Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture
The Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture is a natural history museum in Seattle, Washington, in the United States. Established in 1899 as the Washington State Museum, it traces its origins to a high school naturalist club formed in 1879; the museum is the oldest in Washington state and boasts a collection of more than 16 million artifacts, including the world's largest collection of spread bird wings. Located on the campus of the University of Washington, the Burke Museum is the official state museum of Washington; the roots of the Burke Museum can be traced to a natural history club formed by high school students in the 19th century. The group was formed in December 1879 by students Edmond S. Meany, J. O. Young, P. Brooks Randolph, Charles Denny. Denny's father, city founder Arthur Denny, was a regent of the Territorial University of Washington and arranged for the group to meet on campus; the Young Naturalists adopted a constitution and bylaws, the official name "Young Naturalists Society," in 1880.
As the founding members graduated high school and matriculated to the university, the membership of the Young Naturalists expanded to include university students. In 1882 Orson "Bug" Johnson was retained as a biology instructor at the University of Washington, bringing 20,000 animal specimens with him. Johnson involved himself with the Young Naturalists, the addition of his collection gave the club the largest natural history collection in the Pacific Northwest. Under Johnson's direction, the Young Naturalists began expanding this nucleus of specimens and artifacts, which were stored in a backroom of the Denny home. A permanent structure to house the growing collection was built on the Territorial University's campus in 1886, with the club soliciting donations to fund its construction. Many specimens in the collection were borrowed by university faculty to assist in instruction. In the 1890s Edmond Meany returned to teach history at the university, he led a revitalization of the group that he had helped found a decade before, bringing in new members, including women.
By this point the society's collection had grown to include more than 60,000 specimens. The University of Washington moved its campus from downtown Seattle to its present location in 1895; the portion of the Young Naturalists collection, used in university instruction was relocated to the university's Denny Hall while the remainder stayed in the Young Naturalists clubhouse downtown. In 1899 the Washington State Legislature designated the portion of Denny Hall used to house the collection as the Washington State Museum. In 1904 the Young Naturalists voted to donate the rest of their collection to the Washington State Museum and disband; the 1909 Alaska–Yukon–Pacific Exposition brought a boon of construction to the University of Washington's campus. When the fair ended, the Washington State Museum moved into its first dedicated building, the fair's former California Building. Persistent leaks in that facility caused it to relocate to the fair's former Forestry Building which, it was soon discovered, was infested with bark beetles.
For four years, from 1923 to 1927, the museum's collections were disbursed around campus. The situation was resolved in 1927 when the museum moved into what had been constructed as the Washington State Building for the AYP Expo. In 1929, Erna Gunther became a post she would hold for more than 25 years; the museum found itself, once again, displaced in 1957 after its AYP Expo-era building was condemned. When Thomas Burke died in 1925, his wife, Caroline McGilvra Burke, sought an appropriate monument for her husband that would "advance the cause of a better mutual understanding between... the people of the Pacific shores." A collector of Native American artifacts herself, she bequeathed her personal collection to the museum following her death in 1932. The Burke estate offered to help fund a new state museum, with one major stipulation - the structure had to be named after Burke; some University officials balked at this. The institution had been known as the Washington State Museum since 1899, the Burke funds would only go toward a third of the construction costs.
Other funds came from a National Science Foundation grant, but the new building was still smaller than one that Erna Gunther recommended. The new facility was dedicated on May 3, 1964, with its new director, Walter A. Fairservis, at the helm. In 1996, the museum launched a ten-year plan to move its exhibition space off campus and into a downtown Seattle location. Under the proposal and preservationists would continue to work at the University of Washington while exhibits would be hosted at a new site; the proposal did not materialize. In 2014, the museum made another push for a new facility, asking the Washington State Legislature for half the $95 million needed to construct a 110,000 square-foot facility to replace its current building; the new Burke Museum building finished construction in 2018, the old building closed at the end of the year to transfer the collection's 16 million items before its demolition in April 2019. The new museum will open in fall 2019; the museum houses more than 16 million artifacts and specimens in its anthropology and geology research divisions.
