Aix-Marseille University is a public research university located in the region of Provence, southern France. It was founded in 1409 when Louis II of Anjou, Count of Provence, petitioned the Pisan Antipope Alexander V to establish the University of Provence; the university as it is today was formed by the merger of the University of Provence, the University of the Mediterranean and Paul Cézanne University. The merger became effective on 1 January 2012, resulting in the creation of the largest university in the French-speaking world, with about 74,000 students. AMU has the largest budget of any academic institution in the Francophone world, standing at €750 million; the university is organized around five main campuses situated in Marseille. Apart from its major campuses, AMU owns and operates facilities in Arles, Avignon, Digne-les-Bains, Gap, La Ciotat and Salon-de-Provence; the university is headquartered at the Marseille. AMU has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, business, science and arts.
To date, there have been four Nobel Prize laureates amongst its alumni and faculty, as well as a two-time recipient of the Pulitzer Prize, four César Award winners, multiple heads of state or government, parliamentary speakers, government ministers and members of the constituent academies of the Institut de France. AMU has hundreds of research and teaching partnerships, including close collaboration with the French National Centre for Scientific Research and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission. AMU is a member of numerous academic organisations including the European University Association and the Mediterranean Universities Union; the institution developed out of the original University of Provence, founded on 9 December 1409 as a Studium generale by Louis II of Anjou, Count of Provence, recognized by papal bull issued by the Pisan Antipope Alexander V. However, there is evidence that teaching in Aix existed in some form from the beginning of the 12th century, since there were a doctor of theology in 1100, a doctor of law in 1200 and a professor of law in 1320 on the books.
The decision to establish the university was, in part, a response to the already-thriving University of Paris. As a result, in order to be sure of the viability of the new institution, Louis II compelled his Provençal students to study in Aix only. Thus, the letters patent for the university were granted, the government of the university was created; the Archbishop of Aix-en-Provence, Thomas de Puppio, was appointed as the first chancellor of the university for the rest of his life. After his death in 1420, a new chancellor was elected by the rector and licentiates – an uncommon arrangement not repeated at any other French university; the rector had to be an “ordinary student”, who had unrestricted civil and criminal jurisdiction in all cases where one party was a doctor or scholar of the university. Those displeased with the rector's decisions could appeal to a doctor legens. Eleven consiliarii provided assistance to the rector; these individuals represented all were elected from among the students.
The constitution was of a student-university, the instructors did not have great authority except in granting degrees. Mention should be made that a resident doctor or student who married was required to pay charivari to the university, the amount varying with the degree or status of the man, being increased if the bride was a widow. Refusal to submit to this statutable extortion was punished by the assemblage of students at the summons of the rector with frying-pans and horns at the house of the newly married couple. Continued recusancy was followed by the piling up of dirt in front of their door upon every Feast-day; these injunctions were justified on the ground that the money extorted was devoted to divine service. In 1486 Provence passed to the French crown; the university's continued existence was approved by Louis XII of France, Aix-en-Provence continued to be a significant provincial centre. It was, for instance, the seat of the Parliament of Aix-en-Provence from 1501 to 1789, no doubt aided by the presence of the law school.
In 1603 Henry IV of France established the Collège Royal de Bourbon in Aix-en-Provence for the study of belles-lettres and philosophy, supplementing the traditional faculties of the university, but not formally a part of it. This college de plain exercice became a significant seat of learning, under the control of the Jesuit order. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, the college served as a preparatory, but unaffiliated, school for the university. Only the university was entitled to award degrees in the theology and medicine. Universities accepted candidates who had studied in colleges formally affiliated with them, which in reality required both college and university to be situated in the same city. In 1762 the Jesuits were forced to leave France, in 1763 the Collège Royal de Bourbon was affiliated with the university as a faculty of arts; the addition of the Collège Royal de Bourbon widened the scope of courses provided at the University of Provence. Formal instruction in French was provided at the college, with texts and a structured course of study.
Subsequently, physics became a part of the curriculum at the college as a part of the philosophy course in the 18th century. Equipment for carrying out experiments was obtained and the first course in experimental physics was provided at Aix-e
University of Toulouse
The University of Toulouse is a university in France, established by papal bull in 1229, making it one of the earliest universities to emerge in Europe. Since the closing of the university in 1793 due to the French Revolution, the University of Toulouse no longer exists as a single institution. However, there have been several independent "successor" universities inheriting the name; the current consortium of French universities, grandes écoles and other institutions of higher education and research in Toulouse and the surrounding region is known as Université fédérale de Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées. The formation of l'Université de Toulouse was imposed on Count Raymond VII as a part of the Treaty of Paris in 1229 ending the crusade against the Albigensians; as he was suspected of sympathizing with the heretics, Raymond VII had to finance the teaching of theology. Bishop Foulques de Toulouse was among the founders of the University. Among its first lecturers were Jean de Roland of Cremona. Other faculties were added later.
