TUNE! FM is the University of New England’s campus radio station, a high power open narrowcasting service operated by UNELife. Founded in 1970, the station is Australia’s oldest university broadcaster, serving UNE’s students and the broader Armidale community. TUNE! FM has a colourful history of broadcasting and illegally, its inception dates back to 1968 when a group of five students called the UNE Radio Committee presented a prerecorded, half-hour radio show each week on Armidale's local commercial station, 2AD. With the support of this group, Professor Neville Fletcher of the UNE Physics Department approached the Postmaster-General's Department and presented the idea of establishing a service similar to those emerging on university campuses in the United States. After considering this novel idea, the Postmaster-General wrote on 14 January 1969 to say a licence would be issued; the licence allowed the station to operate a'closed-loop' system with micro-transmitters located in each of the eight residential colleges on campus.
After overcoming technical and operational hurdles, Radio UNE began test transmissions on 1630 kHz on the AM band in March 1970. The station was opened at 7pm on 27 April that year, with a pre-recorded message from the Vice Chancellor, Professor Zelman Cowen who oversaw the license application. Richard "Swinging Dick" Mutton, Station Manager, introduced the first music track, Harry Nilsson's Everybody's Talking. Operating on only a yearly budget of about $3000, the initial construction of the station was an impressive example of passionate student motivation and community spirit; the studio desk was built from scraps by one volunteer, another student did the electrical wiring and one committed staff member built a studio in his own home for production work. Only a few months on 4 August, RUNE put itself on the map with a bold attempt at an Australian record. Nineteen-year-old student Nigel Wood extraordinarily broadcast non-stop for 87 hours going on-air every 15 minutes. Several years in 1991, the station would take back its record with student Ian Ferguson smashing out a massive 192 hours of non-stop announcing.
TUNE! FM has operated on a 10 watt HPON Narrowcast licence since it was awarded a frequency on the FM radio spectrum in 1986. Interference problems and frustration with the low powered transmission system led the station to experiment, sometimes illegally, with alternative transmission methods. At times the station could be heard as far away as Guyra; this limitation was appealed during the late 1990s and again in 2009. Both of these appeals were rejected by the ABA and ACMA even though the location of TUNE! FM's transmitter at the Newling Building in town restricts the station from being heard reliably on the main UNE campus. Whilst being a Narrowcast station, TUNE! FM is a full member of the CBAA, voluntarily subscribes to the Community Broadcasters' Code of Practice; until 2006, the station was funded by the UNE Students' Association through compulsory student union fees. Following the introduction of voluntary student unionism, the administration of the station was transferred to Services UNE Ltd in February 2006 prior to a Special General Meeting of the Students' Association that wound up that association.
On 11 July 2006, the university announced a funding package for Services UNE Ltd and Sport UNE to ensure that a variety of non-academic services, including TuneFM, could be maintained on campus. In late 2008 the station was allocated over $600,000 from both the Federal Government and the University of New England in order to build new studios and facilities; these grants were awarded on the provision that TUNE! FM's new facilities could be utilised as a part of a proposed School of Rural Media and Communications at the University of New England. TUNE! FM became the focus of national attention during the 2010 Federal Election, after TUNE's Operations Manager Kate Doak released audio from the station's archives of Opposition Leader Tony Abbott from 1979; the audio was recorded for the "Campuswide" current affairs program during a conference at the University of New England, which Mr Abbott attended during his tenure as the President of the University of Sydney's Student Association. The story was picked up by the Sydney Morning Herald and remained in the Headlines section of their website for over three days during the election campaign, under the name of "The Tiny Tony Tapes".