According to the museum, its ornithology division includes the largest collection of spread bird wings in the world, while the museum's collection of frozen bird tissues is the world's second largest. The museum states that its collection of Northwest Coast ethnographic material is the fifth largest collection of Native American art in the world, numbering 10,000 objects, among which are "the important early Swan, Eells and Waters collections, as well as
Nobel Prize in Literature
The Nobel Prize in Literature is a Swedish literature prize, awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction". Though individual works are sometimes cited as being noteworthy, the award is based on an author's body of work as a whole; the Swedish Academy decides. The academy announces the name of the laureate in early October, it is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895. On some occasions the award has been postponed to the following year, it was not awarded in 2018, but two names will be awarded in 2019. Although the Nobel Prize in Literature has become the world's most prestigious literature prize, the Swedish Academy has attracted significant criticism for its handling of the award. Many authors who have won the prize have fallen into obscurity, while others rejected by the jury remain studied and read.
The prize has "become seen as a political one – a peace prize in literary disguise", whose judges are prejudiced against authors with different political tastes to them. Tim Parks has expressed skepticism that it is possible for "Swedish professors... compar a poet from Indonesia translated into English with a novelist from Cameroon available only in French, another who writes in Afrikaans but is published in German and Dutch...". As of 2016, 16 of the 113 recipients have been of Scandinavian origin; the Academy has been alleged to be biased towards European, in particular Swedish, authors. Nobel's "vague" wording for the criteria for the prize has led to recurrent controversy. In the original Swedish, the word idealisk translates as "ideal"; the Nobel Committee's interpretation has varied over the years. In recent years, this means a kind of idealism championing human rights on a broad scale. Alfred Nobel stipulated in his last will and testament that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature.
Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of scepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that the Storting approved it; the executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organize the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee that were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved; the prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.
According to Nobel's will, the Royal Swedish Academy was to award the Prize in Literature. Each year, the Swedish Academy sends out requests for nominations of candidates for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Members of the Academy, members of literature academies and societies, professors of literature and language, former Nobel literature laureates, the presidents of writers' organizations are all allowed to nominate a candidate, it is not permitted to nominate oneself. Thousands of requests are sent out each year, as of 2011 about 220 proposals are returned; these proposals must be received by the Academy by 1 February, after which they are examined by the Nobel Committee. By April, the Academy narrows the field to around twenty candidates. By May, a short list of five names is approved by the Committee; the subsequent four months are spent in reading and reviewing the works of the five candidates. In October, members of the Academy vote and the candidate who receives more than half of the votes is named the Nobel laureate in Literature.
No one can get the prize without being on the list at least twice, thus many of the same authors reappear and are reviewed over the years. The academy is master of thirteen languages, but when a candidate is shortlisted from an unknown language, they call on translators and oath-sworn experts to provide samples of that writer. Other elements of the process are similar to that of other Nobel Prizes; the judges are composed of an 18 member committee who are elected for life and up until 2018, not technically permitted to leave. On 2 May 2018, King Carl XVI Gustaf amended the rules of the academy and made it possible for members to resign; the new rules state that a member, inactive in the work of the academy for more than two years can be asked to resign. The award is announced in October. Sometimes, the award has been announced the year after the nominal year, the latest being the 2018 award. In the midst of controversy surrounding claims of sexual assault, conflict of interest, resignations by officials, on 4 May 2018, the Swedish Academy announced that the 2018 laureate would be announced in 2019 along with the 2019 laureate.
