Greater Buenos Aires
Greater Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area or Buenos Aires Metropolitan Region refers to the urban agglomeration comprising the autonomous city of Buenos Aires and the adjacent 24 partidos in the Province of Buenos Aires. Thus, it does not constitute a single administrative unit; the conurbation spreads south and north of Buenos Aires city. To the east, the River Plate serves as a natural boundary. Urban sprawl between 1945 and 1980, created a vast conurbation of 9,910,282 inhabitants in the 24 conurbated partidos, as of 2010, a total of 12,801,365 including the City of Buenos Aires, a third of the total population of Argentina and generating more than half of the country's GDP; the term Gran Buenos Aires was first used in 1948, when Governor of Buenos Aires Province Domingo Mercante signed a bill delineating as such an area covering 14 municipalities surrounding the City of Buenos Aires. The term is related to other expressions that are not well-defined: the "Buenos Aires' conurbation", the "Greater Buenos Aires Agglomeration", the "Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires".
The National Institute of Statistics and Censuses has defined Greater Buenos Aires. There are three main groups within the Buenos Aires' Conurbation; the first two groups comprise the traditional conurbation, or the "conurbation proper". The third group of six partidos is in process of becoming integrated with the rest. Fourteen urbanized partidos Ten partidos urbanized Six partidos not yet conurbatedAs urbanization continues and the conurbation grows, six additional urbanized partidos now are connected with the conurbation: Buzai, G. D. and Marcos, M.. "The social map of Greater Buenos Aires as empirical evidence of urban models". Journal of Latin American Geography. Volume 11 Number 1, pp. 67–78, DOI 10.1353/lag.2012.0012 Keeling, D.. Buenos Aires: Global Dreams, Local Crisis. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, values and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, teaching and directed research. Education takes place under the guidance of educators and learners may educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational; the methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. Formal education is divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and college, university, or apprenticeship. A right to education has been recognized by the United Nations. In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age. Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin word ēducātiō from ēducō, related to the homonym ēdūcō from ē- and dūcō. Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society.
In pre-literate societies, this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge and skills from one generation to the next; as cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom. Plato founded the Academy in the first institution of higher learning in Europe; the city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476. In China, Confucius, of the State of Lu, was the country's most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea and Vietnam. Confucius gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era.
The Aztecs had a well-developed theory about education, which has an equivalent word in Nahuatl called tlacahuapahualiztli. It means "the art of raising or educating a person" or "the art of strengthening or bringing up men." This was a broad conceptualization of education, which prescribed that it begins at home, supported by formal schooling, reinforced by community living. Historians cite that formal education was mandatory for everyone regardless of social class and gender. There was the word neixtlamachiliztli, "the act of giving wisdom to the face." These concepts underscore a complex set of educational practices, oriented towards communicating to the next generation the experience and intellectual heritage of the past for the purpose of individual development and his integration into the community. After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe; the church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education.
Some of these establishments evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe's modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School; the medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of inquiry, produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas of the University of Naples, Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation, Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research. Founded in 1088, the University of Bologne is considered the first, the oldest continually operating university. Elsewhere during the Middle Ages, Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic caliphate, established across the Middle East, extending from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Indus in the east and to the Almoravid Dynasty and Mali Empire in the south.
The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly; the European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy, religion and sciences spread out across the globe. Missionaries and scholars brought back new ideas from other civilizations – as with the Jesuit China missions who played a significant role in the transmission of knowledge and culture between China and Europe, translating works from Europe like Euclid's Elements for Chinese scholars and the thoughts of Confucius for European audiences; the Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in Europe. In most countries today, full-time education, whether at school or otherwise, is compulsory for all children up to a certain age. Due to this the proliferation of compulsory education, combined with population growth, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far.
Formal education occurs in a structured environment. Formal education takes place in a school environme
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
Ohio State University
The Ohio State University referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large public research university in Columbus, Ohio. Founded in 1870 as a land-grant university and the ninth university in Ohio with the Morrill Act of 1862, the university was known as the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College; the college began with a focus on training students in various agricultural and mechanical disciplines but it developed into a comprehensive university under the direction of then-Governor Rutherford B. Hayes, in 1878 the Ohio General Assembly passed a law changing the name to "The Ohio State University", it has since grown into the third-largest university campus in the United States. Along with its main campus in Columbus, Ohio State operates regional campuses in Lima, Marion and Wooster; the university has an extensive student life program, with over 1,000 student organizations. Ohio State athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Ohio State Buckeyes. Athletes from Ohio State have won 100 Olympic medals.
