The first degree was awarded to Antonio Mantello, from Syracuse, in 1449. During the course of the 16th century 20-25 degrees were awarded each year; the University was named "Studium Generale" because it was the only entity that could release degrees equal to those released in the old Studia of Salamanca, Valladolid and this contributed to spread envy in the other Sicilian cities that in culture and traditions didn't feel inferior to Catania.
In 1934, the university celebrated its 500th anniversary with King Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy, and, in 1984 the 550th one. In the early centuries of its existence, the university was administered by the comune of Catania, overseen by the bishop of Catania and protected by the royal power, but with a reform operated by the viceroy in 1679 the authority of the bishop prevailed: he had the control over the lecturers, the freshmen and students' curriculum. This led to various conflicts between the religious authorities. From 1818 the office of Gran Cancelliere was assigned to the President of the Great Civil Court, instead of the bishop. Giuseppe De Felice Giuffrida, important Italian politician and journalist, was elected the first Socialist mayor of Catania in 1902. Mario Rapisardi, noted Italian poet and translator, taught at the University in the 1870s. "Love truth more than glory, more than life. Make it your sword and your shield." Luigi Capuana, important writer, literary critic and theorist.
He taught literature in the early years of the 20th Century. Giovanni Verga, famed Italian realist writer, author of the Cavalleria Rusticana and I Malavoglia. Santo Mazzarino, leading 20th-century historian of ancient Rome and Greece. Vitaliano Brancati, Italian novelist and screenwriter, winner of the 1950 Bagutta Prize. Elémire Zolla, Italian essayist and historian of religion, taught linguistics in the late 1960s. Mario Pieri, taught descriptive and higher geometry from 1900 to 1908 and supervised 6 doctoral students with dissertations in algebraic geometry. See The Legacy of Mario Pieri in Geometry and Arithmetic, Birkhäuser (E. A. Marchisotto & J. T. Smith. Giuseppe Mercalli, inventor of the Mercalli Scale of earthquake intensity, was professor of geology in the late 1880s. Annibale Ricco, named Chair of Astrophysics in 1890, was the first director of the Catania Observatory, he was Chancellor of the University from 1898 to 1900. The crater Ricco on the Moon as well as the asteroid 18462 Ricco are named for him.
Guido Fubini, author of Fubini's theorem, was a professor of mathematics in the early years of the 20th Century. The asteroid, 22495 Fubini, is named in his honor. Remo Ruffini, former assistant professor at Princeton University, was professor of theoretical physics from 1976 to 1978, he was named Space Scientist of the Year in 1992. Paolo Maffei, director of the Catania Observatory from 1975 to 1980, was one of the pioneers of infrared astronomy, he discovered 2 galaxies, Maffei 1 and Maffei 2 in 1967. A main belt asteroid, 18426 Maffei, is named for him. Giuseppe Colombo and astronomer, NASA consultant and early proponent of tethered satellites. Asteroid 10387 Bepicolombo is named in his honor, as is the Colombo Gap, a 150 km gap in the C ring of the planet Saturn. Napoleone Ferrara, molecular biologist, winner of the 2010 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award, is a 1981 graduate of the Faculty of Medicine. Orto Botanico dell'Università di Catania, the university's botanical garden, founded in 1858.
Catania Astrophysical Observatory, the university's observatory, fo
University of Naples Federico II
The University of Naples Federico II is a university in Naples, Italy. Founded in 1224, it is the oldest public non-sectarian university in the world, is now organized into 13 faculties, it was Europe's first university dedicated to training secular administrative staff, one of the oldest academic institutions in continuous operation. Federico II is the third University in Italy by number of students enrolled, but despite its huge size it is still one of the best universities in Italy, being notable for research; as of 2016 it is the only generalist Italian university in the Times higher education reputation, which considers the best 200 best universities in the world. The university is named after its founder Frederick II. In October 2016 the University hosted the first Apple IOS Developer Academy and in 2018 the Cisco Digital Transformation Lab; the University of Naples Federico II was founded by emperor of the Holy Roman Empire Frederick II on 5 June 1224. It is the world's oldest state-supported institution of research.
One of the most famous students was philosopher Thomas Aquinas. Fredrick II had specific objectives when he founded the university in Naples: first, to train administrative and skilled bureaucratic professionals for the curia regis, as well as preparing lawyers and judges who would help the sovereign to draft laws and administer justice. Second, he wanted to facilitate the cultural development of promising young students and scholars, avoiding any unnecessary and expensive trips abroad: by creating a State University, Emperor Frederick avoided having young students during his reign complete their training at the University of Bologna, in a city, hostile to the imperial power; the University of Naples was arguably the first to be formed from scratch by a higher authority, not based upon an already-existing private school. Although its claim to be the first state-sponsored university can be challenged by Palencia, Naples was the first chartered one; the artificiality of its creation posed great difficulties in attracting students.
