Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
FC Basel 1893 known as FC Basel, FCB, or just Basel, is a Swiss football club based in Basel. Formed in 1893, the club has been Swiss national champions 20 times, Swiss Cup winners 12 times, Swiss League Cup winners once. Basel have competed in European competitions every season since 1999–2000, they have qualified for the Group Stages of the Champions League more times than any other Swiss club – a total of seven times – and are the only Swiss club to have qualified to the Group Stages directly. Since 2001 the club has played its home games at St. Jakob-Park, built on the site of their previous home, St. Jakob Stadium, their home colours are red and blue, leading to a nickname of "RotBlau". FC Basel was started by an advertisement placed by Roland Geldner in the 12 November 1893 edition of the Basler national newspaper, requesting that a football team be formed and that anyone who wished to join should meet up the following Wednesday at 8:15 in the restaurant Schuhmachern-Zunft. Eleven men attended the meeting from the academic community, founding Fussball Club Basel on 15 November 1893.
The club colours from the first day on were blue. Basel's first game was on 26 November 1893, an internal match between two ad hoc FCB teams. Two weeks FCB had their first official appearance in a game against a team formed by students from the high school gymnastic club. FCB won 2–0. Basel continued to only play friendly matches, until they joined the second Serie A championship organized by the Swiss Football Association; the Serie A was divided into an east, a central and a west group. The winners of each group qualified for the finals. Basel did not qualify for the finals and they did not compete in the championship the following season; the Serie A 1900 -- 01 was divided into an east and a west group. Basel were with three teams from Zürich and two other teams from Basel, Old Boys and Fortuna Basel in the west group. Basel ended the season with two draws and six defeats in 5th position in the group. Basel did not have much of an early footballing success, waiting 40 years before winning their first trophy.
At the beginning of the 1932–33 season, the Austrian ex-international footballer Karl Kurz took over as club trainer. There were eight teams in Group 1 of the 1932–33 Nationalliga. Basel finished the season with seven victories from 14 games; the play-off game between the second placed teams from both groups was held in Basel at the Stadion Rankhof, but the home team lost 3–4 to Servette FC Genève. In the Swiss Cup, Basel advanced to the final, played in the Hardturm in Zürich. Basel won 4–3 and thus their first national title, defeating arch-rivals and reigning cup-holders Grasshoppers in what is still considered to be one of the best cup finals in Swiss football history. During the following five seasons, Basel were positioned towards the middle of the Nationliga, not having much to do with the championship not having to worry about relegation, but the 1938–39 Nationalliga did not mean well with them. With just five wins and with twelve defeats, they finished in the last position in the league table and were relegated.
The 1941–42 season was Basel's third season in the 1st League after relegation. Eugen Rupf was player-coach for his second year. Basel finished their season as winners of group East. In the play-offs against group West winners Bern, the away tie ending with a goalless draw and Basel won their home tie 3–1 to achieve Promotion. In the Swiss Cup five home games, a coin toss in the quarter-final and a replay in the semi-final was needed to qualify for the final; the final against Grasshoppers ended goalless after extra time and a replay was required here too. In the replay – played at the Wankdorf Stadion against the Nationalliga champions – Basel led at half-time through two goals by Fritz Schmidlin, but two goals from Grubenmann a third from Neukom gave Grasshoppers a 3–2 victory. After just three seasons in the top flight of Swiss football, Basel suffered relegation again, but achieved immediate re-promotion in the 1944–45 season. Anton Schall, another Austrian ex-international, became the club's new trainer.