At the commencement of 2014 the management of TUNE! FM was handed back over to the re-established UNESA. Brian Windsor - 1976 Lance E Jones - 1977-78 - 1979-1980 Tony Johnson - 1979-1980 Jim Vasey - 1981 Simon Smith - 1982 Naomi Nicholson - 1982-1983 Andrew Plumbly 1984-1986 Shaun Sykes - 1985 Anna Blakeney 1986 Shaun Sykes - 1986-1987 Janene Willoughby - 1987 Phil Wright - 1987-1988 Ron Smith - 1989? - 2001 Ben Turley -? Jen Lacey - 1996-1997 Andrea Ho - 1998-1999 Steve Gray - 1999-2000 Andrew Devenish-Meares - 1997-2007 Jack McCaw - 1998-2000 Michael Pollard - 2001-2004 Edward Campbell - 2004-2008 Reuben Foster - 2007 Tegan Guthrie - 2007-2009 Lesley Rickman - 2009-2010 Kate Doak - 2008-2011 Chris Jahnsen - 2008-2010 Emily Blackburn - 2010-2011 David Seaman - 2
Booloominbah is a heritage-listed mansion at 60 Madgwick Drive, Armidale Regional Council, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by John Horbury Hunt in the Federation Arts and Crafts style and built from 1884 to 1888 by William Seabrook and John Thomas Brown. A private house for the pastoralist White family, it subsequently became the initial building of the New England University College, the predecessor of the University of New England, it continues to be owned by the university and is now used for university administration and as a cafe and function venue. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 8 November 2006. Prior to European occupation the area was inhabited by the indigenous Nganaywanya, or Anaiwan, people; the Nganaywanya developed extensive trading networks with their neighbours, based on rich plant and animal resources. The area provided a rich source of hard volcanic rock for tool making and ceremonial purposes. After the arrival of Europeans to the Armidale area the Anaiwan people established a semi-permanent camp on Drummond's Hill.
From here they established close ties to the large pastoral runs in the area with the White family. Oral histories indicate. Frederick Robert White, born in 1835, was the fifth child of James and Sarah White of the Australian Agricultural Company and a successful pastoralist. Frederick White received the wool producing property "Timor" from his fathers estate and began expanding the holdings. White married Sarah Amelia Arndell, a descendant of First Fleet surgeon Thomas Arndell, in 1860. In the following year he borrowed money from a cousin to buy as second property, "Harben Vale", to the west of "Timor". White became a lay reader in the Murrurundi Church of England and was influence in appointing John Horbury Hunt to design the church of which he laid the foundation stone in 1873. White provided half of the funds necessary to build a second church at Blandford designed by Hunt and closer to "Harben Vale", he had Hunt build a third church at Timor as well as stables for "Harben Vale". During the 1860s and 1870s the White family worked together to strengthen their holdings by exchanging and sharing land and borrowing money from one another to purchase new properties, for Frederick these were in the Tablelands and included "Mihi Creek" known as "Rockwood" east of Uralla.
In 1877 White bought several small blocks outside of Armidale with the intention of moving his family there from the Upper Hunter. By Frederick and Sarah had four sons and three daughters, having lost another three daughters, it was the loss of twin daughters and his mother that certainly convinced White to test the prevailing belief that the New England climate was better for the health. The decision to move the family to Armidale was cemented in 1880, when it was announced the new railway line would pass through the town. White bought another 22 blocks of land to the north-west of Armidale, today the campus of the University of New England. While White purchased the land in 1880 it was not until 1882. A snap-shot of White's holdings in 1884 reveals he had 14,970 hectares at "Harben Vale" with 30,000 sheep and 8090 hectares at "Rookwood" with 17,800 sheep.'The Hill' in Armidale was 160 hectares, but was never large contributor to the family's income. The property grew to 810 hectares and with the construction of Booloominbah was renamed after the house.
The first plans for Booloominbah were completed in 1882 or early 1883 and revised before tenders were called for the construction in November 1883. The builders and Brown, met with White and Hunt on site in February and March 1884; the details of the contract reveal that Hunt was to direct the construction for a fee of 6000, to be completed by January 1886. White seems to have changed his mind and decided to halt construction while he took his family to Great Britain and Europe for a year. White altered the contract, stating that he would now provide all the glass and asked a third set of drawings be made. Seabrook and Brown requested that, despite the delay in full-scale construction, that they be allowed to quarry the stone and lay the foundations, agreed to; the family returned some time in 1885, as by Christmas 1886 building was well on its way and was nearly completed in 1887. Due to the extensive nature of the interior decorations, the family did not move in until 1888. Original plans for Booloominbah had included a service wing to the west, not constructed at the time, but major additions were built in the mid-1890s, some of which were supervised by Hunt.