A Literature Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, a sum of money. The amount of money awarded depends on the income of the Nobel Foundation tha
Tsung-Dao Lee is a Chinese-American physicist, known for his work on parity violation, the Lee Model, particle physics, relativistic heavy ion physics, nontopological solitons and soliton stars. He holds the rank of University Professor Emeritus at Columbia University, where he has taught since 1953 and from which he retired in 2012. In 1957, Lee, at the age of 30, won the Nobel Prize in Physics with Franklin C N Yang for their work on the violation of the parity law in weak interactions, which Chien-Shiung Wu experimentally verified in 1956, with her so-called Wu experiment. Lee remains the youngest Nobel laureate in the science fields after World War II, he is the third youngest Nobel laureate in sciences in history after William L. Bragg and Werner Heisenberg. Lee and Yang were the first Chinese laureates. Since he became a naturalized American citizen in 1962, Lee is the youngest American to have won a Nobel Prize. Lee was born in Shanghai, with his ancestral home in nearby Suzhou, his father Chun-kang Lee, one of the first graduates of the University of Nanking, was a chemical industrialist and merchant, involved in China's early development of modern synthesized fertilizer.
Lee's grandfather Chong-tan Lee was the first Chinese Methodist Episcopal senior pastor of St. John's Church in Suzhou. Lee has one sister. Educator Robert C. T. Lee is one of T. D.'s brothers. Lee's mother Chang and brother Robert C. T. moved to Taiwan in the 1950s. They were jailed in Taiwan during the White Terror. Lee received his secondary education in Jiangxi. Due to the Second Sino-Japanese war, Lee's high school education was interrupted, thus he did not obtain his secondary diploma. In 1943, Lee directly applied to and was admitted by the National Che Kiang University. Lee registered as a student in the Department of Chemical Engineering. Lee's talent was discovered and his interest in physics grew rapidly. Several physics professors, including Shu Xingbei and Wang Ganchang guided Lee, he soon transferred into the Department of Physics of National Che Kiang University, where he studied in 1943–1944. However, again disrupted by a further Japanese invasion, Lee continued at the National Southwestern Associated University in Kunming the next year in 1945, where he studied with Professor Wu Ta-You.
Professor Wu nominated Lee for a Chinese government fellowship for graduate study in US. In 1946, Lee went to the University of Chicago and was selected by Professor Enrico Fermi to become his PhD student. Lee received PhD under Fermi in 1950 for his research work Hydrogen Content of White Dwarf Stars. Lee served as research associate and lecturer in physics at the University of California at Berkeley from 1950 to 1951. In 1953, Lee joined Columbia University, his first work at Columbia was on a solvable model of quantum field theory better known as the Lee Model. Soon, his focus turned to the developing puzzle of K meson decays. Lee realized in early 1956. At Lee's suggestion, the first experimental test was on hyperion decay by the Steinberger group. At that time, the experimental result gave only an indication of a 2 standard deviation effect of possible parity violation. Encouraged by this feasibility study, Lee made a systematic study of possible P,T,C and CP violations in weak interactions with collaborators, including C. N. Yang.
After the definitive experimental confirmation by C. S. Wu and her collaborators of parity non-conservation and Yang were awarded the 1957 Nobel Prize for Physics. In the early 1960s, Lee and collaborators initiated the important field of high energy neutrino physics. In 1964, with M. Nauenberg, analyzed the divergences connected with particles of zero rest mass, described a general method known as the KLN theorem for dealing with these divergences, which still plays an important role in contemporary work in QCD, with its massless, self-interacting gluons. In 1974–75, Lee published several papers on "A New Form of Matter in High Density", which led to the modern field of RHIC physics, now dominating the entire high energy nuclear physics field. Besides particle physics, Lee has been active in statistical mechanics, hydrodynamics, many body system, solid state, lattice QCD. In 1983, Lee wrote a paper entitled, "Can Time Be a Discrete Dynamical Variable?". Beginning in 1975, Lee and collaborators established the field of non-topological solitons, which led to his work on soliton stars and black holes throughout the 1980s and 1990s.