The University was located in the center of the city, together with the ancestors of student residences, the colleges. In 1969, l'Université de Toulouse split into three separate universities and numerous specialised institutions of higher education; the present-day Université de Toulouse was founded on 27 March 2007. It no longer represents a single university, as it is now the collective entity which federates the universities and specialised institutions of higher education. With more than 100,000 students, Midi-Pyrénées is the fifth-largest university area in France, it is a Research and Higher Education Cluster consisting of: Université Toulouse 1 Capitole – UT1 Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès – UT2J Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier – UT3 Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse – INPT École Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Toulouse – INP-ENSAT École Nationale Supérieure d’Électrotechnique, d’Électronique, d’Informatique, d’Hydraulique et des Télécommunications – INP-ENSEEIHT École Nationale Supérieure des Ingénieurs en Arts Chimiques et Technologiques – INP-ENSIACET École Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tarbes – INP-ENIT École Nationale de la Météorologie.
Biology, Health & Biotechnologies Sciences for Ecology, Agronomy & Bioengineery Geosciences, Astrophysics & Space Sciences Mathematics, Informatics & Telecommunications Toulouse Doctoral School Electrical, Electronic Engineering & Telecommunications Systems Physics, Chemistry & Materials Sciences Mechanics, Civil & Process Engineering Aeronautics & Astronautics Behavior, Education, Cognition Art, Languages, Information & Communication Time, Societies & Cultures Legal & Political Sciences Management Sciences Toulouse School of Economics Jean Tirole, professor of economics, Economics Nobel Prize 2014 Paul Seabright, professor of economics Jean-Jacques Laffont, economist Raymond Aron, philosopher and political scientist Paul Fauconnet, sociologist Jean Jaurès, politician Maurice Hauriou and dean of the law faculty from 1906 to 1926 Pierre Laromiguière, philosopher Adrianus Turnebus, classical scholar Professor Ange Nzihou is a 2010 Presidential Green Chemistry Academic Award Recipient Patrice Hardel is the Roissy-Charles de Gaulle Airport Managing Director François Hussenot (22 March 1912 – 16 May 1951, graduated in 1935 from ISAE aeronautical engineer credited with the invention of one of the early forms of the flight data recorder Jean Botti is Chief Technical Officer of EADS since 2006.
Thomas Pesquet, European Space Agency astronaut Marcel Dassault was a French aircraft industrialist. He founded the company Dassault Aviation. Selman Riza and politician. Paul Sabatier, Dean of the Faculty of Science at the University of Toulouse in 1905, Nobel Prize in Chemistry jointly with fellow
University of Angers
The University of Angers is an institution of higher education in the town of Angers in western France. It began as the School of Angers in the 11th century and became a university in 1337. In 1432, the Faculties of Medicine and Theology were added to the Faculty of Law; the university was closed in 1793 during the French Revolution, in 1971 a predecessor was established with little ties to the past institutions. Jardin botanique de la Faculté de Pharmacie d'Angers, a botanical garden List of medieval universities Official website
Bayonne is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. It is located at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers in the northern part of the cultural region of the Basque Country, as well as the southern part of Gascony where the Aquitaine basin joins the beginning of the Pre-Pyrenees. Together with nearby Anglet, Saint-Jean-de-Luz, several smaller communes, Bayonne forms an urban area with 288,359 inhabitants at the 2012 census, 45,855 of whom lived in the city of Bayonne proper; the site on the left bank of the Nive and the Adour was occupied before ancient times as a fortified enclosure was attested in the 1st century at the time when the Tarbelli occupied the territory. Archaeological studies have confirmed the presence of a Roman castrum, a stronghold in Novempopulania at the end of the 4th century before the city was populated by the Vascones. In 1023 Bayonne was the capital of Labourd and, in the 12th century, extended to and beyond the Nive.