Throughout the construction of Booloominbah, White continued to manage his four properties travelling to supervise them. During 1888 the White families at "Saumarez" and "Belltrees" worked together to run non-union shearers through the blockade. In 1891 eldest daughter Kate married Thomas Richmond Forster and Frederick bought Forster "Abington" and included him in the White family cooperative. Kate came back to Booloominbah to have each of her children, thus fulfilling the family's desire for a true family home. In 1902 the youngest son turned White transferred ownership properties one to each son. White died in the following year, leaving an estate thought to be valued at £55,134. From this he gave substantial sums to the Armidale and Grafton Church of Christ diocese for building works, to be undertaken by Hunt, he gave money for missions to New Guinea and Melanesia and to the Indigenous people of North Queensland. Hospitals in Armidale, Muswellbrook, Sydney and t
Higher education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education. Delivered at universities, colleges, seminaries and institutes of technology, higher education is available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications. Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education; the right of access to higher education is mentioned in a number of international human rights instruments. The UN International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights of 1966 declares, in Article 13, that "higher education shall be made accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, in particular by the progressive introduction of free education". In Europe, Article 2 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950, obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education.
In the days when few pupils progressed beyond primary education or basic education, the term "higher education" was used to refer to secondary education, which can create some confusion. This is the origin of the term high school for various schools for children between the ages of 14 and 18 or 11 and 18. Higher education includes teaching, exacting applied work, social services activities of universities. Within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level, beyond that, graduate-level; the latter level of education is referred to as graduate school in North America. In addition to the skills that are specific to any particular degree, potential employers in any profession are looking for evidence of critical thinking and analytical reasoning skills, teamworking skills, information literacy, ethical judgment, decision-making skills, fluency in speaking and writing, problem solving skills, a wide knowledge of liberal arts and sciences. Since World War II, developed and many developing countries have increased the participation of the age group who studies higher education from the elite rate, of up to 15 per cent, to the mass rate of 16 to 50 per cent.
In many developed countries, participation in higher education has continued to increase towards universal or, what Trow called, open access, where over half of the relevant age group participate in higher education. Higher education is important to national economies, both as an industry, in its own right, as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. College educated workers have commanded a measurable wage premium and are much less to become unemployed than less educated workers. However, the admission of so many students of only average ability to higher education requires a decline in academic standards, facilitated by grade inflation; the supply of graduates in many fields of study is exceeding the demand for their skills, which aggravates graduate unemployment, underemployment and educational inflation. The U. S. system of higher education was influenced by the Humboldtian model of higher education. Wilhelm von Humboldt's educational model goes beyond vocational training.
In a letter to the Prussian king, he wrote: There are undeniably certain kinds of knowledge that must be of a general nature and, more a certain cultivation of the mind and character that nobody can afford to be without. People cannot be good craftworkers, soldiers or businessmen unless, regardless of their occupation, they are good, upstanding and – according to their condition – well-informed human beings and citizens. If this basis is laid through schooling, vocational skills are acquired on, a person is always free to move from one occupation to another, as so happens in life; the philosopher Julian Nida-Rümelin criticized discrepancies between Humboldt's ideals and the contemporary European education policy, which narrowly understands education as a preparation for the labor market, argued that we need to decide between McKinsey and Humboldt. Demonstrated ability in reading and writing, as measured in the United States by the SAT or similar tests such as the ACT, have replaced colleges' individual entrance exams, is required for admission to higher education.