From 1997 to 2003 Lee was director of the RIKEN-BNL Research Center, which together with other researchers from Columbia, completed a 1 teraflops supercomputer QCDSP for lattice QCD in 1998 and a 10 teraflops QCDOC machine in 2001. Most Lee and Richard M. Friedberg have developed a new method to solve the Schrödinger Equation, leading to convergent iterative solutions for the long-standing quantum degenerate double-wall potential and other instanton problems, they have done work on the neutrino mapping matrix. Soon after the re-establishment of China-American relations with the PRC, Lee and his wife, Jeanne
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. Genre is most popularly known as a category of literature, music, or other forms of art or entertainment, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria, yet genres can be aesthetic, communicative, or functional. Genres form by conventions that change over time as cultures invent new genres and discontinue the use of old ones. Works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand-alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, but genres are amalgams of these texts based on agreed-upon or inferred conventions; some genres may have rigid adhered-to guidelines, while others may show great flexibility. Genre began as an absolute classification system for ancient Greek literature. Poetry and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. Speech patterns for comedy would not be appropriate for tragedy, actors were restricted to their genre under the assumption that a type of person could tell one type of story best.
In periods genres proliferated and developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a dynamic tool to help the public make sense out of unpredictable art; because art is a response to a social state, in that people write/paint/sing/dance about what they know about, the use of genre as a tool must be able to adapt to changing meanings. Genre suffers from the ills of any classification system, it has been suggested that genres resonate with people because of the familiarity, the shorthand communication, as well as because of the tendency of genres to shift with public mores and to reflect the zeitgeist. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the borrowed nature of the conventions, admiration has grown. Proponents argue that the genius of an effective genre piece is in the variation and evolution of the codes; the term genre is much used in the history and criticism of visual art, but in art history has meanings that overlap rather confusingly.
Genre painting is a term for paintings where the main subject features human figures to whom no specific identity attaches – in other words, figures are not portraits, characters from a story, or allegorical personifications. These are distinguished from staffage: incidental figures in what is a landscape or architectural painting. Genre painting may be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, marine paintings and animal paintings; the concept of the "hierarchy of genres" was a powerful one in artistic theory between the 17th and 19th centuries. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a central role in academic art; the genres in hierarchical order are: History painting, including narrative religious mythological and allegorical subjects Portrait painting Genre painting or scenes of everyday life Landscape and cityscape Animal painting Still life A literary genre is a category of literary composition.
Genres may be determined by literary technique, content, or length. Genre should not be confused with age category, by which literature may be classified as either adult, young adult, or children's, they must not be confused with format, such as graphic novel or picture book. The distinctions between genres and categories are flexible and loosely defined with subgroups; the most general genres in literature are epic, comedy and short story. They can all be in the genres poetry, which shows best how loosely genres are defined. Additionally, a genre such as satire might appear in any of the above, not only as a subgenre but as a mixture of genres, they are defined by the general cultural movement of the historical period in which they were composed. In popular fiction, divided by genres, genre fiction is the more usual term. In literature, genre has been known as an intangible taxonomy; this taxonomy implies a concept of containment. The earliest recorded systems of genre in Western history can be traced back to Aristotle.
Gérard Genette, a French literary theorist and author of The Architext, describes Plato as creating three Imitational genres: dramatic dialogue, pure narrative, epic. Lyric poetry, the fourth and final type of Greek literature, was excluded by Plato as a non-mimetic mode. Aristotle revised Plato's system by eliminating the pure narrative as a viable mode and distinguishing by two additional criteria: the object to be imitated, as objects could be either superior or inferior, the medium of presentation such as words, gestures or verse; the three categories of mode and medium can be visualized along an XYZ axis. Excluding the criteria of medium, Aristotle's system distinguished four types of classical genres: tragedy, epic and parody. Genette continues by explaining the integration of lyric poetry into the classical system during the romantic period, replacing the now removed pure narrative mode. Lyric poetry, once considered non-mimetic, was deemed to imi
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals and plants in their environment. A person who studies natural history is called natural historian. Natural history is not limited to it, it involves the systematic study of any category of natural organisms. So while it dates from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic world, through to European Renaissance naturalists working in near isolation, today's natural history is a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences; the meaning of the English term "natural history" has narrowed progressively with time. In antiquity, "natural history" covered anything connected with nature, or which used materials drawn from nature, such as Pliny the Elder's encyclopedia of this title, published circa 77 to 79 AD, which covers astronomy, geography and their technology and superstition, as well as animals and plants. Medieval European academics considered knowledge to have two main divisions: the humanities and divinity, with science studied through texts rather than observation or experiment.