Basel finished the Nationalliga A season in fourth position, with 12 victories from 26 games, scoring a total of 60 goals. Basel won the cup for the second time as they beat Lausanne Sports 3–0 in the final at the Stadion Neufeld in Bern. Paul Stöcklin scored Bader scored the other one. At the beginning of the 1952–53 season, René Bader took over the job as club trainer from Ernst Hufschmid, who had acted as trainer the previous five years. Bader acted as Willy Dürr was his assistant. Basel ended the season four points ahead of BSC Young Boys. Basel won 17 of the 26 games, losing only once, they scored 72 goals conceding 38. Josef Hügi was the team's top league goal scorer; the Czechoslovakian manager Jiří Sobotka was the club manager at this time, he taken the job over from Jenő Vincze the year before. Basel finished the championship in sixth position. Heinz Blumer was Basel's top scorer this season with 16 goals, Karl Odermatt their second best goal scorer with 14; the Wankdorf Stadium hosted the Swiss Cup final on 15 April 1963, Basel played against favourites Grasshoppers.
Two goals after half-time, one by Heinz Blumer and the second from Otto Ludwig, gave Basel a 2–0 victory and their third Cup win in their history. Peter Füri played in all games save the final due to an illness. On 26 December 1964 FCB played against G
Bock is a strong lager of German origin. Several substyles exist, including maibock, a paler, more hopped version made for consumption at spring festivals. A dark beer, a modern bock can range from light copper to brown in colour; the style is popular, with many examples brewed internationally. The style known now as bock was a dark, malty hopped ale first brewed in the 14th century by German brewers in the Hanseatic town of Einbeck; the style from Einbeck was adopted by Munich brewers in the 17th century and adapted to the new lager style of brewing. Due to their Bavarian accent, citizens of Munich pronounced "Einbeck" as "ein Bock", thus the beer became known as "bock". To this day, as a visual pun, a goat appears on bock labels. Bock is associated with special occasions religious festivals such as Christmas, Easter or Lent. Bocks have a long history of being brewed and consumed by Bavarian monks as a source of nutrition during times of fasting. Traditional bock is a sweet strong hopped lager.
The beer should be clear, colour can range from light copper to brown, with a bountiful and persistent off-white head. The aroma should be malty and toasty with hints of alcohol, but no detectable hops or fruitiness; the mouthfeel is smooth, with low to no astringency. The taste is toasty, sometimes with a bit of caramel. Again, hop presence is low to undetectable, providing just enough bitterness so that the sweetness is not cloying and the aftertaste is muted; the following commercial products are indicative of the style: Point Bock Einbecker Ur-Bock Dunkel, Pennsylvania Brewing St. Nick Bock, Aass Bock, Great Lakes Rockefeller Bock, Stegmaier Brewhouse Bock; the maibock style known as helles bock or heller bock, is a helles lager brewed to bock strength. It is a recent development compared to other styles of bock beers associated with springtime and the month of May. Colour can range from deep gold to light amber with a large, persistent white head, moderate to moderately high carbonation, while alcohol content ranges from 6.3% to 7.4% by volume.
The flavour is less malty than a traditional bock, may be drier and more bitter, but still with a low hop flavour, with a mild spicy or peppery quality from the hops, increased carbonation and alcohol content. The following commercial products are indicative of the style: Ayinger Maibock, Mahr's Bock, Hacker-Pschorr Hubertus Bock, Capital Maibock, Einbecker Mai-Urbock, Hofbräu Maibock, Victory St. Boisterous, Gordon Biersch Blonde Bock, Smuttynose Maibock, Old Dominion Brewing Company Big Thaw Bock, Rogue Dead Guy Ale, Franconia Brewing Company Maibock Ale, Church Street maibock, Tröegs Cultivator. Doppelbock or double bock is a stronger version of traditional bock, first brewed in Munich by the Paulaner Friars, a Franciscan order founded by St. Francis of Paula. Doppelbock was high in alcohol and sweet, thus serving as "liquid bread" for the Friars during times of fasting, when solid food was not permitted. Today, doppelbock is still strong—ranging from 7%–12% or more by volume, it isn't clear, with color ranging from dark gold, for the paler version, to dark brown with ruby highlights for darker version.