There is some question as to whether advanced mathematical skills or talent are in fact necessary for fields such as history, philosophy, or art. The general higher education and training that takes place in a university, college, or Institute of technology includes significant theoretical and abstract elements, as well as applied aspects. In contrast, the vocational higher education and training that takes place at vocational universities and schools concentrates on practical applications, with little theory. In addition, professional-level education is always included within Higher Education, in graduate schools since many postgraduate academic disciplines are both vocationally and theoretically/research oriented, such as in the law, pharmacy and veterinary medicine. A basic requirement for entry into these graduate-level programs is always a bachelor's degree, although alternative means of obtaining entry into such programs may be available at some universiti
Charles Sturt University
Charles Sturt University is an Australian multi-campus public university located in New South Wales, Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory. Established in 1989, it was named in honour of Captain Charles Sturt, a British explorer who made expeditions into regional New South Wales and South Australia; the University has multiple campuses in Albury-Wodonga, Dubbo, Orange, Port Macquarie, Coffs Harbour, Wagga Wagga and Canberra. The University facilitates specialist centres in North Parramatta, Wangaratta as well as Regional University Study Centres in Griffith and Parkes. Courses are delivered in conjunction with Study Group Australia in Sydney and Brisbane. Charles Sturt University offers various Distance Education programs at Bachelor and Post-Graduate level as well as the Single Subject Study program. CSU has various course delivery partnerships with several TAFE institutions across the country. Charles Sturt University was established on 1 July 1989 from the merger of several existing separately-administered Colleges of Advanced Education including the Mitchell College of Advanced Education in Bathurst, the Riverina-Murray Institute of Higher Education in Albury-Wodonga and the Riverina College of Advanced Education in Wagga Wagga, through the enactment of The Charles Sturt University Act, 1989.
It is named in honour of explorer Charles Sturt. The Mitchell College of Advanced Education had been formed on 1 January 1970, the Riverina Murray Institute of Education campus in Wagga Wagga and Albury-Wodonga had operated since 1984; the latter institution had earlier succeeded the Riverina College of Advanced Education, itself the result of an earlier merger between Wagga Agricultural College and the Wagga Wagga Teachers College. In 1998, CSU established the first Study Centre in Sydney and in Melbourne in 2007; these study centres are operated by a private education group called Study Group Australia. On 1 January 2005, CSU formalised moves to assume control of the University of Sydney's Orange campus, which came into force on 1 January 2005. Between 2005 and 2015, CSU had expand an offshore campus in Ontario in Canada. On July 2015, CSU "regretfully" ceased to operate its Ontario campus due to the legislative and regulatory environment in Ontario. On 14 February 2011 CSU changed its logo.
The sturt desert pea flower is now stylised and made prominent, with the full name of the university as part of its logo. On 1 May 2012, a milestone was reached as CSU opened a new campus in Port Macquarie, CSU's first coastal, regional campus; this made Higher Education accessible to the Hastings region. It provides opportunities for students with the desire to study close to the beach, as well as options for local students to access the resources of a world-class university close to home. In 2013, the University implemented a gas engine cogeneration power plant to help minimise fuel costs and carbon emissions. On 18 April 2016 at the Port Macquarie Campus and students moved into Stage One of their purpose built campus. Two more stages are expected to be complete over the coming years with an expected student intake of 5000 by the year 2030. On 28 July 2016, CSU has been declared Australia's First Official Carbon Neutral University; the University has multiple campuses in Albury-Wodonga, Dubbo, Orange, Port Macquarie, Wagga Wagga and Canberra.
The University facilitates specialist centres in North Parramatta, Wangaratta as well as Regional University Study Centres in Griffith and Parkes. Courses are delivered in conjunction with Study Group Australia in Sydney and Brisbane. Library branches operate at the Wagga Wagga, Albury-Wodonga, Dubbo and Port Macquarie campuses; as of 2015, 69% of book purchases were ebooks. CSU has each offering a range of courses and discipline opportunities; each Faculty comprises a number of Schools and centres for specific areas of study and research: Faculty of Arts and Education Faculty of Business and Behavioural Sciences Faculty of Science The Faculty of Arts and Education covers a broad range courses between the Arts and Education Disciplines. The Arts Discipline cover subject segments of visual arts, performing arts, history, human services, philosophy and theology. Schools & Centres include: School of Communication and Creative Industries School of Humanities and Social Sciences School of Theology Australian Centre for Christianity and Culture Centre for Islamic Sciences and CivilisationThe Education side of the Faculty offers a range of courses in teacher education, information and library studies.
