Ketchikan is a city in the Ketchikan Gateway Borough, United States, the southeasternmost city in Alaska. With a population at the 2010 census of 8,050, it is the fifth-most populous city in the state, tenth-most populous community when census-designated places are included; the surrounding borough, encompassing suburbs both north and south of the city along the Tongass Highway, plus small rural settlements accessible by water, registered a population of 13,477 in that same census. Estimates put the 2017 population at 13,754 people. Incorporated on August 25, 1900, Ketchikan is the earliest extant incorporated city in Alaska, because consolidation or unification elsewhere in Alaska resulted in dissolution of those communities' city governments. Ketchikan is located on Revillagigedo Island, so named in 1793 by Captain George Vancouver. Ketchikan is named after Ketchikan Creek, which flows through the town, emptying into the Tongass Narrows a short distance southeast of its downtown. "Ketchikan" comes from the Tlingit name for the creek, Kitschk-hin, the meaning of, unclear.
It may mean "the river belonging to Kitschk". In modern Tlingit this name is rendered as Kichx̱áan. Ketchikan Creek served as a summer fish camp for Tlingit natives for untold years before the town was established by Mike Martin in 1885, he was sent to the area by an Oregon canning company to assess prospects. He established the saltery Clark & Martin and a general store with Nova Scotia native George Clark, foreman at a cannery that burned down. Ketchikan has the world's largest collection of standing totem poles, found throughout the city and at four major locations: Saxman Totem Park, Totem Bight State Park, Potlatch Park, the Totem Heritage Center. Most of the totems at Saxman Totem Park and Totem Bight State Park are recarvings of older poles, a practice that began during the Roosevelt Administration through the Civilian Conservation Corps; the Totem Heritage Center displays preserved 19th-century poles rescued from abandoned village sites near Ketchikan. Ketchikan's GPS geographic coordinates are latitude 55.342 and longitude -131.648.
The city is located in southernmost Southeast Alaska on Revillagigedo Island, 700 miles northwest of Seattle, Washington, 235 miles southeast of Juneau, 88 miles northwest of Prince Rupert, B. C. Canada, it is surrounded by the Tongass National Forest, managed by the United States Forest Service from its headquarters in the Ketchikan Federal Building downtown, to the south by the Tongass Narrows, a narrow east-west saltwater channel, part of the Inside Passage. Due to its steep and forested terrain, Ketchikan is long and narrow with much of the built-up area being located along, or no more than a few city blocks from, the waterfront. Elevations of inhabited areas range from just above sea level to about 300 feet. Deer Mountain, a 3,001-foot peak, rises east of the city's downtown area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.9 square miles. 4.4 square miles of it is land and 1.5 square miles of it is water. The ½-mile wide channel called the Tongass Narrows separates Ketchikan from Gravina Island, where Ketchikan International Airport is located.
Ketchikan has a mild maritime or oceanic climate, characterized by heavy cloud cover and high humidity through much of the year and abundant rainfall throughout the year. This location's climate is classified as, likened to the cities of Aberdeen and Inverness in northern Scotland and Stavanger and adjacent coastal areas, such as Askøy, in Western Norway, though with much more rain, earning it the nickname of the "Rain Capital of Alaska". Winters are cool but milder than its latitude alone may suggest: January has a 24-hour average of 33.6 °F with an average daytime high of 38.9 °F and overnight low of 28.6 °F. Summers are mild, as August's temperature averages 58.4 °F with an average daytime high of 65.2 °F and overnight low of 51.6 °F. Rainfall averages 153 inches per year, falling more in autumn and winter. On average, the growing season lasts about 6.3 months or 191 days, extending from about April 19 to about October 27. The climate is so moderated that Tallahassee, Florida has recorded an all-time record minimum—−2 °F in February 1899—lower than that of Ketchikan, although Tallahassee averages around 22 °F warmer over the year.