Those years were further complicated by the long existence, in nearby Salerno, of Europe's most prestigious medical faculty, the Schola Medica Salernitana. The fledgling faculty of medicine at Naples had little hope of competing with it, in 1231 the right of examination was surrendered to Salerno; the establishment of new faculties of theology and law under papal sponsorship in Rome in 1245 further drained Naples of students, as Rome was a more attractive location. In an effort to revitalize the dwindling university, in 1253, all the remaining schools of the university of Naples moved to Salerno, in the hope of creating a single viable university for the south, but that experiment failed and the university moved back to Naples in 1258. The Angevin reforms after 1266 and the subsequent decline of Salerno gave the University of Naples a new lease on life and put it on a stable, sustainable track; the university has 13 faculties: Agriculture Architecture Biotechnology Economics Engineering Law Letters and philosophy Mathematical and natural sciences Medicine and surgery Pharmacy Political sciences Sociology Veterinary medicine Among those who have attended the University of Naples Federico II are Italian presidents Enrico De Nicola, Giovanni Leone and Giorgio Napolitano.
Several professors from various disciplines are among the top Italian Scientists by H-index. According to the 2016 QS World University Rankings by subject the University of Federico II ranks in the following ranges respectively: 51–100 for civil engineering, 101–150 for mechanical engineering and pharmacology, agriculture and forestry and physics and astronomy, 151–200 for law and legal studies and chemical engineering, 201–250 for electrical and electronic engineering, mathematics and econometrics, 251–300 for biological sciences, computer science and chemistry. In November 2018 Expertscape recognized it as No. 10 in the world for expertise in Celiac Disease. ESDP-Network List of Italian universities List of medieval universities Naples Botanical Garden of Naples Orto Botanico di Portici BioGeM University of Naples Federico II Website Girolamo Arnaldi, Studio di Napoli in Enciclopedia Federiciana, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana, 2005
House of Este
The House of Este is a European princely dynasty. The elder, German branch of the House of Este, known as the Younger House of Welf, included dukes of Bavaria and Brunswick-Lüneburg and produced Britain's Hanoverian monarchs, as well as one Emperor of Russia and one Holy Roman Emperor; the younger, Italian branch of the House of Este included rulers of Ferrara, of Modena and Reggio. According to Edward Gibbon, the family originated from the Roman Attii family, which migrated from Rome to Este to defend Italy against the Ostrogoths. However, there is little evidence to support this hypothesis; the names of the early members of the family indicate. The first known member of the house was Margrave Adalbert of Mainz, known only as the father of Oberto I, Count palatine of Italy, who died around 975. Oberto's grandson, Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan built a castle at Este, near Padua, named himself after the location, he had three sons from two marriages, two of whom became the ancestors of the two branches of the family: Welf IV, the eldest, was the son of Kunigunde, the last of the Elder Welfs.
He inherited the property of his maternal uncle, Duke of Carinthia, became duke of Bavaria in 1070, is the ancestor of the elder branch, the House of Welf. Hugh, issue of Azzo's second marriage to Garsend of Maine, inherited the French County of Maine, a legacy of his mother's dowry, but sold it one year and died without heirs. Fulco I, Margrave of Milan, the third son, is the ancestor of the younger Italian line of Este; the two surviving branches, with Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony and Bavaria on the German side, concluded an agreement in 1154 which allocated the family's Italian possessions to the younger line, the Fulc-Este, who in the course of time acquired Ferrara and Reggio. Este itself was taken over in 1275 by Padua, in 1405 by Venice; the elder branch of the House of Este, the House of Welf rendered as "Guelf" or "Guelph" in English, produced dukes of Bavaria, dukes of Saxony, a German King, the dukes of Brunswick and Lüneburg when the two branches of the family recombined in 1705.
The senior branch of the House of Welf continued to be ruled by the princes of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, as undisputed until the death of the ruling duke of Brunswick Prince William VIII, in 1884. Prior to his death, his brother Karl II from Geneva Switzerland, as exiled de jure ruler of the house, had declared the Prussian annexation of the crown and the earlier Hanoverian usurpation illegal acts of usurpation inside of the German House. At his death, his grandson continued internationally recognized appeals. Hanover formed the Guelph Party to continue political appeals against the Prussian and German annexations of the crown. After the peace ending the Napoleonic wars reshaped Europe, ushering in the Modern era, the Electorate of Hanover was dissolved by treaty, its lands were enlarged and the state was promoted to a kingdom. The new kingdom existed from 1815 to 1866, but upon the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837, it passed to her uncle, Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, thus ceased to be in personal union with the British Crown.