The university is a member of the Big Ten Conference for the majority of sports. The Ohio State men's ice hockey program competes in the Big Ten Conference, while its women's hockey program competes in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association. In addition, the OSU men's volleyball team is a member of the Midwestern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association. OSU is one of only 14 universities; the proposal of a manufacturing and agriculture university in central Ohio was met in the 1870s with hostility from the state's agricultural interests and competition for resources from Ohio University, chartered by the Northwest Ordinance, Miami University. Championed by the Republican stalwart Governor Rutherford B. Hayes, The Ohio State University was founded in 1870 as a land-grant university under the Morrill Act of 1862 as the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College; the school was within a farming community on the northern edge of Columbus. While some interests in the state had hoped the new university would focus on matriculating students of various agricultural and mechanical disciplines, Hayes manipulated both the university's location and its initial board of trustees towards a more comprehensive end.
The university opened its doors to 24 students on September 17, 1873. In 1878, the first class of six men graduated; the first woman graduated the following year. In 1878, in light of its expanded focus, the Ohio legislature changed the name to "The Ohio State University", with "The" as part of its official name. Ohio State began accepting graduate students in the 1880s, in 1891, the school saw the founding of its law school, Moritz College of Law, it would acquire colleges of medicine, optometry, veterinary medicine and journalism in subsequent years. In 1916, Ohio State was elected into membership in the Association of American Universities. Michael V. Drake, former chancellor of the University of California, became the 15th president of The Ohio State University on June 30, 2014. Ohio State's 1,764-acre main campus is about 2.5 miles north of the city's downtown. The historical center of campus is a quad of about 11 acres. Four buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Hale Hall, Hayes Hall, Ohio Stadium, Orton Hall.
Unlike earlier public universities such as Ohio University and Miami University, whose campuses have a consistent architectural style, the Ohio State campus is a mix of traditional and post-modern styles. The William Oxley Thompson Memorial Library, anchoring the Oval's western end, is Ohio State library's main branch and largest repository; the Thompson Library was designed in 1913 by the Boston firm of Allen and Collens in the Italianate Renaissance Revival style, its placement on the Oval was suggested by the Olmsted Brothers who had designed New York City's Central Park. In 2006, the Thompson Library began a $100 million renovation to maintain the building's classical Italian Renaissance architecture. Ohio State operates the North America's 18th-largest university research library with a combined collection of over 5.8 million volumes. Additionally, the libraries receive about 35,000 serial titles, its recent acquisitions were 16th among university research libraries in North America. Along with 21 libraries on its Columbus campus, the university has eight branches at off-campus research facilities and regional campuses, a book storage depository near campus.
In all, the Ohio State library system encompasses specialty collections. Some more significant collections include The Byrd Polar Research Center Archival Program, which has the archives of Admiral Richard E. Byrd and other polar research materials. Anchoring the traditional campus gateway at the eastern end of the Oval is the 1989 Wexner Center for the Arts. Designed by architects Peter Eisenman of New York and Richard Trott of Columbus, the center was funded in large part by Ohio State alumnus Leslie Wexner's gift of $25 million in the 1980s; the center was founded to encompass all aspects of visual and performing art
Université de Montréal
The Université de Montréal is a French-language public research university in Montreal, Canada. The university's main campus is located on the northern slope of Mount Royal in the Outremont and Côte-des-Neiges boroughs; the institution comprises thirteen faculties, more than sixty departments and two affiliated schools: the Polytechnique Montréal and HEC Montréal. It offers more than 650 undergraduate programmes and graduate programmes, including 71 doctoral programmes; the university was founded as a satellite campus of the Université Laval in 1878. It became a independent institution after it was issued a papal charter in 1919, a provincial charter in 1920. Université de Montréal moved from Montreal's Quartier Latin to its present location at Mount Royal in 1942, it was made a secular institution with the passing of another provincial charter in 1967. The school is co-educational, has over 34,335 undergraduate and over 11,925 post-graduate students. Alumni and former students reside across Canada and around the world, with notable alumni serving as government officials and business leaders.
The Université de Montréal was founded in 1878 as a new branch of Université Laval in Quebec City. It was known as the Université de Laval à Montréal; the move went against the wishes of Montréal's prelate, who advocated an independent university in his city. Certain parts of the institution's educational facilities, such as those of the Séminaire de Québec and the Faculty of Medicine, founded as the Montreal School of Medicine and Surgery, had been established in Montréal in 1876 and 1843, respectively; the Vatican granted the university some administrative autonomy in 1889, thus allowing it to choose its own professors and license its own diplomas. However, it was not until 8 May 1919 that a papal charter from Pope Benedict XV granted full autonomy to the university, it thus adopted Université de Montréal as its name. Université de Montréal was granted its first provincial charter on 14 February 1920. At the time of its creation, less than a hundred students were admitted to the university's three faculties, which at that time were located in Old Montreal.
These were the Faculty of Theology, the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Medicine. Graduate training based on German-inspired American models of specialized coursework and completion of a research thesis was introduced and adopted. Most of Québec's secondary education establishments employed classic course methods of varying quality; this forced the university to open a preparatory school in 1887 to harmonize the education level of its students. Named the "Faculty of Arts", this school would remain in use until 1972 and was the predecessor of Québec's current CEGEP system. Two distinct schools became affiliated to the university; the first was the École Polytechnique, a school of engineering, founded in 1873 and became affiliated in 1887. The second was the École des Hautes Études Commerciales, or HEC, founded in 1907 and became part of the university in 1915. In 1907, Université de Montréal opened the first francophone school of architecture in Canada at the École Polytechnique. Between 1920 and 1925, seven new faculties were added: Philosophy, Sciences, Veterinary Medicine, Dental Surgery and Social Sciences.
Notably, the Faculty of Social Sciences was founded in 1920 by Édouard Montpetit, the first laic to lead a faculty. He thereafter was named secretary-general, a role he fulfilled until 1950. From 1876 to 1895, most classes took place in the Grand séminaire de Montréal. From 1895 to 1942, the school was housed in a building at the intersection of Saint-Denis and Sainte-Catherine streets in Montreal's eastern downtown Quartier Latin. Unlike English-language universities in Montréal, such as McGill University, Université de Montréal suffered a lack of funding for two major reasons: the relative poverty of the French Canadian population and the complications ensuing from its being managed remotely, from Quebec City; the downtown campus was hit by three different fires between 1919 and 1921, further complicating the university's precarious finances and forcing it to spend much of its resources on repairing its own infrastructure. By 1930, enough funds had been accumulated to start the construction of a new campus on the northwest slope of Mount Royal, adopting new plans designed by Ernest Cormier.
However, the financial crisis of the 1930s suspended all ongoing construction. Many speculated that the university would have to sell off its unfinished building projects in order to ensure its own survival. Not until 1939 did the provincial government directly intervene by injecting public funds; the campus's construction subsequently resumed and the mountain campus was inaugurated on 3 June 1943. The Cote-des-Neiges site includes property expropriated from a residential development along Decelles Avenue, known as Northmount Heights; the university's former downtown facilities would serve Montreal's second francophone university, the Université du Québec à Montréal. In 1943, the university assisted the Western Allies by providing laboratory accommodations on its campus. Scientists there worked to develop a nuclear reactor, notably by conducting various heavy water experiments; the research was part of the larger Manhattan Project. Scientists working on the school's campus produced the first atomic batte
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Buenos Aires Central Business District
The Buenos Aires Central Business District is the main commercial centre of Buenos Aires, though not an official city ward. While the barrios of Puerto Madero and Retiro house important business complexes and modern high-rise architecture, the area traditionally known as Microcentro is located within San Nicolás and Monserrat coinciding with the area around the historic center of the Plaza de Mayo; the Microcentro has a wide concentration of offices, service companies and banks, a large circulation of pedestrians on working days. Another name given to this unofficial barrio is La City, which refers more to an smaller sector within the Microcentro, where all the banking headquarters of the country are concentrated; the area was the site of the first European settlement in what became Buenos Aires. Its south–north axis runs along Leandro Alem Avenue, from Belgrano Avenue in the south to Retiro railway station in the north, its east–west axis runs from the Buenos Aires Ecological Reserve to Ninth of July Avenue.
The district is centered around the San Nicolás ward, includes the northern section of Montserrat, the section of Retiro south of Santa Fe Avenue, the section of Puerto Madero west of the Buenos Aires Docklands. The district is the financial and cultural hub of Buenos Aires, of Argentina; the economy of Buenos Aires was the 13th largest among the world's cities in 2006 at US$245 billion in purchasing power parity, based on the population of that year, translates into US21,500 per capita. The Buenos Aires Human Development Index is high by international standards; the Port of Buenos Aires is one of the busiest in South America. As a result, it serves as the distribution hub for a vast area of the south-eastern region of the South American continent. Tax collection related to the port has caused many political problems in the past. Buenos Aires CBD lies in the Pampa region, except some zones like the Buenos Aires Ecological Reserve, the Boca Juniors Club "sports city", Jorge Newbery Airport, the Puerto Madero neighborhood and the main port itself.
These latter were all built on reclaimed land along the coast of the Rio de la Plata. The region was crossed by different creeks and lagoons, some of which were refilled and other tubed. Among the most important creeks are: Maldonado, Medrano, Cildañez and White. In 1908 many creeks were rectified, as floods were damaging the city's infrastructure. Starting in 1919, most creeks were enclosed. Notably, the Maldonado was tubed in 1954, runs below Juan B. Justo Avenue. Facing the Río de la Plata estuary, the frontage remained flood-prone, in 1846, Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas had a contention wall six blocks long built along the existing promenade. An English Argentine investor, Edward Taylor, opened a pier along the promenade in 1855, the flood-control walls were extended northwards to Recoleta, south to San Telmo, in subsequent works completed in 1865. A sudden economic and population boom led the new President of Argentina, Julio Roca, to commission the development in 1881 of an ambitious port to supplement the developed facilities at La Boca, in Buenos Aires's southside.
Approved by the Argentine Congress in 1882 and financed by the prominent London-based Barings Bank, the project required the reclaiming of over 200 hectares of underwater land and was accompanied by the widening of the promenade into what became Leandro Alem Avenue. Italian and French influences increased after the overthrow of strongman Juan Manuel de Rosas in 1852, upon the advent of the modernizing Generation of 1880. French architecture inspired the area's redevelopment during the beginning of the 20th century, eclectic designs that drew from Beaux-Arts, French Academy, Second Empire architecture were reflected by numerous historic buildings in this districts from the era, notably the headquarters for La Prensa, City Hall, the City Legislature, Buenos Aires Customs, Palace of Justice, the National Congress, the Teatro Colón, the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange, the Buenos Aires Central Post Office, along most of the Avenida de Mayo and Diagonal Norte Avenue; some of the most prominent contributors to the district's architecture from the era included Francesco Tamburini, Vittorio Meano, Julio Dormal, Virginio Colombo, Juan Antonio Buschiazzo, Mario Palanti, Francisco Gianotti.
Significant additions include those by Alejandro Christophersen, Alejandro Bustillo, Andrés Kalnay, Eduardo Le Monnier, Francisco Salamone. The Alas Building, commissioned by Juan Perón and built in the early 1950s, was the tallest in Argentina until 1995, was one of numerous commercial structures built in the Rationalist style in this area during that time. Since the 1960s, high-technology buildings were designed in the district by Argentine architects Clorindo Testa, Santiago Sánchez Elía, César Pelli, Mario Roberto Álvarez, by firms such as SEPRA Arquitectos and MSGSSS, by Uruguayan architect Rafael Viñoly; some of the more notable commercial developments completed since have included the Catalinas Norte office park, Torre Bouchard, Bouchard Plaza, Galicia Tower, the Repsol-YPF Tower, the Banco Macro Tower, the BBVA Tower. San Nicolás is one of the districts that shares most of the city and national government structure with neighboring Montserrat, is home of the business district's financial center.
It's referred to as Sa