Further east and away from moderating maritime influence, winters on these parallels in inland North America are much colder. The record high temperature in Ketchikan was 89 °F on June 20, 1958, August 14, 1977; the record low temperature was −1 °F on December 15, 1964, January 5, 1965. On January 14, 2018 Ketchikan recorded a high temperature of 67°F, the highest recorded temperature in Alaska in the month of January; the wettest year was 1949 with 202.55 inches and the driest year was 1995 with 88.45 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 42.69 inches during October 1974 and the most rainfall in 24 hours was 8.71 inches on October 11, 1977. The most snowfall in one month was 45.1 inches in January 1971. Ketchikan first appeared on the 1890 U. S. Census as the unincorporated village of "Kichikan." Of its 40 residents, 26 were
Kodiak Island is a large island on the south coast of the U. S. state of Alaska, separated from the Alaska mainland by the Shelikof Strait. The largest island in the Kodiak Archipelago, Kodiak Island is the second largest island in the United States and the 80th largest island in the world, with an area of 9,311.24 km2 larger than Cyprus. It is 160 km long and in width ranges from 16 to 97 kilometers. Kodiak Island is the namesake for Kodiak Seamount; the largest community on the island is the city of Alaska. Kodiak Island is mountainous and forested in the north and east, but treeless in the south; the island has many ice-free bays that provide sheltered anchorages for boats. The southwestern two-thirds of the island, like much of the Kodiak Archipelago, is part of Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. Kodiak Island is part of the Kodiak Island Kodiak Archipelago of Alaska; the town of Kodiak is the island's main city. All commercial transportation between the island and the outside world goes through this city either via ferryboat or airline.
Other settlements include the villages of Akhiok, Old Harbor, Larsen Bay, Port Lions, an unorganized community near Cape Chiniak. The village of Ouzinkie on nearby Spruce Island is part of the island community. Kodiak is home to the largest U. S. Coast Guard base, which includes Coast Guard Base Kodiak, Coast Guard Air Station Kodiak, Communications Station Kodiak, Aids to Navigation Station Kodiak; the island is home to the Pacific Spaceport Complex. The Kodiak bear and the king crab are native to the island; the fishing industry is the most important economic activity on the island. The Karluk River is famous for its salmon run. Logging, numerous canneries, some copper mining are prevalent. An antenna farm at the summit of Pillar Mountain above the city of Kodiak provides primary communications to and from the island. Kodiak is the ancestral land of an Alutiiq nation of Alaska Natives; the original inhabitants subsisted by hunting, fishing and gathering. Kodiak Island was explored in 1763 by Russian fur trader Stephan Glotov.
The first outsiders to settle on the island were Russian explorers under Grigory Shelikhov, a fur trader, who founded a Russian settlement on Kodiak Island at Three Saints Bay in 1784. In 1792 the settlement was moved to the site of present-day Kodiak and became the center of Russian fur trading with the Alaska Natives. In 1793, with the help of the governor-general of Irkutsk, was given twenty craftsmen and ten families of farmers with the obligation of paying government taxes for them, for promoting successful development of Russia-America settlements and the establishment of shipyards and factories; the settlers provided to Shelikhov were not serfs in the full sense of the word. It was not possible to mortgage, or give away the settlers. In 1784, along with 130 Russian fur traders massacred several hundred Qik’rtarmiut Sugpiat tribe of Alutiiq men and children at Refuge Rock, a tiny stack island off the eastern coast of Sitkalidak Island. In Alutiiq, this sacred place is now known as Awa'uq, "to become numb".
The Alutiiq were conscripted by the Russian occupants for the purpose of hunting and processing food and furs. Native labor was commandeered through hostage taking, physical threat, punishment; the Alutiiq men were forced to obtain quotas of otter pelts and bird skins which were stitched into waterproof parkas by the Alutiiq women. The waterproof garments, made by the Alutiiq women, were given to the Alutiiq men as payment for the furs brought to the Russian fur traders; the Orthodox mission in Russian America was authorized by Catherine II in 1793, was established on Kodiak Island in 1794 by a group of monks from the Valaam Monastery in St. Petersburg; the Russian fur traders radically expanded sea otter hunting operations and forced the Alutiiq men to hunt for longer periods of time at distant areas as the local population of fur-bearing animals was extinguished. The Alutiiq suffered starvation and physical separation of families because of the able-bodied men hunting and trapping furs rather than providing food for the women, young and sick as they had done traditionally.
In 1837-1839 a smallpox epidemic swept through all the Russian America territory and destroyed an estimated one-third of the Native population. The remaining Alutiiq on Kodiak Island were consolidated into seven settlements where they were more offered medical and religious services by the Russian-American Company; the Russian-American Company did all, possible to protect the natives from the illness, so they could continue hunting furs, the smallpox epidemic was stopped with vaccination of the natives. Following the 1867 Alaska purchase by the United States, the island became part of the United States. Americans settled there engaging in hunting and fishing. Novarupta is a volcano 100 miles northwest of Kodiak Island that erupted from June 6 to June 8, 1912: the largest eruption in the 20th century. Life on Kodiak Island was immobilized during the 60-hour eruption. Darkness and suffocating conditions caused by the falling ash and sulfur dioxide gas rendered villagers helpless. Among Kodiak's 500 inhabitants, sore eyes and respiratory probl
Bethel Census Area, Alaska
Bethel Census Area is a census area in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population is 17,013, it therefore has no borough seat. Its largest community is the city of Bethel, the largest city in the unorganized borough. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the census area has an area of 45,504 square miles, of which 40,570 square miles is land and 4,934 square miles is water, its territory includes the large Nunivak Island in the Bering Sea. Its land area is comparable to that of Kentucky, which has an area of under forty thousand square miles. Kusilvak Census Area, Alaska - northwest Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska - north Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska - east Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska - southeast Lake and Peninsula Borough, Alaska - south Dillingham Census Area, Alaska - south Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Bering Sea Wilderness Lake Clark National Park and Preserve Lake Clark Wilderness Togiak National Wildlife Refuge Togiak Wilderness Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge Nunivak Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 16,006 people, 4,226 households, 3,173 families residing in the census area.