At that time the first bridge was built over the Adour. The city came under the domination of the English in 1152 through the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine: it became militarily and, above all, commercially important thanks to maritime trade, it was separated from the Viscount of Labourd in 1177 by Richard the Lion Heart. In 1451 the city was taken by the Crown of France after the Hundred Years' War; the loss of trade with the English and the silting up of the river as well as the movement of the city towards the north weakened it. The district of Saint-Esprit developed anyway thanks to the arrival of a Jewish population fleeing the Spanish Inquisition. From this community Bayonne gained its reputation for chocolate; the course of the Adour was changed in 1578 under the direction of Louis de Foix and the river returned to its former mouth, returning business lost to Bayonne for over a hundred years. In the 17th century the city was fortified by Vauban. In 1814 Bayonne and its surroundings were the scene of fighting between the Napoleonic troops and the Spanish-Anglo-Portuguese coalition led by the Duke of Wellington: the city underwent its final siege.
In 1951 the Lacq gas field was discovered whose extracted sulphur and associated oil are shipped from the port of Bayonne. During the second half of the 20th century many housing estates were built forming new districts on the periphery and the city was extended to form a conurbation with Anglet and Biarritz: this agglomeration became the heart of a vast Basque-Landes urban area. Bayonne was, in 2014, a commune with over 45,000 inhabitants, the heart of the urban area of Bayonne and of the Agglomeration Côte Basque-Adour which includes Anglet and Biarritz, it is an important part of the Basque Bayonne-San Sebastián Eurocity and it plays the role of economic capital of the Adour basin. Modern industry—metallurgy and chemicals—are established to take advantage of procurement opportunities and sea shipments through the harbour, it is now business services which today represent the largest source of employment. Bayonne is a cultural capital, a city with strong Basque and Gascon influences and a rich historical past.
Its heritage lies in its architecture, the diversity of collections in museums, its gastronomic specialties, traditional events such as the famous Fêtes de Bayonne. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bayonnaises. Bayonne is located in the south-west of France on the western border between Basque Country and Gascony, it developed at the confluence of the Adour and tributary on the left bank, the Nive, 6 km from the Atlantic coast. The commune was part of the Basque province of Labourd. Bayonne occupies a territory characterized by a flat relief to the west and to the north towards the Landes forest, tending to raise towards the south and east; the city has developed at the confluence of the Nive 6 kilometres from the ocean. The meeting point of the two rivers coincides with a narrowing of the Adour valley. Above this the alluvial plain extends for nearly thirty kilometres towards both Tercis-les-Bains and Peyrehorade, is characterized by swampy meadows called barthes which are influenced by floods and high tides.
Downstream from this point the river has shaped a large bed in the sand dunes creating a significant bottleneck at the confluence. The occupation of the hill that dominates this narrowing of the valley developed through a gradual spread across the lowlands by building embankments and the aggradation from flood soil; the Nive has played a leading role in the development of the Bayonne river system in recent geological time by the formation of alluvial terraces that form the sub-soil of Bayonne beneath the surface accumulations of silt and aeolian sands. The drainage network of the western Pre-Pyrenees evolved from the Quaternary from south-east to northwest oriented east-west; the Adour was captured by the gaves and this system, together with the Nive, led to the emergence of a new alignment of the lower Adour and the Adour-Nive confluence. This capture has been dated to the early Quaternary. Before this capture the Nive had deposited pebbles from the Mindel glaciation of medium to large sizes that slowed erosion of the hills causing the bottleneck at Bayonne.
After the deposit of the lowest alluvial terrace, the course of the Adour became fixed in its lower reaches. Subsequent to these deposits there was a rise in sea level in the Holocene period which explains the invasion of the lower valleys with fine sand and mud with a thickness of m
University of Bordeaux
The University of Bordeaux was founded in 1441 in France. The University of Bordeaux is part of the Community of universities and higher education institutions of Aquitaine; the original Université de Bordeaux was established by the papal bull of Pope Eugene IV on 7 June 1441 when Bordeaux was an English town. The initiative for the creation of the university is attributed to Archbishop Pey Berland, it was composed of four faculties: arts, medicine and theology. The law faculty split into faculties of civil law and canon law. A professorship in mathematics was founded in 1591 by Bishop François de Foix, son of Gaston de Foix, Earl of Kendal; this university was disestablished in 1793, was re-founded on 10 July 1896. In 1970 the university was split into three universities: Bordeaux 1, Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux 3. In 1995, Bordeaux 4 split off from Bordeaux 1. In 2007 the universities were grouped together as Communauté d'universités et établissements d'Aquitaine From 1 January 2014, the university of Bordeaux were reunited, except for Bordeaux 3 which chose not to take part to the merger.
