Dish Network Corporation is a U. S. television provider. Based in Meridian, Colorado, it is the owner of the direct-broadcast satellite provider Dish, the over-the-top IPTV service Sling TV; as of November 2016, the company provided services to 13.7 million television and 580,000 broadband subscribers. The company has 17,000 employees. In January 2008, Dish Network was spun off from its former parent company EchoStar, founded by Charlie Ergen as a satellite television equipment distributor in 1980; the company began using Dish Network as its consumer brand in March 1997 after the successful launch of its first satellite, EchoStar I, in December 1995. That launch marked the beginning of its subscription television services, EchoStar has since launched numerous satellites, with nine owned and leased satellites in its fleet as of January 2013. EchoStar continues to be the primary technology partner to Dish Network. Joseph Clayton became president and chief executive officer of the company in June 2011, while Charlie Ergen remained chairman.
Clayton remained in the position until March 31, 2015 when he retired leaving Ergen to resume the post. Ergen has said diversifying and updating technology for the company will be a high priority, with an expectation that, over the coming decade, the company will provide internet and telephone service for both home and mobile applications. In December 2017, Dish Network announced that Ergen will be replaced by Erik Carlson. Dish Network began operations on March 4, 1996, as a service of EchoStar. EchoStar, a precursor to Dish Network, was formed in 1980 by its chairman and chief executive officer, Charlie Ergen along with colleagues Candy Ergen and Jim Defranco, as a distributor of C-band satellite television systems. In 1987, EchoStar applied for a direct-broadcast satellite broadcast license with the Federal Communications Commission and was granted access to orbital slot 119° west longitude in 1992. In 1998 EchoStar purchased the broadcasting assets of a satellite broadcasting joint venture of News Corporation and MCI Worldcom, called ASkyB.
With this purchase EchoStar obtained 28 of the 32 transponder licenses in the 110° West orbital slot, more than doubling existing continental United States broadcasting capacity at a value of $682.5 million. The acquisition inspired the company to introduce a multi satellite system called Dish 500, theoretically capable of receiving more than 500 channels on one Dish. In the same year, EchoStar, partnering with Bell Canada, launched Dish Network Canada. On December 7, 2007, EchoStar announced that it would spin off its technology and infrastructure assets into a separate company under the EchoStar name, after which the remainder of the company would be renamed Dish Network Corporation; the spun-out EchoStar began trading on January 3, 2008. In 2011, Dish Network spent over $3 billion in acquisitions of companies in bankruptcy, which The Motley Fool's Anders Bylund described as "a veritable buying rampage in the bargain bin." This includes the April 6, 2011, purchase of Blockbuster Inc. in a bankruptcy auction in New York, agreeing to pay $322 million in cash and assume $87 million in liabilities and other obligations for the nationwide video-rental company.
Dish Network acquired the defunct companies DBSD and Terrestar. Dish Network made a bid to purchase Hulu on October 2011, but Hulu's owners chose not to sell the company. There was speculation that Dish Network might purchase Sprint Nextel or Clearwire. In 2013, Dish made a bid for both companies. CEO Charles Ergen plans on adding wireless internet and mobile video services that can compete with Netflix and cable companies. About the new markets, Ergen said, "Given the assets we've been accumulating, I don't think it's hard to see we're moving in a different direction from pay-TV, a market that's becoming saturated."Dish Network put its Blockbuster acquisition to work by making available Dish Movie Pack for Dish Network subscribers and Sling TV for non-Dish Network subscribers. Blockbuster has agreements that allow it to receive movies 28 days before Netflix and Redbox which could encourage customers to use these services. Dish Network plans on offering high-speed internet; the company plans a hybrid satellite/terrestrial mobile broadband service.