The population density was 0 people per square mile. There were 5,188 housing units at an average density of 0/sq mi; the racial makeup of the census area was 12.53% White, 0.38% Black or African American, 81.93% Native American, 1.05% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.19% from other races, 3.85% from two or more races. 0.87% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,226 households out of which 51.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.20% were married couples living together, 15.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.90% were non-families. 19.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.73 and the average family size was 4.41. In the census area the population was spread out with 39.80% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 16.40% from 45 to 64, 5.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years.
For every 100 females, there were 113.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.80 males. Bethel Census Area is one of only 38 county-level census divisions of the United States where the most spoken language is not English and one of only 3 where it is neither English nor Spanish. 63.14% of the population speak a Yupik language at home, followed by English at 34.71%. Crow Village Georgetown Napaimute Umkumiute List of Airports in the Bethel Census Area Nunathloogagamiutbingoi Dunes Census Area map, 2000 census: Alaska Department of Labor Census Area map, 2010 census: Alaska Department of Labor
The Kenai Peninsula is a large peninsula jutting from the coast of Southcentral Alaska. The name Kenai is derived from the word "Kenaitze" or "Kenaitze Indian Tribe", the name of the Native Athabascan Alaskan tribe, the Kahtnuht’ana Dena’ina, that inhabited the area, they called the Kenai Peninsula Yaghanen. The peninsula extends 150 miles southwest from the Chugach Mountains, south of Anchorage, it is separated from the mainland on the west on the east by Prince William Sound. Most of the peninsula is part of the Kenai Peninsula Borough. Gerasim Izmailov was the first European man to explore and map the peninsula in 1789, though Athabaskan and Alutiiq Native groups have lived on the peninsula for thousands of years; the glacier-covered Kenai Mountains, rising 7,000 feet, run along the southeast spine of the peninsula along the coast of the Gulf of Alaska. Much of the range is within Kenai Fjords National Park; the northwest coast along the Cook Inlet is marshy, dotted with numerous small lakes.
Several larger lakes extend through the interior of the peninsula, including Skilak Lake and Tustumena Lake. Rivers include the Kenai River, famous for its salmon population, as well as its tributary, the Russian River, the Kasilof River, the Anchor River. Kachemak Bay, a small inlet off the larger Cook Inlet, extends into the peninsula's southwest end, much of, part of Kachemak Bay State Park; the Kenai Peninsula has many glaciers in southern areas. It is home to both the Sargent Icefield and Harding Icefields and numerous glaciers that spawn off them; the peninsula includes several of the most populous towns in south central Alaska, including Seward on the Gulf of Alaska Coast, Kenai and Cooper Landing along the Cook Inlet and Kenai River, Homer, along Kachemak Bay, along with numerous smaller villages and settlements. Homer famously marks the terminus of the paved highway system of North America and is a popular destination for travelers who have driven to Alaska from the lower 48 states.
Seward is the southern terminus of the Alaska Railroad. There are airports with scheduled flights in Kenai and Homer as well as smaller general aviation airports in Soldotna and Seward; the Seward Highway connects Seward to Anchorage, the Sterling Highway is the backbone of Kenai Peninsula connecting the larger towns to Anchorage. The peninsula has a coastal climate, mild, with abundant rainfall, it is one of the few areas in Alaska that allow for agriculture, with a growing season adequate for producing hay and several other crops. The peninsula has natural gas and coal deposits, as well as abundant commercial and personal-use fisheries. Tourism is guiding services for hunters and fishers; the Kenai Peninsula is known as "Alaska's Playground"
A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of municipalities, school district, or political district. A municipal utility district is a special-purpose district or other jurisdiction that provides services to district residents. Local residents may vote to establish a municipal utility district, represented by a board of directors elected by constituents; as governmental bodies, they are nonprofit. In the US, public utility districts have similar functions to Municipal utility districts, but are created by a local government body such as a city or county, have no authority to levy taxes, they provide public utilities to the residents of that district. PUDs are created by a local government body, such as county, or metropolitan service area; the districts are non-profit. PUDs are governed by a commission, which may be appointed or elected.