Geoffrey Keating, Irish historian Léon Duguit, French scholar of public law Henri Moysset, French historian and politician Jacques Ellul, French philosopher, lay theologian, professor James Joll, British historian and university lecturer Théophile Obenga, Congolese Egyptologist Spencer C. Tucker, American military historian Charles Butterworth, American political philosopher Helene Hagan, Moroccan–American anthropologist and Amazigh activist Pascal Salin, French economist and professor Marie-France Vignéras, French mathematician Alfredo Co, Filipino Sinologist Idowu Bantale Omole, Nigerian professor and academic administrator Aubrey Willis Williams, American social and civil rights activist Jean-Claude Bajeux, Haitian political activist and professor Louis Clayton Jones, African-American international attorney and civil rights leader Mireille Gillings, French Canadian neurobiologist and entrepreneur Thomas Barclay, Scottish jurist and professor James Marshall Sprouse, United States Circuit judge François Mauriac French novelist, critic, poet and Nobel Laureate Saint-John Perse, French poet-diplomat Lucien Xavier Michel-Andrianarahinjaka, Malagasy writer and politician Esther Seligson, Mexican writer, poet and historian Lee Mallory, American poet and academic Marc Saikali, Lebanese–French journalist Sarah Ladipo Manyika, British Nigerian writer Luc Plissonneau, French screenwriter and film director Morteza Heidari, Iranian TV presenter Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac, French statesman Jean Ybarnégaray, Basque–French politician Jean-Fernand Audeguil, French politician Michel Kafando, Burkinabé diplomat Xavier Darcos, French politician, civil servant and former Minister of Labour Jean-Paul Gonzalez, French virologist Mario Aoun, Lebanese politician Alain Vidalies, the French Secretary of State for Transport, the Sea and Fisheries Nagoum Yamassoum, Chadian politician and former Prime Minister of Chad Anicet-Georges Dologuélé, Central African politician Reza Taghipour, Iranian conservative politician Thierry Santa, French Polynesian politician in New Caledonia Germaine Kouméalo Anaté, Togolese government minister and writer Olivier Falorni, French politician Myriam El Khomri, French politician Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, French physician and freemason and namesake of the guillotine Célestin Sieur, French physician Charles-Joseph Marie Pitard, French pharmacist and botanist Pierre-Paul Grassé, French zoologist Émile Peynaud, French oenologist Laure Gatet, French pharmacist and spy Basile Adjou Moumouni, Beninese physician Roland Paskoff, French geologist Jean-Marie Tarascon, French chemist and professor Bruno Vallespir, French engineer and professor Jean-Pierre Escalettes, French retired footballer Karounga Keïta, Malian football official and former coach and player Bixente Lizarazu, Basque–French retired footballer Charles James, English-American fashion designer List of medieval universities Le projet Babord-Num
A rector is a senior official in an educational institution, can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school. Outside the English-speaking world the rector is the most senior official in a university, whilst in the United States the most senior official is referred to as President and in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations the most senior official is the Chancellor, whose office is ceremonial and titular; the term and office of a rector can be referred to as a rectorate. The title is used in universities in Europe, and is common in Latin American countries. It is used in Brunei, Russia, the Philippines, Indonesia and the Middle East. In the ancient universities of Scotland the office is sometimes referred to as Lord Rector, is the third most senior official, is responsible for chairing the University Court; the head of a university in Germany is called a president, rector magnificus or rectrix magnifica, as in some Belgian universities. In Dutch universities, the rector magnificus is the most publicly prominent member of the board, responsible for the scientific agenda of the university.
In the Netherlands, the rector is, not the chair of the university board. The chair has, in the most influence over the management of the University. In some countries, including Germany, the position of head teacher in secondary schools is designated as rector. In the Netherlands, the terms "rector" and "conrector" are used for high school directors; this is the case in some Maltese secondary schools. In the Scandinavian countries, the head of a university or a gymnasium is called a rektor. In Sweden and Norway, this term is used for the heads of primary schools. In Finland, the head of a primary school or secondary schools is called a rector provided the school is of sufficient size in terms of faculty and students, otherwise the title is headmaster; the head of some Finnish universities is called chancellor. In the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal's and Spain's university heads or presidents have the title; those universities whose foundation has been approved by the Pope, as e.g. the rector of the University of Coimbra, the oldest Portuguese university, is referred to as Magnífico Reitor.