It has a large, persistent head. The aroma is intensely malty, with some toasty notes, some alcohol presence as well; the flavor is rich and malty, with toasty notes and noticeable alcoholic strength, little or no detectable hops. Paler versions may have a drier finish; the monks who brewed doppelbock named their beer "Salvator", which today is trademarked by Paulaner. Brewers of modern doppelbocks add "-ator" to their beer's name as a signpost of the style; the following are representative examples of the style: Predator, Paulaner Salvator, Ayinger Celebrator, Weihenstephaner Korbinian, Andechser Doppelbock Dunkel, Spaten Optimator, Augustiner Maximator, Tucher Bajuvator, Weltenburger Kloster Asam-Bock, Capital Autumnal Fire, EKU 28, Eggenberg Urbock 23º, Bell's Consecrator, Moretti La Rossa, Samuel Adams Double Bock, Tröegs Tröegenator Double Bock, Wasatch Brewery Devastator, Great Lakes Doppelrock, Abita Andygator, Wolverine State Brewing Company Predator, Burly Brewing's Burlynator, Christian Moerlein Emancipator Doppelbock.
Eisbock is a traditional specialty beer of the Kulmbach district of Germany, made by freezing a doppelbock and removing the water ice to concentrate the flavour and alcohol content, which ranges from 9% to 13% by volume. It is clear, with a colour ranging from deep copper to dark brown in colour with ruby highlights. Although it can pour with a thin off-white head, head retention is impaired by the higher alcohol content; the aroma is intense, with no hop presence, but can contain fruity notes of prunes and plums. Mouthfeel is full and smooth, with significant
Lager is a type of beer conditioned at low temperatures. Lagers can be amber, or dark. Pale lager is the most consumed and commercially available style of beer. Well-known brands include Pilsner Urquell, Molson Canadian, Stella Artois, Beck's, Budweiser Budvar, Snow, Singha, Heineken, Foster's, Birra Moretti and Tennents; as well as maturation in cold storage, most lagers are distinguished by the use of Saccharomyces pastorianus yeast, a "bottom-fermenting" yeast that ferments at cold temperatures. It is possible to use lager yeast such as with American steam beer; until the 19th century, the German word lagerbier referred to all types of bottom-fermented, cool-conditioned beer in normal strengths. In Germany today, it refers to beers in southern Germany, "Helles" and "Dunkel". Pilsner, a more hopped pale lager, is most known as "Pilsner", "Pilsener", or "Pils". Other lagers are Bock, Märzen, Schwarzbier. In the United Kingdom, the term refers to pale lagers derived from the Pilsner style. While cold storage of beer, "lagering", in caves for example, was a common practice throughout the medieval period, bottom-fermenting yeast seems to have emerged as a hybridization in the early fifteenth century.
In 2011, a team of researchers claimed to have discovered that Saccharomyces eubayanus is responsible for creating the hybrid yeast used to make lager. Based on the numbers of breweries, lager brewing became the main form of brewing in Bohemia between 1860 and 1870, as shown in the following table: In the 19th century, prior to the advent of refrigeration, German brewers would dig cellars for lagering and fill them with ice from nearby lakes and rivers, which would cool the beer during the summer months. To further protect the cellars from the summer heat, they would plant chestnut trees, which have spreading, dense canopies but shallow roots which would not intrude on the caverns; the practice of serving beer at these sites evolved into the modern beer garden. The rise of lager was entwined with the development of refrigeration, as refrigeration made it possible to brew lager year-round, efficient refrigeration made it possible to brew lager in more places and keep it cold until serving; the first large-scale refrigerated lagering tanks were developed for Gabriel Sedelmayr's Spaten Brewery in Munich by Carl von Linde in 1870.
Lager beer uses a process of cool fermentation, followed by maturation in cold storage. The German word "Lager" means warehouse; the yeast used with lager brewing is Saccharomyces pastorianus. It is a close relative of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast used for warm fermented ales. While prohibited by the German Reinheitsgebot tradition, lagers in some countries feature large proportions of adjuncts rice or maize. Adjuncts entered United States brewing as a means of thinning out the body of U. S. beers, balancing the large quantities of protein introduced by six-row barley. Adjuncts are used now in beermaking to introduce a large quantity of sugar, thereby increase ABV, at a lower price than a formulation using an all-malt grain bill. There are however cases in which adjunct usage increases the cost of manufacture; the examples of lager beers produced worldwide vary in flavor, color and alcohol content. Pale lager Helles Pilsner Märzen Bock Dark lager Dunkel Doppelbock Schwarzbier The most common lager beers in worldwide production are pale lagers.