The study of nature revived in the Renaissance, became a third branch of academic knowledge, itself divided into descriptive natural history and natural philosophy, the analytical study of nature. In modern terms, natural philosophy corresponded to modern physics and chemistry, while natural history included the biological and geological sciences; the two were associated. During the heyday of the gentleman scientists, many people contributed to both fields, early papers in both were read at professional science society meetings such as the Royal Society and the French Academy of Sciences – both founded during the seventeenth century. Natural history had been encouraged by practical motives, such as Linnaeus' aspiration to improve the economic condition of Sweden; the Industrial Revolution prompted the development of geology to help find useful mineral deposits. Modern definitions of natural history come from a variety of fields and sources, many of the modern definitions emphasize a particular aspect of the field, creating a plurality of definitions with a number of common themes among them.
For example, while natural history is most defined as a type of observation and a subject of study, it can be defined as a body of knowledge, as a craft or a practice, in which the emphasis is placed more on the observer than on the observed. Definitions from biologists focus on the scientific study of individual organisms in their environment, as seen in this definition by Marston Bates: "Natural history is the study of animals and Plants – of organisms.... I like to think of natural history as the study of life at the level of the individual – of what plants and animals do, how they react to each other and their environment, how they are organized into larger groupings like populations and communities" and this more recent definition by D. S. Wilcove and T. Eisner: "The close observation of organisms—their origins, their evolution, their behavior, their relationships with other species"; this focus on organisms in their environment is echoed by H. W. Greene and J. B. Losos: "Natural history focuses on where organisms are and what they do in their environment, including interactions with other organisms.
It encompasses changes in internal states insofar as they pertain to what organisms do". Some definitions go further, focusing on direct observation of organisms in their environment, both past and present, such as this one by G. A. Bartholomew: "A student of natural history, or a naturalist, studies the world by observing plants and animals directly; because organisms are functionally inseparable from the environment in which they live and because their structure and function cannot be adequately interpreted without knowing some of their evolutionary history, the study of natural history embraces the study of fossils as well as physiographic and other aspects of the physical environment". A common thread in many definitions of natural history is the inclusion of a descriptive component, as seen in a recent definition by H. W. Greene: "Descriptive ecology and ethology". Several authors have argued for a more expansive view of natural history, including S. Herman, who defines the field as "the scientific study of plants and animals in their natural environments.
It is concerned with levels of organization from the individual organism to the ecosystem, stresses identification, life history, distribution and inter-relationships. It and appropriately includes an esthetic component", T. Fleischner, who defines the field more broadly, as "A practice of intentional, focused attentiveness and receptivity to the more-than-human world, guided by honesty and accuracy"; these definitions explicitly include the arts in the field of natural history, are aligned with the broad definition outlined by B. Lopez, who defines the field as the "Patient interrogation of a landscape" while referring to the natural history knowledge of the Eskimo. A different framework for natural history, covering a similar range of themes, is implied in the scope of work encompassed by many leading natural history museums, which include elements of anthropology, geology and astronomy along with botany and zoology, or include both cultural and natural components of the world; the pl
Wiigwaasabak are birch bark scrolls, on which the Ojibwa people of North America wrote complex geometrical patterns and shapes. When used for Midewiwin ceremonial use, these scrolls are called mide-wiigwaas; these enabled the memorization of complex ideas, passing along history and stories to succeeding generations. Several such scrolls are in museums, including one on display at the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, DC. In addition to birchbark and slate may have been used, along with hides and other artifacts; some archaeologists are presently trying to determine the exact origins and locations of their use. Many scrolls were hidden away in man-made pits; the bark of the paper birch tree provides an excellent writing material. A stylus of either bone, metal or wood is used to inscribe these ideographs on the soft inner bark. Black charcoal is used to fill the scratches to make them easier to see. To form a scroll, pieces of inscribed bark are stitched together using wadab. To prevent unrolling, the scroll is lashed placed in a cylindrically-shaped wiigwaasi-makak for safe-keeping.