In 2011, it petitioned the FCC to combine the S-Band spectrum it acquired from DBSD and Terrestar, combine this spectrum with LTE. Unlike LightSquared, Dish's spectrum has minimal risk of disrupting Global Positioning Systems. At the 2012 Consumer Electronics Show, Dish Network announced a corporate rebranding, under which the company would publicly refer to itself as just "Dish" rather than "Dish Network". After changing the position of a satellite orbital position from being over Mexico to Brazil in 2011, Dish Network sought companies that could make a deal, among them Telefónica. However, nothing came of this, Dish decided to enter the country itself. According to the Brazilian Agency of Telecommunications, they await the authorization of the application. Dish's main service is satellite television, its offerings are similar to other cable companies. Viewers can choose from a series of service bundles. A la carte programming is available, however limited other than p
Miami Springs, Florida
Miami Springs is a city located in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The city was founded by Glenn Hammond Curtiss, "The Father of Naval Aviation", James Bright, during the famous "land boom" of the 1920s and was named Country Club Estates. It, along with other cities in Miami-Dade County such as Coral Gables and Opa-locka, formed some of the first planned communities in the state. Like its counterparts, the city had an intended theme which in its case, was to reflect a particular architecture and ambiance. In this case it was a regional style of architecture called Pueblo Revival developed in the southwest New Mexico, incorporating design elements of Pueblo architecture. Other buildings incorporated Mission style design. In fact, the original Hotel Country Club was designed to resemble a Pueblo village. Shortly prior to incorporation in 1926, the city was renamed after a spring located in the area which provided parts of Miami with fresh water until the mid-1990s; as of 2013, the population recorded by the U.
S. Census Bureau is 14,316. Miami Springs is located at 25°49′11″N 80°17′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.0 square miles. 2.9 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. Speaking the core of Miami Springs is shaped as a triangle with three definable sides. Northwest 36th Street forms most of the southern boundary whilst the Miami River canal forms the northern/eastern boundary; the Ludlam Canal and Florida East Coast Railroad Yard delimit the western boundary. Hialeah Medley Miami Unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Virginia Gardens Hialeah, Unincorporated Miami-Dade County Unincorporated Miami-Dade County Unincorporated Miami-Dade County Virginia Gardens, Unincorporated Miami-Dade County As of 2010, there were 5,361 households out of which 5.6% were vacant. In 2000, 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.9% were non-families.
24.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.16. In 2000, the city population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males. In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $50,000, the median income for a family was $56,892. Males had a median income of $37,176 versus $30,823 for females; the per capita income for the city was $22,963. About 6.9% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.8% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over. As of 2000, speakers of Spanish as a first language made up 63.21% of residents, while English accounted for 35.49% of the population.
Other languages spoken as a mother tongue were well below 1.00%. As of 2000, Miami Springs had the sixteenth highest percentage of Cuban residents in the US, with 31.83% of the populace. It had the thirty-third highest percentage of Colombian residents in the US, at 3.89% of the city's population, the twenty-second highest percentage of Nicaraguan residents in the US, at 2.06% of the population. It had the twenty-sixth most Peruvians in the US, at 1.90%, while it had the nineteenth highest percentage of Venezuelans, at 1.01% of all residents. Miami Springs was founded by an aviation pioneer, thus, the fate of the city has always been intertwined with the aviation industry since Miami International Airport is located just south of the city on the southern border of NW 36th Street; the airline industry brought many residents from airline crew bases, as well as employment opportunities at the airport, which brought much prosperity to the city. This dependence, left the city vulnerable; the sudden 1991 collapses of both Eastern Airlines and Pan American World Airways left many Miami Springs residents unemployed and unable to afford living in the neighborhood.
Given that the businesses in Miami Springs had always relied upon the large disposable incomes of the employees of the large airline carriers, the bankruptcy of both corporations in the same year created a chain reaction causing many small businesses to close their doors. Despite the closure of the airlines, from a residential standpoint, Miami Springs remained strong; the city is seen as blessedly isolated from the perceived turbulence of the rest of Miami-Dade County. This has continued to provide ample replacements for the older residents. Nonetheless the legacy of the airline closures remains. Residential millage taxation rates hover near the state mandated maximum because continued weakness in the commercial sector makes it an insufficient source of tax revenue; the Consulate-General of Bolivia in Miami is located in Suite 505 at 700 South Royal Poinciana Boulevard in Miami Springs. Curtiss Mansion is a Pueblo style home. Beginning in the late 1970s, the house was subject to a number of fires.