The flavor of these lighter lagers is mild, the producers recommend that the beers be served refrigerated. Pale lager is a pale to golden-colored lager with a well attenuated body and noble hop bitterness; the brewing process for this beer developed in the mid 19th century when Gabriel Sedlmayr took pale ale brewing techniques back to the Spaten Brewery in Germany and applied it to existing lagering brewing methods. This approach was picked up by other brewers, most notably Josef Groll who produced in Bohemia the first Pilsner beer—Pilsner Urquell; the resulting pale colored and stable beers were successful and spread around the globe to become the most common form of beer consumed in the world today. Distinctly amber colored Vienna lager was developed by brewer Anton Dreher in Vienna in 1841. German-speaking brewers who emigrated to Mexico in the late 19th century, during the Second Mexican Empire, took the style with them. Traditional Vienna lager is a reddish-brown or copper-colored beer with medium body and slight malt sweetness, while Mexican Vienna lager, developed by Santiago Graf has a somewhat darker color and roasted flavor.
The malt aroma and flavor may have a toasted character. Despite their name, Vienna lagers are uncommon in continental Europe today but can be found in North America, where it is called pre-Prohibition style amber lager, as the style was popular in pre-1919 America. Notable examples include Samuel Adams Boston Lager, Great Lakes Eliot Ness, Devils Backbone Vienna Lager, Abita Amber, Yuengling Traditional Lager, Dos Equis Ámbar, August Schell Brewing Company Firebrick, Negra Modelo. In Norway, the style has retained some of its former popularity, is still brewed by most major breweries. Lagers would have been dark until the 1840s.
Pale ale is an ale made with predominantly pale malt. The highest proportion of pale malts results in a lighter colour; the term'pale ale' first appeared around 1703 for beers made from malts dried with high-carbon coke, which resulted in a lighter colour than other beers popular at that time. Different brewing practices and hop levels have resulted in a range of different tastes and strengths within the pale ale family. Coke had been first used for dry roasting malt in 1642, but it wasn't until around 1703 that the term "pale ale" was first applied to beers made from such malt. By 1784, advertisements appeared in the Calcutta Gazette for "excellent" pale ale. By 1830, the expressions "bitter" and "pale ale" were synonymous. Breweries tended to designate beers as "pale ales", though customers would refer to the same beers as "bitters." It is thought that customers used the term bitter to differentiate these pale ales from other less noticeably hopped beers such as porters and milds. By the mid to late 20th century, while brewers were still labeling bottled beers as pale ales, they had begun identifying cask beers as bitters, except those from Burton on Trent, which tend to be referred to as pale ales.
Different brewing practices and hop levels have resulted in a range of taste and strength within the pale ale family. Amber ale is an emerging term used in Australia and North America for pale ales brewed with a proportion of amber malt and sometimes crystal malt to produce an amber colour ranging from light copper to light brown. A small amount of crystal or other coloured malt is added to the basic pale ale base to produce a darker colour, as in some Irish and British pale ales. In France the term "ambrée" is used to signify a beer, either cold or warm fermented, amber in colour. In North America, American-variety hops are used in varying degrees of bitterness, although few examples are hoppy. Diacetyl is perceived or absent in an amber ale. American pale ale was developed around 1980; the brewery thought to be the first to use significant quantities of American hops in the style of APA and use the name "pale ale", was the Sierra Nevada Brewing Company, which brewed the first experimental batch of Sierra Nevada Pale Ale in November 1980, distributing the finished version in March 1981.