Scrolls were recopied after so many years, stored in dry locations underground in special containers, or in caves. Elders recopied the scrolls over time, some were hidden away in remote areas for safekeeping. Scrolls were kept hidden to avoid improper interpretations and to avoid ridicule or disrespect of the teachings; some scrolls are details of Midewiwin rituals and medicine lodges. Some of the oldest maps of North America were made by natives, who wrote on birch bark for explorers and traders to follow; some scrolls give the history of the Ojibway migration from Eastern North America to further west. They indicate the discovery of miigis shells along their migration through the Great Lakes region; these shells are used in Midewiwin ceremonies, Whiteshell Provincial Park is named after these kinds of shells that grow in salt water oceans, not in fresh water, which indicates a large trading and traveling network. The Ojibwa peoples of the Great Lakes region used birch bark to keep records for instructional and guidance purposes.
Songs and healing recipes were readable by members of the tribe. Either through engraving or with the use of red and blue pigment, scrolls could contain any number of pictorial representations. Birch bark scrolls could measure anywhere from centimeters to several meters; the scrolls and traditions are still alive today, passed along from generation to generation. The Midewiwin are a traditional group that still keeps their teachings alive. There is some secrecy involved to keep the scrolls safe, to interpret them and to wait until there is more respect for this ancient language system. Scrolls are passed along and the oral teachings that go with them. Complex stories are memorized with the use of the pictures on the scrolls. There are many claims made by elders and indigenous teachers that humans have existed in North America before the last ice age, ancient ways of writing and other ancient skills and artifacts may provide some clues to the migration patterns and history of North American and South American peoples.
Twentieth century archaeology has confirmed that Native Americans have been using birch bark scrolls for over 400 years. In 1965 the archaeologist Kenneth Kidd reported on two finds of "trimmed and fashioned pieces of birch bark on which have been scratched figures of animals, men, mythological creatures, esoteric symbols" in the Head-of-the-Lakes region of Ontario; some of these resembled scrolls used by the Mide Society of the Ojibwa. Kidd concluded "These two finds of'birch bark scrolls' and associated artifacts indicates that Indians of this region deposited such artifacts in out-of-the-way places in the woods, either by burying them or by secreting them in caves; the period or periods at which this was done is far from clear. But in any event, archaeologists should be aware of the custom and not overlook the possibility of their discovery." Another scroll from a different collection was dated to about 1560, +/-70 years. Birch bark document – ancient and medieval documents from Eurasia Midewiwin mazinibaganjigan – Birch bark folk art by biting a design into birch bark jiimaan – Canoe made using birch bark maniwiigwaasekomaan – Knife for harvesting birch bark wiigiwaam – Wigwam made using birch bark wiigwaasi-makak – boxes and other containers made of birch bark wiigwaas-onaagan – dishes and trays made of birch bark Petroforms Petroglyphs Rock Art Benton-Banai, Edward.
The Mishomis Book - The Voice of the Ojibway.. Copway, George. "The Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the Ojibway Nation.". Deleary, Nicholas. "The Midewiwin, an aboriginal spiritual institution. Symbols of continuity: a native studies culture-based perspective." Carleton University MA Thesis, M. A. 1990. Densmore, Frances. Chippewa Customs.. Dewdney, Selwyn Hanington; the Sacred Scrolls of the Southern Ojibway.. Edwards, Brendan Frederick R. Paper Talk: A history of libraries, print culture, Aboriginal peoples in Canada before 1960.. Hoffman, Walter James. "The Midewiwin, or'Grand Medicine Society', of the Ojibwa" in Smithsonian Institution, U. S. Bureau of Ethnology Report, v. 7, pp. 149-299.. Landes, Ruth. Ojibwa Religion and the Midewiwin.. Vecsey
University of Washington
The University of Washington is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. Founded in 1861, Washington was first established in downtown Seattle a decade after the city's founding to aid its economic development. Today, the university's 703-acre main Seattle campus is situated in the University District above the Montlake Cut, within the urban Puget Sound region of the Pacific Northwest; the university has two additional campuses in Bothell. Overall, UW encompasses over 500 buildings and over 20 million gross square footage of space, including one of the largest library systems in the world with over 26 university libraries, as well as the UW Tower, lecture halls, art centers, laboratories and conference centers; the university offers bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees through 140 departments in various colleges and schools, sees about 46,000 in total student enrollment every year, functions on a quarter system. Washington is a member of the Association of American Universities and classified as an R1 Doctoral Research University classification under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.