In 1998, a public/private partnership of Curtiss Mansion, Inc. and the city of Miami Springs embarked on a lengthy restoration project, completed in 2012. Fair Haven Nursing Home is one of the oldest buildings in Miami Springs and is built in the pueblo style favored during the initial development; the building was designed by architect Bernard E. Muller, it was designated a Miami Springs Historic Site in
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Cox Communications is an American owned subsidiary of Cox Enterprises providing digital cable television, telecommunications and Home Automation services in the United States. It is the third-largest cable television provider in the United States, serving more than 6.2 million customers, including 2.9 million digital cable subscribers, 3.5 million Internet subscribers, 3.2 million digital telephone subscribers, making it the seventh-largest telephone carrier in the country. Cox is headquartered at 6205 Peachtree Dunwoody Rd in Sandy Springs, Georgia, U. S. in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Cox Enterprises expanded into the cable television industry in 1962 by purchasing a number of cable systems in Lewistown, Lock Haven and Tyrone, followed by systems in California and Washington; the subsidiary company, Cox Broadcasting Corporation, was not formed until 1964, when it was established as a public company traded on the New York Stock Exchange. It was taken private by Cox Enterprises in 1985. In 1993, Cox began offering telecommunication services to businesses it was the first multiple system cable operator to do so.
This grew into Cox Business, which now represents $1 billion in annual revenue. In 1995, Cox acquired the Times Mirror cable properties. In 1997, Cox became the first multiple system cable operator to offer phone services to customers following the 1996 Telecom Act. Two years in 1999, Cox acquired the cable television assets of Media General in Fairfax County and Fredericksburg, Virginia; the following year, Cox Communications acquired Multimedia Cablevision with assets in Kansas and North Carolina. In 2004, the Fairfax County Board of Supervisors found Cox Communications guilty of violating an agreement with the county which stated that all homes served by Cox within Fairfax County would be digital ready with the new fiber optic network by June 2003; when this term expired with less than 30% of the county having been completed, the Board of Supervisors decided to fine Cox $100 per day from the agreed completion date, until work was completed on January 2006. The Board forbade Cox from raising rates to recover the cost of the fine for a period of 10 years from the actual completion date.
The total fine was $93,000. By November 1, 2005, Cox announced the sale of all of its Texas, Missouri and North Carolina properties, as well as some systems in Arkansas, California and Oklahoma to Cebridge Communications; the sale closed in 2006 and those systems were transitioned by their new owner from Cox branding to Suddenlink Communications. On May 14, 2007, Cox announced that they had sold their investment in Discovery Communications for the Travel Channel, related assets, $1.3 billion. In 2007, DiversityInc magazine named Cox Communications #25 in its Top 50 Companies for Diversity. Cox climbed to the sixth position on Diversity Inc.'s 2008 list. In 2008, Cox was named #8 on the Top 10 Companies for African Americans. Two years on November 19, 2010, Cox began offering wireless services in Orange County, California. In February 2011, Cox Communications completed its Alternative Energy Project which included two fuel cell installations at each of the company's San Diego, CA and Rancho Santa Margarita, CA headquarters.
Two separate PureCell System 400 kilowatt installations will generate enough onsite power to reduce the company's dependence of the local power grid and decrease its carbon footprint. In September 2011, Cox Home Security was added to their suite of products listed on their website; this new service uses advanced technologies similar to the home security products offered by other MSOs such as Comcast. In August 2013, Cox launched a new television platform known as Contour, which features recommendations and a user profile system across multiple devices. In 2015, Cox licensed Comcast's Xfinity X1 platform. Cox stated that at least 1 million subscribers were on the X1-based Contour as of October 2017. In 2016, Cox Business reached 3 billion in annual revenue. Cox Business: Provides business level video and Internet services. Cox Media: Advertising sales Travel Media, Inc.: Travel Channel and TravelChannel.com. Cox Communications Virginia created the philanthropic Cox Charities to annually provide grants to nonprofits serving youth.