The House of Este gave Great Britain and the United Kingdom the "Hanoverian monarchs". All generations of the Italian branch are descendants of Fulco d'Este. From 1171 on, his descendants were titled Margraves of Este. Obizzo I, the first margrave, battled against Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, his nephew Azzo d'Este VI became podestà of Verona. As the dowry of his niece the Marchesella, Ferrara passed to Azzo VI d'Este In 1146, with the last of the Adelardi. In 1242 Azzo VII Novello was nominated podestà for his lifetime; the lordship of Ferrara was made hereditary by Obizzo II, proclaimed Lord of Ferrara in 1264, Lord of Modena in 1288, Lord of Reggio in 1289. Ferrara was a papal fief and the Este family were given the position of hereditary papal vicars in 1332. Ferrara became a significant center of culture under Niccolò d'Este III, who received several popes with great magnificence Eugene IV, he held a Council in Ferrara in 1438 known as the Council of Florence. His successors were his illegitimate sons Leonello and Borso, elevated to Duke of Modena and Reggio by Emperor Frederick III in 1452, receiving these duchies as imperial fiefs.
In 1471, he received the duchy of Ferrara as papal fief from Pope Paul II, for which occasion splendid frescoes were executed at Palazzo Schifanoia. Borso was succeeded by a half-brother, one of the most significant patrons of the arts in late 15th and early 16th century Italy. Ferrara grew into a cultural center renowned for music. Ercole's daughter Beatrice married Ludovico Duke of Milan. Ercole I's successor was his son Alfonso I, third husband of Lucrezia Borgia, daughter of Pope Alexander VI, sister to Cesare Borgia. Alfonso I was a patron of Ariosto; the son of Alfonso and Lucrezia Borgia, Ercole d'Este II, married Renée of France, daughte
University of L'Aquila
The University of L'Aquila is a public research university located in L'Aquila, central Italy. It is organized in nine departments; the university presents a scientific-technological character with many research groups. It is best known for its Engineering, Medicine and Science schools. On 11 October 1458 and again on 9 May 1464, the city of L'Aquila petitioned King Ferdinand of Aragon to open a Studium equivalent to those in Bologna and Perugia. Shortly before, the town had withdrawn support for the last of the Angevin and surrendered to the Spanish sovereign; the King granted this request, but there is no documentary evidence to suggest that the city authorities opened the Studium. On the other hand, records do show that both before and after the date of the petition, citizens of L'Aquila went to study civil and canon law at the Studium in Perugia. During the last years of the late 16th century, from 1596 on, the Jesuits were providing higher instruction at their college in L'Aquila. When, by a decree of 1767, the Jesuits were expelled from the Kingdom, the Aquilanum Collegium became the Collegio Reale.
To the chairs of theology and history, mathematics and Greek were added, in 1785, those of sciences such as chemistry and the theory and practice of medicine, in 1792 surgery and midwifery. But when, by the decree of 30 May 1807, Joseph Napoleon reorganized all the Royal Colleges, he suppressed the one in L'Aquila and opened one at the Abbey of the Holy Spirit of Morrone, near Sulmona. Seven years on 21 August 1814, a school of higher instruction for the whole Abruzzi area, with university level teaching in medicine, was inaugurated in L'Aquila by Joachim Murat, Napoleon's brother-in-law and king of Naples. After the Restoration, by a decree on 14 January 1817, King Ferdinand settled that in L'Aquila, as in Bari and Catanzaro, a Reale Liceo be opened, teaching law and physiology, surgery and midwifery and pharmaceutical studies as well as forensic medicine and various scientific subjects. By a decree of 3 December 1874, the students of the L'Aquila Reale Liceo were recognised as qualified to practise pharmacy and land-surveying, but degrees were conferred by the University of Naples, upon which the Licei were dependent.