In Afghanistan, a district is a subdivision of a province. There are 400 districts in the country. Electoral districts are used in state elections. Districts were used in several states as cadastral units for land titles; some were used as squatting districts. New South Wales had several different types of districts used in the 21st century. In Austria, the word Bezirk is used with different meanings in three different contexts: Some of the tasks of the administrative branch of the national and regional governments are fulfilled by the 95 district administrative offices; the area a district administrative office is responsible for is although informally, called a district. A number of statutory cities 15, are not served by any district administrative office, their respective municipal bureaucracies handle the tasks performed by the district administrative office. The cities of Vienna and Graz are divided into municipal districts, assisting the respective municipal governments. In Vienna, the constituents of each district elect a district council.
Although the city vests its districts with a limited amount of budgetary autonomy, district councils and chairpersons have little real responsibility. In particular, they do not legislate. Most of the districts of Vienna were independent municipalities at some point. From the point of view of the judiciary of Austria, the country is subdivided into 115 judicial districts, each corresponding to one of the country's 115 lowest-level trial courts. Bangladeshi districts are local administrative units. In all, there are 64 districts in Bangladesh. There were 21 greater districts with several subdivisions in each district. In 1984, the government made all these subdivisions into districts; each district has several sub districts called Upazila in Bengali. In Belgian municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, on initiative of the local council, sub-municipal administrative entities with elected councils may be created; as such, only Antwerp, having over 460,000 inhabitants, became subdivided into nine districts.
The Belgian arrondissements, an administrative level between province and municipality, or the lowest judicial level, are in English sometimes called districts as well. Bhutanese districts are local administrative units consisting of village blocks called gewog; some have subdistricts called dungkhag. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, a district is a self-governing administrative unit. Brčko District in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina is formally part of both the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the Assembly of the Brčko District has 29 seats. Brazilian municipalities are subdivided into districts. Small municipalities have only one urban district, which contains the city itself, consisting of the seat of the local government, where the municipality's prefeitura and câmara de vereadores are located; the rural districts and groups of urban districts may present a sub local Executive body, named subprefeitura. A district is known locally as daerah and it is the first-level administrative division of Brunei.
There are four districts in the country, namely Brunei-Muara, Tutong and Temburong. Each district is administered by a Jabatan Daerah, headed by a Pegawai Daerah. All district offices are government departments under the Ministry of Home Affairs. In Alberta, the municipal districts and improvement districts are types of rural municipalities, they are recognized as census subdivisions by Statistics Canada, which form parts of census divisions. In the province of British Columbia, there are several kinds of administrative districts by that name; the usual usage is a reference to district municipalities, which are a class of municipality in the same hierarchy as city, town, or village. Most are styled, e.g. "District of Mission" or "District of Wells", though some are styled, e.g. "Corporation of Delta" or "Township of Langley". Within the area of municipal powers, regional districts – which
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
Valdez–Cordova Census Area, Alaska
Valdez–Cordova Census Area is a census area located in the state of Alaska, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,636, it therefore has no borough seat. Its largest communities are Cordova. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the census area has a total area of 40,340 square miles, of which 34,240 square miles is land and 6,100 square miles is water. Southeast Fairbanks Census Area, Alaska – north Yakutat City and Borough, Alaska – southeast Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska – west Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska – west Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska – west Yukon Territory, Canada – east Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Middleton Island Chugach National Forest Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Wrangell-Saint Elias Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 10,195 people, 3,884 households, 2,559 families residing in the census area; the population density was less than 1 person per square mile. There were 5,148 housing units at an average density of less than 1/sq mi.
The racial makeup of the census area was 75.90% White, 0.32% Black or African American, 13.25% Native American, 3.55% Asian, 0.26% Pacific Islander, 1.13% from other races, 5.58% from two or more races. 2.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 2.33 % reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 3,884 households out of which 37.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.10% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.10% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.18. In the census area, the population was spread out with 29.60% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 30.90% from 25 to 44, 26.50% from 45 to 64, 6.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.90 males.
Cordova Valdez Whittier Copperville Eyak List of airports in the Valdez–Cordova Census Area Census Area map, 2000 census: Alaska Department of Labor Census Area map, 2010 census: Alaska Department of Labor Media related to Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska at Wikimedia Commons