The others are referred to as Excelentíssimo Senhor Reitor. In Spain, all Rectors must be addressed as Señor Rector Magnífico according to the law, but the Rector of the University of Salamanca, the oldest on the Iberian Peninsula, is styled according to academic protocol as Excelentísimo y Ilustrísimo Señor Profesor Doctor Don, Rector Magnífico de la Universidad de Salamanca. In a few "Crown lands" of the Austrian Empire, one seat in the Landtag was reserved for the rector of the capital's university, notably: Graz in Steiermark, Innsbruck in Tirol, Wien in Nieder-Österreich. Today Austrian universities are headed by a Rectorate consisting of one Rector and 3-5 additional Vizerectors; the Rector is the CEO of the university. The heads of Czech universities are called the rektor; the rector acts in the name of the university and decides the university's affairs unless prohibited by law. The rector is nominated by the University Academic Senate and appointed by the President of the Czech Republic.
The nomination must be agreed by a simple majority of all senators, while a dismissal must be agreed by at least three fifths of all senators. The vote to elect or repeal a rector is secret; the term of office is four years and a person may hold it for at most two consecutive terms. The rector appoints vice-rectors. Rectors' salaries are determined directly by the Minister of Education. Among the most important rectors of Czech universities were reformer Jan Hus, physician Jan Jesenius and representative of Enlightenment Josef Vratislav Monse. Jiřina Popelová became the first female Rector in 1950; the rectors are addressed "Your Magnificence Rector". In Danish, rektor is the title used in referring to the heads of universities, schools of commerce and construction, etc. Rektor may be used for the head of any educational institution above the primary school level, where the head is referred to as a'skoleinspektør'. In universities, the second-ranked official of governance is known as prorektor. Most English universities are formally headed by "chancellors".
In a few colleges, the equivalent person is called a "president", "provost", or "warden". At two Oxford colleges, Lincoln College and Exeter College, the head is called "rector". At Oxford and Cambridge, the university's overall head is called "chancellor", but this is chiefly a ceremonial position while the academic head of each university is the "vice-chancellor". At St Chad's College, one of the two so-called "recognised colleges" of the University of Durham, there is a "rector" as titular head while the academic head is the "principal"; the University of London has a chancellor (a
Quick Restaurants is an Belgian chain of hamburger fast food restaurants based in Bobigny, Seine-Saint-Denis, France. Founded in 1971 by veteran Belgian entrepreneur Baron François Vaxelaire, Quick is the first hamburger chain founded in Europe with around 400 restaurants. Quick is similar in theme to Burger King. In 2007, it was taken over by the French government's investment holding company, CDC, was purchased by Burger King in February 2016. In September 2016, QSR Belgium bought back restaurants of Luxembourg to Bertrand Group; the chain was first established in 1971 by retail entrepreneur Baron Vaxelaire with two restaurants, one in Schoten, just outside Antwerp and another one in Waterloo, south of Brussels. The first Quick in France was opened in Aix-en-Provence on July 19, 1980. By December 31, 2010, it operated over 400 restaurants in Belgium, France and the French overseas departments or territories of Réunion, Central African Republic, New Caledonia and Martinique. 72% of these restaurants are operated as franchises.
Quick used to have a UK and Dutch presence in the 1980s and 90s, including a branch in London's Leicester Square and in Rotterdam, but these are long since closed. From around 2007-08 Quick had restaurants in Morocco and Algiers, Algeria, as well as Moscow and Tula in Russia, but these have closed. Although, as of January 2017 one opened in Marrakech, two outlets in Tunis and there are plans to reopen in Russia. In September 2016,QSR Belgium bought back restaurants of Belgium and Luxembourg to Bertrand Group In February 2010, Quick announced that eight of its French franchises would offer halal menus to cater to the Muslim population, a number that increased to 22 in August 2010, only halal menus are being served since then; the move caused controversy from politicians across various parties, including Roubaix's mayor, Marine Le Pen of the National Front, the UMP, France's ruling political party. In 2011, Quick unveiled Le Double Mix, a two-in-one sandwich featuring a bread-bun done two different ways on each half, with each side having its own dressings.
Available in hamburger or chicken varieties, Le Double Mix was sold as a limited-run sandwich, through April 18, 2011. On January 22, 2011, 14-year-old Benjamin Orset died after eating two hamburgers at a Quick restaurant in Avignon, France. An autopsy report concluded. Traces of staphylococci were detected in the boy’s body, as well as in five of the eight employees. Quick’s managing director, Jacques-Edouard Charret, refused to accept responsibility for the death of the boy. However, the investigation found that the death of Orset was a direct result of the meal he had eaten at Quick the day before. Admitting the possibility of a "local failure" rather than any problems with the products supplied centrally, Quick took control of the Avignon restaurant back from the franchisee. Quick promised to "strengthen its controls and hygiene measures, which are stricter than the legal standards". List of hamburger restaurants Official website Quick Belgium