As a result of this decree, the number of students attending the school in L'Aquila, which in 1861 had become the Scuola Universitaria di Farmacia, Notariato e Chirurgia minore, dropped considerably. In 1923 the "University Schools" ceased to exist, it was not until the summer of 1949 that, due to the efforts of Vincenzo Rivera, professor of agricultural science, fellow of the Accademia Italiana, member of the Costituente and several-time member of Parliament, summer courses at university level were started in L'Aquila for the benefit of Abruzzi students enrolled at the University of Rome. The success enjoyed by these courses formed the foundation for a free University of L'Aquila, thanks to support from local bodies, on 15 December 1952 teaching was inaugurated at the Istituto Universitario di Magistero, it was thanks to Rivera that an astronomical observatory was established at Campo Imperatore on the Gran Sasso, at 2200 m above sea level, as well as the observatory and high altitude botanical gardens, the geo-dynamics observatory, the national magnetism observatory and the museum of paleontology.
The creation of an institute of medicine is due to the efforts of Professor Paride Stefanini. In the academic year 1982-83 the Faculties of Education, Medicine and Sciences, which had until that time constituted the free University of L'Aquila, became state institutions. In 1985 the Faculty of Medicine established the first Italian chair of pediatric Otolaryngology. In 1991 the Faculty of Economics was added and in 1993 the Faculty of Education became the Faculty of Letters and Philosophy; the late 1990s saw the addition of two new faculties: Educational Sciences in 1996 and Sport Sciences in 1999. In 2005 the Faculty of Psychology and the Faculty of Biotechnologies were established; the University was badly affected by the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, with fifty-five students killed and only two buildings on the university's two out-of-town campuses remaining structurally sound. The new academic year has found the university conducting a full program of reconstruction; the university has rented new buildings for the faculty members who lost their campus space during the earthquake and a new student residence has been created.
In addition, many services have been provided to students affected by the earthquake and reconstruction of the damaged university buildings has started. These are the 7 departments in which the university is divided into: Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences Department of Industrial and Information Engineering and Economics Department of Human Studies Department of Civil, Construction-Architectural and Environmental Engineering Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences Department of Information Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics Department of Life and Environmental Sciences Alpine Botanical Garden of Campo Imperatore Orto Botanico dell'Università dell'Aquila CETEMPS: this Centre of Excellence for the integration of remote sensing techniques and numerical modelling for the early warning of severe meteorological events has the main objective of developing techniques to prevent and predict meteorological phenomena which may lead to flooding and
University of Parma
The University of Parma is one of the oldest university in the world, founded in the 10th century. It is organised in nine departments; as of 2016 the University of Parma has about 26,000 students. The earliest educational institution was founded in AD 962 by imperial decree of Otto I as school for notaries; the faculties of law and medicine were added in the 13th century. Gian Galeazzo Visconti closed the school in 1322. Opened as university in 1412 by Niccolò III d'Este, during the next hundred years it was reopened and closed. Expanded after 1545 under the patronage of the ducal House of Farnese, the Farnese Duke Ranuccio I founded and endowed the university College of Nobles with a distinguished faculty, but between 1731 and 1748 the university was again neglected. Things improved in 1762 under Duke Ferdinand I de Bourbon, when he founded a great state university at Parma and endowed it with possessions confiscated from the Jesuits. Future Jesuit Father General Luigi Fortis was invited to head the College of Nobles.
New studies were added. The university experienced a rapid growth phase and established an astronomical observatory, a botanical garden and laboratories of anatomy and experimental physics. In 1811 the French government deemed the university an Academy of the Empire, but it lost this status a mere three years with the fall of Bonaparte and the expulsion of the French; the university fell into decay. It was revived in 1854 by the duchess regent and is now a state administration with administrative autonomy. Francesco Accarigi, professor of civil law Flavio Delbono and politician Giacomo Rizzolatti, neuroscientist Vittorio Gallese, neuroscientist Attilio Bertolucci, poet Cesare Zavattini, screenwriter Giuseppe Mingione, mathematician Alberto Broggi, engineer Macedonio Melloni, physicist Bernardino Ramazzini, professor of medicine and father of Occupational Medicine Cesare Beccaria and criminologist The university is now divided into 9 departments. From 2012 to 2016 the university was divided into 18 departments: The university was divided into 12 faculties: European College of Parma List of Italian universities List of medieval universities ICoN Interuniversity Consortium for Italian Studies Library assessment Grendler, Paul F..
The Universities of the Italian Renaissance. Baltimore MD USA: Johns Hopkins University Press. Pp. 127–137. ISBN 978-0-8018-8055-1. Grendler, Paul F.. The Jesuits and Italian Universities, 1548-1773. Washington DC: CUA Press. Pp. 164–170. ISBN 978-0-8132-2936-2. University of Parma Website Itinerari medievali: risorse per lo studio del Medioevo