It is cited as a leading university in the world for scientific performance and research output by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the CWTS Leiden Ranking. In the 2015 fiscal year, the UW received nearly $1.2 billion in research funding, the 3rd largest among all universities in the United States. As the flagship institution of the six public universities in Washington State, it is known for its research in medicine, science, as well as its highly-competitive computer science and engineering programs. Additionally, Washington continues to benefit from its deep historical ties and major collaborations with numerous technology giants in the region, such as Amazon, Boeing and Microsoft. Paul G. Allen, Bill Gates and others spent significant time at Washington computer labs for a prior venture before founding Microsoft, its 22 varsity sports teams are highly competitive, competing as the Huskies in the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA Division I, representing the United States at the Olympic Games, other major competitions.
The University has been affiliated with many notable alumni and faculty, including 20 Nobel Prize laureates and numerous Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, Marshall Scholars, as well as members of other distinguished institutions. In 1854, territorial governor Isaac Stevens recommended the establishment of a university in the Washington Territory. Prominent Seattle-area residents, including Methodist preacher Daniel Bagley, saw this as a chance to add to the city's potential and prestige. Bagley learned of a law that allowed United States territories to sell land to raise money in support of public schools. At the time, Arthur A. Denny, an early founder of Seattle and member of the territorial legislature, aimed to increase the city's importance by moving the territory's capital from Olympia to Seattle. However, Bagley convinced Denny that the establishment of a university would assist more in the development of Seattle's economy. Two universities were chartered, but the decision was repealed in favor of a single university in Lewis County provided that locally donated land was available.
When no site emerged, Denny petitioned the legislature to reconsider Seattle as a location in 1858. In 1861, scouting began for an appropriate 10 acres site in Seattle to serve as a new university campus. Arthur and Mary Denny donated eight acres, while fellow pioneers Edward Lander, Charlie and Mary Terry, donated two acres on Denny's Knoll in downtown Seattle. More this tract was bounded by 4th Avenue to the west, 6th Avenue to the east, Union Street to the north, Seneca Streets to the south. John Pike, for whom Pike Street is named was the builder. On November 4, 1861, the university opened as the Territorial University of Washington; the legislature passed articles incorporating the University, establishing its Board of Regents in 1862. The school struggled, closing three times: in 1863 for low enrollment and again in 1867 and 1876 due to funds shortage. Washington awarded its first graduate Clara Antoinette McCarty Wilt in 1876, with a bachelor's degree in science. By the time Washington State entered the Union in 1889, both Seattle and the University had grown substantially.
Washington's total undergraduate enrollment increased from 30 to nearly 300 students, the campus's relative isolation in downtown Seattle faced encroaching development. A special legislative committee, headed by UW graduate Edmond Meany, was created to find a new campus to better serve the growing student population and faculty; the committee selected a site on the northeast of downtown Seattle called Union Bay, the land of the Duwamish, the legislature appropriated funds for its purchase and construction. In 1895, the University relocated to the new campus by moving into the newly built Denny Hall; the University Regents tried and failed to sell the old campus settling with leasing the area. This would become one of the University's most valuable pieces of real estate in modern-day Seattle, generating millions in annual revenue with what is now called the Metropolitan Tract; the original Territorial University building was torn down in 1908, its former site now houses the Fairmont Olympic Hotel.
The sole-surviving remnants of Washington's first building are four 24-foot, hand-fluted cedar, Ionic columns. They were salvaged by Edmond S. Meany, one of the University's first graduates and former head of its history dep