Schools include: School of Education School of Indigenous Australian Studies School of Information Studies School of Teacher Education The Faculty of Business and Behavioural Sciences brings together a range of courses, focusing on real-world challenges in areas of Business and Behavioural Sciences disciplines. The Business Discipline has garnered attention by employers for producing graduates excelling in today's business world challenges, their distance education postgraduate PhD/DBA and Masters programs are eagerly sought-after, both nationally and internationally. The Business Schools and centres facilitated include: School of Accounting and Finance School of Computing and Mathematics School of Management and Marketing CSU EngineeringThe Justice side of the Faculty covers policing, law, customs and border management. Schools and centres include: School of Policing Studies Australian Graduate School of Policing and Security Centre for Customs and Exc
Tertiary education in Australia
Tertiary education in Australia consists of both government and private institutions. A higher education provider is a body, established or recognised by or under the law of the Australian Government, a state, or the Department of Education and Workplace Relations. There are 43 universities in Australia: 40 public universities, two international universities, one private specialty university; the flagship Australian universities are Go8 universities. Australian universities are modeled from the British system, so learning is comparatively challenging, but there are other intermediate options to take as preparatory steps and research-oriented starts early from the similar American freshman year, sets international research-ready standards throughout the entire learning experience to evaluate students' academic performances. Australia ranked 4th by OECD in international PhD students destination after UK and France. Decision-making and governance for higher education are shared among the Australian Government, the state and territory governments and the institutions themselves.
Some aspects of higher education are the responsibility of territories. In particular, most universities are established or recognised under state and territory legislation. States and territories are responsible for accrediting non-self-accrediting higher education providers; the Australian Government has the primary responsibility for public funding of higher education. The Higher Education Support Act 2003 sets out the details of Australian Government funding and its associated legislative requirements. Australian Government funding support for higher education is provided through: the Commonwealth Grant Scheme which provides for a specified number of Commonwealth supported places each year the Higher Education Loan Programme arrangements providing financial assistance to students the Commonwealth Scholarships and a range of grants for specific purposes including quality and teaching, research and research training programmesThe Department of Education has responsibility for administering this funding, for developing and administering higher education policy and programs.
In Australia, universities are self-accrediting institutions and each university has its own establishment legislation and receive the vast majority of their public funding from the Australian Government, through the Higher Education Support Act 2003. The Australian National University, the Australian Film and Radio School and the Australian Maritime College are established under Commonwealth legislation; the Australian Catholic University is established under corporations law. It has establishment Acts in Victoria. Many private providers are established under corporations law; as self-accrediting institutions, Australia's universities have a reasonably high level of autonomy to operate within the legislative requirements associated with their Australian Government funding. Australian universities are represented through the national universities' lobbying body Universities Australia. Eight universities in the list have formed a group in recognition of their recognized status and history, known as the'Group of Eight' or'Go8'.
Other university networks have been formed among those of less prominence. Academic standing and achievements vary across these groups and student entry standards vary with the Go8 universities having the highest standing in both categories; the various state-administered institutes of technical and further education across the country are the major providers of vocational education and training in Australia. TAFE institutions offer short courses, Certificates I, II, III, IV, advanced diplomas in a wide range of vocational topics, they sometimes offer higher education courses in Victoria. In addition to TAFE institutes there are many registered training organisations which are operated. In Victoria alone there are 1100, they include: commercial training providers the training department of manufacturing or service enterprises the training function of employer or employee organizations in a particular industry Group training companies community learning centers and neighborhood houses secondary colleges providing VET programsIn size these RTOs vary from single-person operations delivering training and assessment in a narrow specialization, to large organizations offering a wide range of programs.
Many of them receive government funding to deliver programs to apprentices or trainees, to disadvantaged groups, or in fields which governments see as priority areas. VET programs delivered by TAFE institutes and private RTOs are based on nationally registered qualifications, derived from either endorsed sets of competency standards known as training packages, or from courses accredited by state/territory government authorities; these qualifications are reviewed and updated. In specialised areas where no publicly owned qualifications exist, an RTO may develop its own course and have it accredited as a owned program, subject to the same rules as those that are publicly owned. All trainers and assessors delivering VET programs are required to hold a qualification known as the Certificate IV in Training and Assessment or the more current TAE40110, or demonstrate equivalent competency, they are required to have relevant vocational competencies, at least to the level bei
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua