Permian Basin (North America)
The Permian Basin is a large sedimentary basin in the southwestern part of the United States. The basin contains the Mid-Continent Oil Field province; this sedimentary basin is located in southeastern New Mexico. It reaches from just south of Lubbock, past Midland and Odessa, south nearly to the Rio Grande River in southern West Central Texas, extending westward into the southeastern part of New Mexico, it is so named because it has one of the world's thickest deposits of rocks from the Permian geologic period. The greater Permian Basin comprises several component basins; the Permian Basin covers more than 86,000 square miles, extends across an area 250 miles wide and 300 miles long. The Permian Basin lends its name to a large oil and natural gas producing area, part of the Mid-Continent Oil Producing Area. Total production for that region up to the beginning of 1993 was over 14.9 billion barrels. The cities of Midland, Odessa and San Angelo, Texas serve as the headquarters for oil production activities in the basin.
The Permian Basin is a major source of potassium salts, which are mined from bedded deposits of sylvite and langbeinite in the Salado Formation of Permian age. Sylvite was discovered in drill cores in 1925, production began in 1931; the mines are located in Lea and Eddy counties, New Mexico, are operated by the room and pillar method. Halite is produced as a byproduct of potash mining; the Delaware Basin is the larger of the two major lobes of the Permian Basin within the foreland of the Ouachita–Marathon thrust belt separated by the Central Basin Platform. The basin contains sediment dating to Pennsylvanian, Wolfcampian and early Guadalupian times; the eastward-dipping Delaware basin is subdivided into several formations and contains 25,000 feet of laminated siltstone and sandstone. Aside from clastic sediment, the Delaware basin contains carbonate deposits of the Delaware Group, originating from the Guadalupian times when the Hovey Channel allowed access from the sea into the basin; the westward-dipping Midland Basin is subdivided into several formations and is composed of laminated siltstone and sandstone.
The Midland Basin was filled via a large subaqeuous delta that deposited clastic sediment into the basin. Aside from clastic sediment, the Midland Basin contains carbonate deposits originating from the Guadalupian times when the Hovey Channel allowed access from the sea into the basin; the Central Basin Platform is a tectonically uplifted basement block capped by a carbonate platform. The CBP separates the Delaware and Midland Basins and is subdivided into several formations, from oldest to youngest Wolfcamp, Drinkard, Blinebry, Glorietta, San Andres, Queen, Seven Rivers and Tansill Formations; the sequence comprises carbonate reef deposits and shallow marine clastic sediments. The Eastern and Northwestern Shelves are composed of shelf edge reefs and shelf carbonates flanking the Delaware and Midland Basins that grade up-dip into siltstones and evaporites; the Eastern and Northwestern Shelves are subdivided into the San Andres, Queen, Seven Rivers and Tansill Formations. The San Simon Channel is a narrow syncline that separated the Central Basin Platform from the Northwestern Shelf during Leonardian and Guadalupian times.
The Sheffield Channel separates the southern margin of the Midland Basin from the southern shelf and the Ouachita–Marathon thrust-belt during Leonardian and Guadalupian times. The Hovey Channel is a topographical low located on the southern edge of the Delaware Basin, allowing access to the Panthalassa sea during Guadalupian times; the Hovey Channel was an anticline which formed during Precambrian faulting, was the main source of sea water for the Delaware Basin. The closing of the Hovey Channel towards the end of the Permian Period caused the death of the Permian Reef, as without water being brought in through the Channel, salinity levels rose drastically in the Delaware Basin and the reef could not survive; the Horseshoe Atoll is a westward-tilting arcuate chain of reef mounds 175 miles long located in the Midland Basin, consisting of 1,804 feet of limestone accumulated in the Pennsylvanian and 1,099 feet in the Permian, with 15 significant reservoirs from 6,099 feet to 9,902 feet in depth.
The reef complex consists of Upper Pennsylvanian Strawn and Cisco limestones, overlain by Lower Permian Wolfcamp sandstones and shales of terrigenous origin prograding northeast to southwest. The first production well, Seabird Oil Company of Delaware No. 1-B J. C. Caldwell, was completed in 1948; the Permian Basin is the thickest deposit of Permian aged rocks on Earth which were deposited during the collision of North America and Gondwana between the late Mississippian through the Permian. The Permian Basin includes formations that date back to the Ordovician Period. Prior to the breakup of the Precambrian supercontinent and the formation of the modern Permian Basin geometry, shallow marine sedimentation onto the ancestral Tobosa Basin characterized the passive margin, shallow marine environment; the Tobosa Basin contains basement rock that dates back to 1330 million years ago, and, still visible in the present-day Guadalupe Mountains. The basement rock contains biotite-quartz granite, discovered at a depth of 12,621 feet.
In the nearby Apache and Glass Mountains, the basement rock
John Ben Shepperd
John Ben Shepperd was an American lawyer and politician who served as the Secretary of State and Attorney General for the U. S. state of Texas. During his tenure as Attorney General, Shepperd worked to oppose the Brown v. Board of Education decision mandating racial integration of public schools. Shepperd was born in Gladewater, a small town in Gregg County near the more populous county seat of Longview, to Alfred Fulton Shepperd and the former Berthal Phillips, he graduated from the University of Texas at Austin with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1938 and an LL. B. in 1941. He was made a partner in the law firm of Kenley and Shepperd in Longview. During World War II, Shepperd served for two years in the United States Army. In 1946, on his release from the military, Shepperd was appointed to complete the term of his father, who had resigned, on the Gregg County Commissioners Court. In Texas, such appointments are made by the county judge. Shepperd rose to the top ranks of the Jaycees, or Junior Chamber of Commerce, having served as both state and national presidents of the organization.
On three occasions, he was named one of the "Outstanding Young Men in Texas". In 1949, he was named among the "Outstanding Young Men in America", along with future U. S. President Gerald R. Ford, Jr. of Michigan and U. S. Senator Charles H. Percy of Illinois. Shepperd was allied with Governor Allan Shivers and the conservative wing of the then-dominant Texas Democratic Party, he clashed with the liberal wing headed by Ralph W. Yarborough of Austin, who would become a U. S. Senator. In 1949, he served under appointment from Shivers on the elected Texas State Board of Education. In 1950, Shivers appointed Shepperd Secretary of State of Texas. In that capacity, Shepperd organized an elections law task force and promoted measures to ensure economy in government. In 1952, Shepperd was elected to the first of two two-year terms as Texas Attorney General; as his state's chief legal officer Shepperd led the fight against the 1954 United States Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education, which mandated desegregation of public schools.
He accomplished this by delivering a pro-segregation amicus curae to the Supreme Court in October of 1954 in response to Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, et al, the creation of an official pro-segregation policy for the Office of Attorney general of Texas... by networking with other states to strategize and create a hedgerow against integration of public schools, when he wrote or organized legislation to impede the integration of public schools in Texas. As Attorney General, Shepperd pursued numerous lawsuits against the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People that caused financial and political difficulties for the group limiting the NAACP's ability to function in Texas; this included damaging their credibility, blocking their efforts to solicit people to file lawsuits, creating the opportunity for the Internal Revenue Service to investigate them. Shepperd considered his efforts to restrict the activities of the NAACP in Texas as one of his greatest achievements as Attorney General.
Shepperd researched and drafted several bills designed to frustrate integration, writing in February 1957 that he "drew up a group of segregation bills before went out of office and they have been introduced in the Texas Legislature". Shepperd spearheaded an investigation of longstanding corruption in Duval County, the political machine province of George Parr, located in the barren dusty area east of Laredo in south Texas. Shepperd's work produced some three hundred indictments of school officials; as Attorney General, he led multiple investigations of alleged communist infiltration of trade unions attempting to organize themselves in Texas. Shepperd exposed a scheme to defraud Texas of tobacco taxes, he defended Texas from questions raised by other states regarding the Submerged Lands Act of 1953, a federal law which allocated revenues from the tidelands to Texas. In 1956, Shepperd was elected by his forty-seven peers as president of the National Association of Attorneys General. In 1954, the Veterans' Land Board scandal shook the Shivers administration when it was revealed that certain corrupt land speculators tried to enrich themselves at public expense.
Bascom Giles, the elected commissioner of the Texas General Land Office and chairman of the Texas Veterans Land Board, was indicted and served a prison term for his role in the scandal. Neither Shivers nor Shepperd was implicated in the wrongdoing, but both as ex officio members of the land board had missed meetings where the abuses had occurred. Another scandal involved. Shepperd had been expected to seek the gubernatorial nomination in 1956, but he left elected politics to become general counsel of Odessa Natural Gasoline Company El Paso Products Company, to establish a new law firm there called Shepperd and Rodman; the governorship went to U. S. Senator Price Daniel, who secured a narrow runoff victory over Ralph Yarborough. Yarborough in 1958 was elected to the first of two terms in the Senate, holding the seat that Daniel had vacated to become governor. Daniel had been Shepperd's predecessor as Attorney General. After his tenure as attorney general, Shepperd moved to Odessa, where he was active not only in law but in insurance, petrochemicals, public relations, historical preservation.
He was a political adviser and personal friend of U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. In the middle 1960s, Shepperd was named trustee for the acquisition of land for the creation of Lyndon B. Johns
Robert Strange McNamara was an American business executive and the eighth United States Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, he played a major role in escalating the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War. McNamara was responsible for the institution of systems analysis in public policy, which developed into the discipline known today as policy analysis, he was born in San Francisco, graduated from UC Berkeley and Harvard Business School and served in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. After the war, Henry Ford II hired McNamara and a group of other Army Air Force veterans to work for Ford Motor Company; these "Whiz Kids" helped reform Ford with modern planning and management control systems. After serving as Ford's president, McNamara accepted appointment as Secretary of Defense. McNamara became a close adviser to Kennedy and advocated the use of a blockade during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Kennedy and McNamara instituted a Cold War defense strategy of flexible response, which anticipated the need for military responses short of massive retaliation.
McNamara consolidated intelligence and logistics functions of the Pentagon into two centralized agencies: the Defense Intelligence Agency and the Defense Supply Agency. During the Kennedy administration, McNamara presided over a build-up of US soldiers in South Vietnam. After the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, the number of US soldiers in Vietnam escalated dramatically. McNamara and other US policymakers feared that the fall of South Vietnam to a Communist regime would lead to the fall of other governments in the region. In October 1966, he launched Project 100,000, the lowering of army IQ standards which allowed 354,000 additional men to be inducted despite all being incapable of functioning in any high stress situation or dangerous environment. McNamara grew skeptical of the efficacy of committing US soldiers to Vietnam. In 1968, McNamara resigned as Secretary of Defense to become President of the World Bank, he remains the longest serving Secretary of Defense. He served as President of the World Bank until 1981, shifting the focus of the World Bank towards poverty reduction.
After retiring, he served as a trustee of several organizations, including the California Institute of Technology and the Brookings Institution. Robert McNamara was born in California, his father was Robert James McNamara, sales manager of a wholesale shoe company, his mother was Clara Nell McNamara. His father's family was Irish and, in about 1850, following the Great Irish Famine, had emigrated to the U. S. first to Massachusetts and to California. He graduated from Piedmont High School in Piedmont in 1933, where he was president of the Rigma Lions boys club and earned the rank of Eagle Scout. McNamara attended the University of California and graduated in 1937 with a B. A. in economics with minors in mathematics and philosophy. He was a member of Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa his sophomore year, earned a varsity letter in crew. McNamara before commissioning into the Army Air Force, was a Cadet in the Golden Bear Battalion at U. C. Berkeley |McNamara was a member of the UC Berkeley's Order of the Golden Bear, a fellowship of students and leading faculty members formed to promote leadership within the student body.
He attended Harvard Business School, where he earned an M. B. A. in 1939. Thereafter, McNamara worked a year for the accounting firm Price Waterhouse in San Francisco, he returned to Harvard in August 1940 to teach accounting in the Business School and became the institution's highest paid and youngest assistant professor at that time. Following his involvement there in a program to teach analytical approaches used in business to officers of the United States Army Air Forces, he entered the USAAF as a captain in early 1943, serving most of World War II with its Office of Statistical Control. One of his major responsibilities was the analysis of U. S. bombers' efficiency and effectiveness the B-29 forces commanded by Major General Curtis LeMay in India and the Mariana Islands. McNamara established a statistical control unit for the XX Bomber Command and devised schedules for B-29s doubling as transports for carrying fuel and cargo over The Hump, he left active duty in 1946 with a Legion of Merit.
In 1946, Tex Thornton, a colonel under whom McNamara had served, put together a group of former officers from the Office of Statistical Control to go into business together. Thornton had seen an article in Life magazine portraying Ford as being in dire need of reform. Henry Ford II, himself a World War II veteran from the Navy, hired the entire group of 10, including McNamara; the "Whiz Kids", as they came to be known, helped the money-losing company reform its chaotic administration through modern planning and management control systems. The origins of the phrase "The Whiz Kids" can be explained; because of their youth, combined with asking lots of questions, Ford employees and disparagingly, referred to them as the "Quiz Kids". The Quiz Kids rebranded themselves as the "Whiz Kids". Starting as manager of planning and financial analysis, McNamara advanced through a series of top-level management positions, he was a force behind the Ford Falcon sedan, introduced in the fall of 1959—a small and inexpensive-to-produce counter to the large, expensive vehicles prominent in the late 1950s.
McNamara placed a high emphasis on safety: the Lifeguard options package introduced the seat belt and a dished steering wheel, whic
University of Texas System
The University of Texas System is a government entity of the state of Texas that oversees 14 educational institutions throughout the state including eight universities and six health institutions. The UT System is headquartered in Downtown Austin, has a total enrollment of over 216,000 students and employs more than 87,000 faculty and staff; the UT System's $24 billion endowment is the largest of any public university system in the United States. As of 2018, Reuters ranks the UT System among the top 10 most innovative academic institutions in the world; the University of Texas System has eight distinct academic institutions. Its oldest and flagship institution is The University of Texas at Austin. Notes On June 14, 2013, Texas Governor Rick Perry signed SB 24 into law approving the creation of a new university in South Texas within the UT System replacing UT-Brownsville and UT-Pan American; the initiative resulted in a single institution, including a medical school, spanning the entire Rio Grande Valley, with a presence in each of the major metropolitan areas of Brownsville, Harlingen, McAllen.
On December 12, 2013, the UT Board of Regents voted to name the new university the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley. The new university began full operation in the 2015–16 school year. In addition to eight academic institutions, the University of Texas System has six standalone health institutions. Two of the academic institutions house medical schools; the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center The University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler The University of Texas Medical Branch The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center The University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley School of Medicine The administrative offices are in Downtown Austin. The UT system approved moving the system headquarters in November 2012. Bonds from the UT System's endowment funded the construction of the new 19-story, 330,000-square-foot headquarters, which had a price tag of $102 million.
The UT system planned to lease a portion of the facility for shops and other offices, with the 200,000-square-foot remaining portion used for its own employees. The system headquarters, named Replacement Office Building, were scheduled to open on August 1, 2017; the University of Texas System was headquartered in O. Henry Hall in Downtown Austin; the system headquarters complex included multiple buildings, which had 550 employees in 2014. These faciliies included O. Henry Hall, Claudia Taylor Johnson Hall, Ashbel Smith Hall, the Colorado Building, the Lavaca Building, the Norwood Tower. Parking garages serving the complex include Parking Garage I, Parking Garage II, Parking Garage III, 300 West 6th Street Parking Garage, the garage between the Colorado and Lavaca buildings. In 2013 the UT system approved the demolitions of the Colorado Building and the Lavaca Building, the new UT headquarters was built where these buildings stood; the Texas State University System purchased O. Henry Hall in 2015 for $8.2 million.
The UT system replaced Claudia Taylor Johnson Hall and Ashbel Smith Hall with a commercial property that used the façade of Johnson Hall and is leased by Trammell Crow. The Ashbel Smith name is no longer used, in this way UT Austin removes any references to the Confederate States of America, now controversial in 2017. Ashbel Smith Hall was promptly imploded on March 25, 2018; the Coordinated Admissions Program offers some UT Austin applicants the chance to attend the university if they complete their freshman year at another system school and meet specified requirements. Each institution in the University of Texas System sets its own admissions standards, not all schools may accept a particular CAP student. UT Dallas does not participate in the CAP program, UTSA, the largest recipient of CAP students, has stated it will be phasing out the program within the next ten years. Education in Texas University of Texas at Austin admissions controversy List of colleges and universities in the United States by endowment over $1 billion Official website
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
The Legislature of the state of Texas is the state legislature of Texas. The legislature is a bicameral body composed of a 31-member Senate and a 150-member House of Representatives; the state legislature meets at the Capitol in Austin. It is a powerful arm of the Texas government not only because of its power of the purse to control and direct the activities of state government and the strong constitutional connections between it and the Lieutenant Governor of Texas, but due to Texas's plural executive; the Legislature is the constitutional successor of the Congress of the Republic of Texas since Texas's 1845 entrance into the Union. The Legislature held its first regular session from February 16 to May 13, 1846; the Texas Legislature meets in regular session on the second Tuesday in January of each odd-numbered year. The Texas Constitution limits the regular session to 140 calendar days; the lieutenant governor, elected statewide separately from the governor, presides over the Senate, while the Speaker of the House is elected from that body by its members.
Both have wide latitude in choosing committee membership in their respective houses and have a large impact on lawmaking in the state. Only the governor may call the Legislature into special sessions, unlike other states where the legislature may call itself into session; the governor may call as many sessions as she desires. For example, Governor Rick Perry called three consecutive sessions to address the 2003 Texas congressional redistricting; the Texas Constitution limits the duration of each special session to 30 days. Any bill passed by the Legislature takes effect 90 days after its passage unless two-thirds of each house votes to give the bill either immediate effect or earlier effect; the Legislature may provide for an effective date, after the 90th day. Under current legislative practice, most bills are given an effective date of September 1 in odd-numbered years. Although members are elected on partisan ballots, both houses of the Legislature are organized on a nonpartisan basis, with members of both parties serving in leadership positions such as committee chairmanships.
As of 2017, a majority of the members of each chamber are members of the Republican Party. The Texas Constitution sets the qualifications for election to each house as follows: A senator must be at least 26 years of age, a citizen of Texas five years prior to election and a resident of the district from which elected one year prior to election; each senator serves a four-year term and one-half of the Senate membership is elected every two years in even-numbered years, with the exception that all the Senate seats are up for election for the first legislature following the decennial census in order to reflect the newly redrawn districts. After the initial election, the Senate is divided by lot into two classes, with one class having a re-election after two years and the other having a re-election after four years. A representative must be at least 21 years of age, a citizen of Texas for two years prior to election and a resident of the district from which elected one year prior to election, they are elected for two-year terms.
State legislators in Texas make $600 per month, or $7,200 per year, plus a per diem of $190 for every day the Legislature is in session. That adds up to $33,800 a year for a regular session, with the total pay for a two-year term being $41,000. Legislators receive a pension after eight years of service, starting at age 60; the Texas Legislature has five support agencies that are within the legislative branch of state government. Those five agencies are as follows: Texas Legislative Budget Board Texas Legislative Council Texas Legislative Reference Library Texas State Auditor Texas Sunset Advisory Commission On May 14, 2007, CBS Austin affiliate KEYE reported on the rampant multiple voting by members of the Texas House of Representatives during a voting session; the report noted how representatives would race to the nearest empty seats to register votes for absent members on the legislature's automated voting machines. Each representative would vote for the nearest absent members regardless of party affiliation.
This practice was in direct violation of a Rule of the Texas Legislature. The then-Speaker of the House Tom Craddick, responsible for enforcement of the rule, issued a statement that discipline for violations of the rule is left to the individual house members. Subsequent similar violations under House Speaker Joe Straus have been unenforced. Sunset Advisory Commission "Citizen Handbook"; the Senate of Texas. Retrieved 13 September 2009. Texas Legislature from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 13 April 2005. Stanley K. Young, Texas Legislative Handbook. Univ. of Tex. The Legislative Branch in Texas Politics. See also: Texas Government Newsletter Texas Legislature Online Texas House of Representatives Texas Senate Reference Library of Texas Open Government Texas from the Sunlight Foundation Texas at Project Vote Smart Texas Politics – The Legislative Branch Texas Government Newsletter and Voter's Guide to the Texas Legislature Billhop – Texas Legislative Wiki
Texas House of Representatives
The Texas House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Texas Legislature. It consists of 150 members; as of the 2010 Census, each member represents about 167,637 people. There are no term limits, with the most senior member, Tom Craddick, having been elected in 1968; the House meets at the State Capitol in Austin. The Speaker of the House is highest-ranking member of the House; the Speaker's duties include maintaining order within the House, recognizing members during debate, ruling on procedural matters, appointing members to the various committees and sending bills for committee review. The Speaker pro tempore is a ceremonial position, but does, by long-standing tradition, preside over the House during its consideration of local and consent bills. Unlike other state legislatures, the House rules do not formally recognize majority or minority leaders; the unofficial leaders are the Republican Caucus Chairman and the Democratic House Leader, both of whom are elected by their respective caucuses.
†Representative was first elected in a special election. Eligio De La Garza, II, first Mexican-American to represent his region in the US House and the second Mexican-American from Texas to be elected to Congress. Ray Barnhart, Federal Highway Administrator Anita Lee Blair, first blind woman elected to a state legislature Jack Brooks, U. S. House of Representatives Dolph Briscoe, Governor of Texas Frank Kell Cahoon, Midland County oilman and representative from 1965 to 1969. S. Representative Tom DeLay, U. S. Representative and House Majority Leader John Nance Garner, U. S. Representative, Speaker of the House, Vice President of the United States O. H. "Ike" Harris, Dallas County representative from 1963–1965. Kay Bailey Hutchison, U. S. Senator Ray Hutchison, husband of Kay Bailey Hutchison Samuel Ealy Johnson, Jr. father of President Lyndon B. Johnson Dan Kubiak, representative from Rockdale known for his support of public education Mickey Leland, U. S. House of Representatives, died in a plane crash.
Charles Henry Nimitz Born in Bremen. In 1852, built the Nimitz Hotel in Fredericksburg, which now houses the National Museum of the Pacific War. Grandfather of United States Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz. Elected to the Texas Legislature 1890. Rick Perry, longest serving Governor of Texas, current U. S. Secretary of Energy. Colonel Alfred P. C. Petsch Lawyer, civic leader, philanthropist. Veteran of both World War I and World War II. Sam Rayburn, U. S. Representative and longest served Speaker of the House Coke R. Stevenson, Governor of Texas Sarah Weddington, attorney for "Jane Roe" for the 1973 Roe v. Wade case in the U. S. Supreme Court Ferdinand C. Weinert, coauthored bill to establish the Pasteur Institute of Texas, authored resolution for humane treatment of state convicts, coauthored the indeterminate sentence and parole law. Served as Texas Secretary of State Charles Wilson, U. S. House of Representatives, subject of the book and film Charlie Wilson's War The Speaker of the House of Representatives has duties as a presiding officer as well as administrative duties.
As a presiding officer, the Speaker must enforce and interpret the rules of the House, call House members to order, lay business in order before the House and receive propositions made by members, refer proposed legislation to a committee, preserve order and decorum, recognize people in the gallery and hold votes on questions, vote as a member of the House, decide on all questions to order, appoint the Speaker Pro Tempore and Temporary Chair, adjourn the House in the event of an emergency, postpone reconvening in the event of an emergency, sign all bills, joint resolutions, concurrent resolutions. The administrative duties of the Speaker include having control over the Hall of the House, appointing chair, vice-chair, members to each standing committee, appointing all conference committees, directing committees to make interim studies; the Chief Clerk is the head of the Chief Clerk's Office which maintains a record of all authors who sign legislation and distributes membership information to current house members, forwards copies of legislation to house committee chairs.
The Chief Clerk is the primary custodian of all legal documents within House. Additional duties include keeping a record of all progress on a document, attesting all warrants and subpoenas, receiving and filing all documents received by the house, maintaining the electronic information and calendar for documents; when there is a considerable update of the electronic source website, the Chief Clerk is responsible for noticing House members via email. Agriculture and Livestock AppropriationsSubcommittee on Articles I, IV & V Subcommittee on Article II Subcommittee on Article III Subcommittee on Articles VI, VII & VIII Subcommittee on Budget Transparency & Reform Business & Industry Calendars Corrections County Affairs Criminal Jurisprudenc