The Crimean War was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France and Sardinia. The immediate cause involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, a part of the Ottoman Empire; the French promoted the rights of Roman Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the unwillingness of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense, it has been noted that the causes, in one case involving an argument over a key, have never revealed a "greater confusion of purpose", yet they led to a war noted for its "notoriously incompetent international butchery". While the churches worked out their differences and came to an agreement, Nicholas I of Russia and the French Emperor Napoleon III refused to back down. Nicholas issued an ultimatum that the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman Empire be placed under his protection.
Britain arranged a compromise that Nicholas agreed to. When the Ottomans demanded changes, Nicholas prepared for war. Having obtained promises of support from France and Britain, the Ottomans declared war on Russia in October 1853; the war started in the Balkans in July 1853, when Russian troops occupied the Danubian Principalities, which were under Ottoman suzerainty began to cross the Danube. Led by Omar Pasha, the Ottomans fought a strong defensive campaign and stopped the advance at Silistra. A separate action on the fort town of Kars in eastern Anatolia led to a siege, a Turkish attempt to reinforce the garrison was destroyed by a Russian fleet at Sinop. Fearing an Ottoman collapse and Britain rushed forces to Gallipoli, they moved north to Varna in June 1854, arriving just in time for the Russians to abandon Silistra. Aside from a minor skirmish at Köstence, there was little for the allies to do. Karl Marx quipped, "there they are, the French doing nothing and the British helping them as fast as possible".
Frustrated by the wasted effort, with demands for action from their citizens, the allied force decided to attack Russia's main naval base in the Black Sea at Sevastopol on the Crimean peninsula. After extended preparations, the forces landed on the peninsula in September 1854 and marched their way to a point south of Sevastopol after the successful Battle of the Alma; the Russians counterattacked on 25 October in what became the Battle of Balaclava and were repulsed, but at the cost of depleting the British Army forces. A second counterattack, at Inkerman, ended in stalemate; the front led to brutal conditions for troops on both sides. Smaller military actions took place in the Baltic, the Caucasus, the White Sea, the North Pacific. Sevastopol fell after eleven months, neutral countries began to join the Allied cause. Isolated and facing a bleak prospect of invasion from the west if the war continued, Russia sued for peace in March 1856. France and Britain welcomed this development; the Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 March 1856, ended the war.
It forbade Russia from basing warships in the Black Sea. The Ottoman vassal states of Wallachia and Moldavia became independent. Christians there were granted a degree of official equality, the Orthodox Church regained control of the Christian churches in dispute; the Crimean War was one of the first conflicts in which the military used modern technologies such as explosive naval shells and telegraphs. The war was one of the first to be documented extensively in written photographs; as the legend of the "Charge of the Light Brigade" demonstrates, the war became an iconic symbol of logistical and tactical failures and mismanagement. The reaction in the UK was a demand for professionalisation, most famously achieved by Florence Nightingale, who gained worldwide attention for pioneering modern nursing while treating the wounded; the Crimean War proved to be the moment of truth for Nikolaevan Russia. The humiliation forced Russia's educated elites to identify the Empire's problems and to recognize the need for fundamental transformations aimed at modernizing and restoring Russia's position in the ranks of European powers.
Historians have studied the role of the Crimean War as a catalyst for the reforms of Russia's social institutions: serfdom, local self-government and military service. More scholars have turned their attention to the impact of the Crimean War on the development of Russian nationalistic discourse; as the Ottoman Empire weakened during the 19th century, Russia stood poised to take advantage by expanding south. In the 1850s, the British and the French, who were allied with the Ottoman Empire, were determined not to allow this to happen. A. J. P. Taylor argues that the war resulted not from aggression but from the interacting fears of the major players: In some sense the Crimean war was predestined and had deep-seated causes. Neither Nicholas I nor Napoleon III nor the British government could retreat in the conflict for prestige once it was launched. Nicholas needed a subservient Turkey for the sake of Russian security. Mutual fear, not mutual aggression, caused the Crimean war. In the early 1800s, the Ottoman Empire
Forever Free (Saxon album)
Forever Free is the eleventh studio album by heavy metal band Saxon released in 1992. A UK version of the album features a cover of a biker Space Marine from the Warhammer 40,000 tabletop wargame. In 2013, Demon Music Group reissued the album digitally and on CD in the UK; this version included two bonus tracks taken from their 1996 double live album, The Eagle Has Landed – Part II. SaxonBiff Byford - vocals Paul Quinn - guitar Graham Oliver - guitar Nibbs Carter - bass guitar Nigel Glockler - drumsAdditional musiciansGigi Skokan, Nasco - programming, keyboardsProductionBiff Byford - producer Herwig Ursin - producer Rainer Hänsel - audio engineer Hey You Studios, Vienna - recording location Gems Studios Boston, England - recording location Mastered at Hey You Production, L. A. Studio City, Blairwoodroad - mastering location
Virgin Records Ltd. is a British record label founded by entrepreneurs Richard Branson, Simon Draper, Nik Powell, musician Tom Newman in 1972. It grew to be a worldwide phenomenon over time, with the success of platinum performers such as George Michael, Paula Abdul, Janet Jackson, Roy Orbison, Tangerine Dream, Keith Richards, the Human League, Culture Club, Simple Minds, Lenny Kravitz, dc Talk, the Smashing Pumpkins, Mike Oldfield and Spice Girls, among others. After its acquisition by Universal Music Group through its purchase of EMI in 2012, UMG absorbed Virgin's British operations to create Virgin EMI Records in March 2013. Today, the operations of Virgin Records America, Inc. the company's North American operations founded in 1986, are still active and headquartered in Hollywood and have operated under the Capitol Music Group imprint owned by UMG, since 2007. The US operations have taken on the name Virgin Records. A minor number of artists remain on Virgin Records America's roster, mostly occupied with European artists such as Bastille, Circa Waves, Corinne Bailey Rae, Ella Eyre, Walking on Cars, Seinabo Sey, Prides.
Branson and Powell had run a small record shop called Virgin Records and Tapes on Notting Hill Gate, specializing in "krautrock" imports, offering bean bags and free vegetarian food for the benefit of customers listening to the music on offer. The first real store was above a shoe shop at the Tottenham Court Road end of Oxford Street. After making the shop into a success, they turned their business into a fledged record label; the name Virgin, according to Branson, arose from Tessa Watts, a colleague of his, when they were brainstorming business ideas. She suggested Virgin – as they were all new to business – like "virgins"; the original Virgin logo was designed by English artist and illustrator Roger Dean: a young naked woman in mirror image with a large long-tailed serpent and the word "Virgin" in Dean's familiar script. A variation on the logo was used for the spin-off Caroline Records label; the first release on the label was the progressive rock album Tubular Bells by multi-instrumentalist Mike Oldfield, discovered by Tom Newman and brought to Simon Draper – who persuaded Richard and Nik to present it as their first release in 1973, produced by Tom Newman, for which the fledgling label garnered unprecedented acclaim.
This was soon followed by some notable krautrock releases, including electronic breakthrough album Phaedra by Tangerine Dream, The Faust Tapes and Faust IV by Faust. The Faust Tapes album retailed for 49p and as a result allowed this unknown band to reach number 12 in the album charts. Other early albums include Gong's Flying Teapot, which Daevid Allen has been quoted as having never been paid for; the first single release for the label was Kevin Coyne's "Marlene", taken from his album Marjory Razorblade and released in August 1973. Coyne was the second artist signed to the label after Oldfield. Although Virgin was one of the key labels of English and European progressive rock, the 1977 signing of the Sex Pistols reinvented the label as a new-wave outpost, a move that plunged the record company into the mainstream of the punk rock era. Under the guidance of Tessa Watts, Virgin's Head of Publicity, the Pistols rocketed the label to success. Shortly afterwards, the Nottingham record shop was raided by police for having a window display of the Sex Pistols' album Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols in the window.
Afterwards they signed other new wave groups: Public Image Ltd, Culture Club, Gillan and the Italians, Human League, Skids, the Motors, the Ruts, Shooting Star, Simple Minds, XTC. After modified versions of the twins label came the red and blue design introduced in 1975, which coincided with the height of punk and new wave; the current Virgin logo was created in 1978, commissioned by Simon Draper managing director of Virgin Records Limited. Brian Cooke of Cooke Key Associates commissioned a graphic designer to produce a stylised signature; the logo was first used on Mike Oldfield's Incantations album in 1978 and by the Virgin Records label until other parts of the Virgin Group adopted it, including Virgin Atlantic, Virgin Mobile and Virgin Money. In 1983 Virgin purchased Charisma Records, renaming it Charisma/Virgin later Virgin/Charisma, before folding the label in 1986 and transferring its remaining artists to Virgin. In the process they acquired comedy group Monty Python; the Charisma label was reactivated in the US in 1990 and enjoyed success with signings such as Maxi Priest, Right Said Fred, 38 Special and Enigma.
When this Charisma label was retired in 1992, all of its artists were, as before, transferred to Virgin. In 1987, Venture Records was created for new age and modern classical artists including Klaus Schulze, associated with Virgin since the early 1970s. 10 Records Immortal Records Delabel Caroline Records was a budget label used from 1973 to 1977. The name and
Killing Ground is the fifteenth full-length studio album by heavy metal band Saxon. Killing Ground was released as a special Digi-pack edition with a bonus disc featuring 8 classics re-recorded tracks which would appear in Heavy Metal Thunder. All tracks written by Saxon, except "The Court of the Crimson King" by Ian McDonald and Peter Sinfield. "Princess of the Night" – 4:10 "Crusader" – 6:38 "Wheels of Steel" – 5:52 "Motorcycle Man" – 3:45 "Strong Arm of the Law" – 4:24 "Denim and Leather" – 5:19 "Dallas 1 PM" – 6:15 "And the Bands Played On" – 2:52 Biff Byford - vocals Paul Quinn - guitar Doug Scarratt - guitar Nibbs Carter - bass guitar Fritz Randow - drumsProductionBiff Byford – producer Saxon – producer Rainer Hänsel – executive producer KARO Studios, Hamburg, Germany – recording location Nikolo Kotzev – audio engineer Charlie Bauerfeind – audio engineer Herman Frank – mixing Rainer Hänsel – mixing Paul R. Gregory Studio 54 – artwork
Crusader (Saxon album)
Crusader is the sixth studio album by the heavy metal band Saxon released in 1984. The album sold over 2 million copies. Of the title of the album and the title track, bassist Steve Dawson has said that "In England, there's a paper called the Daily Express, on the logo at the top of the paper, there's a crusader, there was a car made by Ford called a Cortina Crusader. That's. We just liked the name "Crusader". We didn't have any connotations of what it meant as far as history goes, but we just liked the name "Crusader", so we just wrote the lyrics to fit the title, really." Eduardo Rivadavia of AllMusic said that although by the time they released the album, "the band had stopped leading the New Wave of British Heavy Metal with its aggressive, blue-collar biker anthems", the album "as a whole offers a slight improvement over the previous year's Power & the Glory from an overall songwriting perspective". Canadian journalist Martin Popoff considered Saxon's turn to "a low-cal, gentler metal... a well-conceived experiment" and denied those who called Crusader "a failure" and "a bald-faced commercial maneuver", finding the album "refreshing if more than flawed."The album reached No. 1 in the metal charts in Sweden and Germany.
It peaked at #18 in the UK Albums Chart. It charted in the U. S. Billboard chart. All tracks written except where noted. Biff Byford - vocals Graham Oliver - guitar Paul Quinn - guitar Steve Dawson - bass guitar Nigel Glockler - drumsProductionKevin Beamish - producer Kevin Beamish - engineer Bruce Barris - engineer Sound City Studios, Los Angeles, California - recording location George Marino - mastering Sterling Sound, New York City - mastering location Paul R. Gregory - artwork
Rock the Nations
Rock the Nations is the eighth studio album by heavy metal band Saxon released in 1986. The album is the first not to feature original bassist Steve Dawson, who had left the band earlier in 1986. For the recording of this album, vocalist Biff Byford, who had incidentally begun his career as a singer/bassist, recorded all the bass parts in Dawson's place. However, Paul Johnson joined the band as bassist before the album was released and is therefore credited in the liner notes. Rock the Nations received mixed reviews from critics. Eduardo Rivadavia of AllMusic gave the album two stars out of five and said in his review for the band's previous album Innocence Is No Excuse that "Saxon's internal chemistry was unbalanced by the subsequent departure of key songwriter Dawson -- a loss from which they would take years to recover." In his review for this album, he said that although the album was "graced with a somewhat rougher sound more in line with the band's New Wave of British Heavy Metal early years" it was still "arguably less heavy than its predecessor" and criticised the songs "We Came Here to Rock", "Running Hot" and the title track for being "cliché-ridden" and "Waiting For The Night" and "Northern Lady" for being "unconvincingly sappy ballads", though he did regard "Party'til You Puke" as being "good for a laugh" and of interest for the guest appearance of Elton John.
However, he concluded that the album is one that "the Saxon faithful would rather forget". Canadian journalist Martin Popoff found Rock The Nations "a liitle more full-bodied production-wise and less overtly metallic and by-the-book construction-wise" than Innocence Is No Excuse, "while still suffering for coasting on's scant laurels". All tracks written except where noted. Bonus tracks 15-17 recorded live at Reading Festival, 23 August 1986. Biff Byford - vocals, bass guitar Graham Oliver - guitar Paul Quinn - guitar Paul Johnson - bass guitar Nigel Glockler - drumsProductionGary Lyons - producer Wisseloord Studios, Netherlands - recording location Wisseloord Studios - mixing location Elton John - piano on tracks 7 and 9 Paul R. Gregory - artwork
Innocence Is No Excuse
Innocence Is No Excuse is the seventh studio album by heavy metal band Saxon released in 1985. It was the group's first album for EMI after a falling-out with their previous label, Carrere Records, their last with original bassist Steve Dawson; the song "Everybody Up" was used in Demoni. The album was given a positive review by Eduardo Rivadavia of AllMusic, who awarded it four out of five stars. Although he commented in his review for the band's previous album Crusader that this album "would only lead to greater extremes of personality disorder and leave the group's fan base confused and utterly divided", he praised it for being "their strongest collective set of songs since 1981's Denim and Leather" although acknowledged that some of the songs "rubbed many fans the wrong way", he singled out the songs "Back On the Streets", "Rock'n' Roll Gypsy" and "Broken Heroes" for praise, the latter of which he described as an "excellent ballad". He pondered the question of what price the album had to the band's "street-level credibility" and said that "The answer will never be agreed upon".
Martin Popoff, author of The Collector's Guide to Heavy Metal, reviewed negatively the album which represents for Saxon the return "full-steam to the bastions of metal, without an idea in their dust-clouded heads", as shown in the clichéd titles and in the "old age ineptness on this rule-book headbanging fare." "The Medley" consists of "Heavy Metal Thunder", "Stand Up and Be Counted", "Taking Your Chances" and "Warrior." Biff Byford - vocals Graham Oliver - guitar Paul Quinn - guitar Steve Dawson - bass guitar Nigel Glockler - drumsProductionSimon Hanhart - producer Simon Hanhart - recording engineer Union Studios, Germany - recording location Simon Hanhart - mixing Saxon - mixing Wisseloord Studios, Netherlands - mixing location Album