The organizations must have education programs that focus on science and technology, literacy and other areas. In the 2016-2017 program, 15 nonprofits received a total of $150,000, they were: An Achievable Dream ForKids Horizons Hampton Roads REACH The Salvation Army - Hampton Roads Area Command The UP Center Virginia Peninsula Foodbank Educacion Para Nuestro Futuro Main Street Child Development Center Hopecam Fairfax Futures Literary Council of Northern Virginia Boys and Girls Clubs of Southwest Virginia Child Health Investment Partnership of Roanoke Valley Total Action for ProgressOther state branches of Cox Communications donate money annually through a Community Investment Grant program. The money goes to 501 organizations; the organizations will differ from state to state, year to year, but also have a focus on education, social issues, the arts. These programs can be found in Oklahoma, Arkansas and Iowa, the Southea
Charlie's Angels is an American crime drama television series that aired on ABC from September 22, 1976 to June 24, 1981, producing five seasons and 110 episodes. The series was produced by Aaron Spelling, it follows the crime-fighting adventures of three women working in a private detective agency in Los Angeles and starred Kate Jackson, Farrah Fawcett, Jaclyn Smith in the leading roles and John Forsythe providing the voice of their boss, the unseen Charlie Townsend, who directed the crime-fighting operations of the "Angels" over a speakerphone. There were a few casting changes: after the departure of Fawcett and Jackson came the additions of Cheryl Ladd, Shelley Hack, Tanya Roberts. Despite mixed reviews from critics and a reputation for being "Jiggle TV", Charlie's Angels enjoyed huge popularity with audiences and was a top ten hit in the Nielsen ratings for its first two seasons. By the third season, the show had fallen from the top 10; the fourth season of the show saw a further decline in ratings.
The series continues to have a cult and pop culture following through syndication, DVD releases, subsequent television shows. The show spawned two feature film adaptations and a reboot television series in 2011. Ivan Goff and Ben Roberts came up with the idea for a series about three beautiful female private investigators as a breakthrough but escapist television series. Producers Aaron Spelling and Leonard Goldberg first considered actress Kate Jackson during the early pre-production stages of the series, she had proven popular with viewers in The Rookies. Jackson was cast as Kelly Garrett, but was more attracted to the role of Sabrina Duncan, her request to switch roles was granted. Farrah Fawcett was next cast, she was offered a part by Spelling. Jaclyn Smith was among the hundreds of actresses. Despite liking Smith and Goldberg were wary about hiring her because their initial concept concerned a brunette and red-headed woman. Smith was the only brunette who auditioned for the role and was cast only after producers liked the on-screen chemistry she shared with Jackson and Fawcett.
Producer Leonard Goldberg, had the initial idea three years for a show that would be a cross between The Avengers and Honey West, a short-lived drama from the 1960s about a female private eye. Goff and Roberts had first titled the series The Alley Cats in which the three females would reside in alleys and wear whips and chains. Jackson disapproved of the title, since she was given semi-control over the development of the series, she encouraged producers to find a new title, it was Jackson who decided the three women would be called "Angels" after seeing a picture of three angels hanging in Spelling's office, the series became known as Harry's Angels. This title was dropped, when ABC did not want to run into conflict with the series Harry O, was thereby changed to Charlie's Angels. In the initial concept of the series, the three females' boss would be a millionaire who aided them in their assignments. With this, millionaire Charlie Townsend was an unseen character on the series who only spoke to the Angels via a Western Electric speakerphone.
John Forsythe, who played the unseen Charlie Townsend, recorded his lines in an audio studio and was never on set. Thus, Forsythe met any of his female co-stars; some years he bumped into Farrah Fawcett at the tennis courts, as he recalled, "I was coming off the court when she came up to me and said,'Charlie! I met Charlie!'" Forsythe was offered the'Charlie' role in a panicky late-night phone call from Spelling after the original choice, Gig Young, showed up too intoxicated to read his lines. "I didn't take my pajamas off – I just put on my topcoat and drove over to Fox. When it was finished, Aaron Spelling said,'That's perfect.' And I went home and went back to bed". Spelling and Goldberg decided to add actor David Doyle to the cast as John Bosley, an employee of Charlie, who would aid the Angels in their assignments. Although ABC had approved of a pilot film, they were concerned about how audiences would accept three women fighting crime on their own. ABC executives brought in David Ogden Stiers as Scott Woodville, who would act as the chief backup to the Angels and Bosley's superior.
The 74-minute pilot film aired on March 21, 1976. The story focuses on Kelly Garrett who poses as an heiress who returns home to gain her father's successful winery. In the end of the film the three women are caught in a bind and Scott attempts to save them, but to no avail, leaving them to solve the dilemma on their own. ABC executives were somewhat disappointed in this initial project, fearing there was more emphasis on camp than serious drama. After viewing the pilot, Spelling encouraged executives to delete Scott Woodville from the series.
Univision is an American Spanish-language free-to-air television network, owned by Univision Communications. It is the country's largest provider of Spanish-language content, followed by American competitor Telemundo; the network's programming is aimed at Hispanic Americans and includes telenovelas and other drama series, sitcoms and variety series, news programming, imported Spanish-language feature films. Univision is headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, has its major studios, production facilities, business operations based in Doral, Florida. Univision is available on pay television providers throughout most of the United States, with local stations in over 60 markets with large Latin American communities. Most of these stations air full local newscasts and other local programming in addition to network shows. Chief operating officer Randy Falco has been in charge of the company since the departure of Univision Communications president and CEO Joe Uva in April 2010. In March 2018, it was announced Falco would be retiring and stepping down as CEO.
Univision's roots can be traced back to 1955, when Raúl Cortez started KCOR-TV, an independent station in San Antonio, the nation's first Spanish-only TV outlet. The station was not profitable during its early years, in 1961, Cortez sold KCOR-TV – now known as KWEX-TV – to a group headed by Mexican entertainment mogul Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta, owner of Mexico-based Telesistema Mexicano. Cortez's son-in-law Emilio Nicolás Sr. who helped produce variety programs for the station, held a 20% stake and remained as KWEX general manager for three decades. The new owners helped to turn around the station's fortunes by investing in programming, most of it sourced from Telesistema Mexicano. On September 29, 1962, Azcárraga and his partners launched a second Spanish-language station, KMEX-TV, in Los Angeles. KWEX and KMEX formed the nucleus of the Azcárraga-owned Spanish International Network, created in late 1962. SIN was the first television network in the United States to broadcast its programming in a language other than English.
From 1963 until 1987, SIN was managed from offices in New York by Rene Anselmo, an American who had worked for Azcárraga in Mexico City for eight years as head of Telesistema's programming export subsidiary. Having supervised the launch of KMEX, Anselmo spearheaded SIN's expansion, first into the New York City area, when it founded WXTV in Paterson, New Jersey, next in Fresno, by acquiring WLTV in Miami in 1971; that year, Azcárraga and his partners incorporated these five stations as the Spanish International Communications Corporation, with Anselmo named as president. Over the next 15 years, SIN and SICC would create other top-rated Spanish-language television stations throughout the United States; the Mexican ownership interest in SIN and SICC transferred posthumously from Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta to his son, Emilio Azcárraga Milmo, in 1972. On July 4, 1976, the network began distributing its national feed via satellite, delivered as a superstation-type feed of San Antonio's KWEX-TV, before switching to a direct programming feed of SIN, allowing cable television providers to carry the network on their systems at little cost.
Between the mid-1970s and late-1980s, SIN began affiliating with startup Spanish-language stations in markets such as Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston, as well as with independent stations that broadcast in English. In Chicago, SIN moved its programming from WCIU-TV to new full-time affiliate WSNS-TV in July 1985. After WSNS was sold to Telemundo in 1988, what had become Univision moved its programming back to WCIU-TV, which agreed to air Univision programming on weekday evenings and weekends. In 1994, the network purchased English-language independent WGBO-TV after WCIU-TV turned down Univision's request to become a full-time affiliate in favor of maintaining its longtime multi-ethnic programming format. WGBO-TV became an Univision-owned station on December 31, 1994; the initial logo under the Univision name Spanish International Network, used from 1987 to 1989. Televisa still uses this logo today. 1987 became a pivotal year for the Spanish International Network and its owned-and-operated station group.
The Federal Communications Commission and SIN's competitors had long questioned whether the relationship between SIN and the Azcárraga family was impermissibly tight. Both the FCC and other Spanish-language broadcasters had long suspected that Televisa was using Nicolas to skirt FCC rules prohibiting foreign ownership of broadcast media; the FCC and the U. S. Justice Department encouraged a sale of the network to a properly constituted domestic organization. Spanish International Communications began discussions with various prospective buyers, culminating in Hallmark Cards, private equity firm First Chicago Venture
Streaming media is multimedia, received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb "to stream" refers to the process of obtaining media in this manner. A client end-user can use their media player to start playing digital video or digital audio content before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies to telecommunications networks, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming or inherently non-streaming. For example, in the 1930s, elevator music was among the earliest popular music available as streaming media; the term "streaming media" can apply to media other than video and audio, such as live closed captioning, ticker tape, real-time text, which are all considered "streaming text". Live streaming is the delivery of Internet content in real-time much as live television broadcasts content over the airwaves via a television signal. Live internet streaming requires a form of source media, an encoder to digitize the content, a media publisher, a content delivery network to distribute and deliver the content.
Live streaming does not need to be recorded at the origination point, although it is. There are challenges with streaming content on the Internet. If the user does not have enough bandwidth in their Internet connection, they may experience stops, lags, or slow buffering of the content; some users may not be able to stream certain content due to not having compatible computer or software systems. Some popular streaming services include the video sharing website YouTube and Mixer, which live stream the playing of video games. Netflix and Amazon Video stream movies and TV shows, Spotify, Apple Music and TIDAL stream music. In the early 1920s, George O. Squier was granted patents for a system for the transmission and distribution of signals over electrical lines, the technical basis for what became Muzak, a technology streaming continuous music to commercial customers without the use of radio. Attempts to display media on computers date back to the earliest days of computing in the mid-20th century.
However, little progress was made for several decades due to the high cost and limited capabilities of computer hardware. From the late 1980s through the 1990s, consumer-grade personal computers became powerful enough to display various media; the primary technical issues related to streaming were having enough CPU power bus bandwidth to support the required data rates, creating low-latency interrupt paths in the operating system to prevent buffer underrun, enabling skip-free streaming of the content. However, computer networks were still limited in the mid-1990s, audio and video media were delivered over non-streaming channels, such as by downloading a digital file from a remote server and saving it to a local drive on the end user's computer or storing it as a digital file and playing it back from CD-ROMs. In 1991 the first commercial Ethernet Switch was introduced, which enabled more powerful computer networks leading to the first streaming video solutions used by schools and corporations such as expanding Bloomberg Television worldwide.
In the mid 1990s the World Wide Web was established, but streaming audio would not be practical until years later. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, users had increased access to computer networks the Internet. During the early 2000s, users had access to increased network bandwidth in the "last mile"; these technological improvements facilitated the streaming of audio and video content to computer users in their homes and workplaces. There was an increasing use of standard protocols and formats, such as TCP/IP, HTTP, HTML as the Internet became commercialized, which led to an infusion of investment into the sector; the band Severe Tire Damage was the first group to perform live on the Internet. On June 24, 1993, the band was playing a gig at Xerox PARC while elsewhere in the building, scientists were discussing new technology for broadcasting on the Internet using multicasting; as proof of PARC's technology, the band's performance was broadcast and could be seen live in Australia and elsewhere.
In a March 2017 interview, band member Russ Haines stated that the band had used "half of the total bandwidth of the internet" to stream the performance, a 152-by-76 pixel video, updated eight to twelve times per second, with audio quality, "at best, a bad telephone connection". Microsoft Research developed a Microsoft TV application, compiled under MS Windows Studio Suite and tested in conjunction with Connectix QuickCam. RealNetworks was a pioneer in the streaming media markets, when it broadcast a baseball game between the New York Yankees and the Seattle Mariners over the Internet in 1995; the first symphonic concert on the Internet took place at the Paramount Theater in Seattle, Washington on November 10, 1995. The concert was a collaboration between The Seattle Symphony and various guest musicians such as Slash, Matt Cameron, Barrett Martin; when Word Magazine launched in 1995, they featured the first-ever streaming soundtracks on the Internet. Metro