Anchor Liberty Ale, a 6% abv ale brewed by the Anchor Brewing Company as a special in 1975 to commemorate Paul Revere's midnight ride in 1775, which marked the start of the American War of Independence, was seen by Michael Jackson, a writer on beverages, as the first modern American ale. Fritz Maytag, the owner of Anchor, visited British breweries in London and Burton upon Trent, picking up information about robust pale ales, which he applied when he made his American version, using just malt rather than the malt and sugar combination common in brewing at that time, making prominent use of the American hop, Cascade; the beer was popular, became a regular in 1983. Other pioneers of a hoppy American pale ale are Jack McAuliffe of the New Albion Brewing Company and Bert Grant of Yakima Brewing. American pale ales are around 5% abv, with significant quantities of American hops Cascade. Although American brewed beers tend to use a cleaner yeast, American two row malt, it is the American hops that distinguish an APA from a British or European pale ale.
The style is close to the American India pale ale, boundaries blur, though IPAs are stronger and more assertively hopped. The style is close to Amber ale, though these are darker and maltier due to the use of crystal malts. Bière de Garde, or "keeping beer", is a pale ale traditionally brewed in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France; these beers were brewed by farmhouses in the winter and spring, to avoid unpredictable problems with the yeast during the summertime. The origin of the name lies in the tradition that it was matured or cellared for a period of time once bottled, to be consumed in the year, akin to a Saison. There are a number of beers named "Bière de Garde" in France, some of the better known brands include: Brasserie de Saint-Sylvestre, Trois Monts. Blonde ales are pale in colour; the term "blonde" for pale beers is common in Europe and South America – in France, the UK, Brazil – though the beers may not have much in common, other than colour. Blondes tend to be clear and dry, with low-to-medium bitterness and aroma from hops, some sweetness from malt.
Fruitiness from esters may be perceived. A lighter body from higher carbonation may be noticed. In the United Kingdom, golden or summer ales were developed in the late 20th century by breweries to compete with the pale lager market. A typical golden ale has an profile similar to that of a pale lager. Malt character is subdued and the hop profile ranges from spicy to citrus. Alcohol is in the 4% to 5% abv range; the UK style is attributed to John Gilbert, owner of Hop Back Brewery, who developed "Summer Lightning" in 1989, which won several awards and inspired numerous imitators. Belgian blondes are made with pilsner malt; some beer writers regard golden ales as distinct styles, while others do not. Duvel is a typical Belgian blonde ale, one of the most popular bottled beers in the country as well as being well-known internationally. In the second half of the nineteenth century, the recipe for pale ale was put into use by the Burto
Porter is a dark style of beer developed in London from well-hopped beers made from brown malt. The name was first recorded in the 18th century, is thought to come from its popularity with street and river porters, who carried objects for others; the history and development of stout and porter beer types are intertwined. The name "stout", used for a dark beer, is believed to have come about because strong porters were marketed under such names as "extra porter", "double porter", "stout porter"; the term stout porter would be shortened to just stout. For example, Guinness Extra Stout was called "Extra Superior Porter" and was only given the name "Extra Stout" in 1840. In 1802, John Feltham wrote a version of the history of porter, used as the basis for most writings on the topic. Little of Feltham's story is backed up by contemporary evidence. Feltham badly misinterpreted parts of the text due to his unfamiliarity with 18th-century brewing terminology. Feltham claimed that in 18th-century London a popular beverage called three threads was made consisting of a third of a pint each of ale and twopenny.
About 1730, Feltham said, a brewer called Harwood made a single beer called Entire or Entire butt, which recreated the flavour of "three threads" and became known as "porter". Porter is mentioned as early as 1721, but no writer before Feltham says it was made to replicate "three threads". Instead, it seems to be a more-aged development of the brown beers being made in London. Before 1700, London brewers sent out their beer young and any ageing was either performed by the publican or a dealer. Porter was the first beer to be aged at the brewery and dispatched in a condition fit to be drunk immediately, it was the first beer that could be made on any large scale, the London porter brewers, such as Whitbread, Truman and Thrale, achieved great success financially. Early London porters were strong beers by modern standards. Early trials with the hydrometer in the 1770s recorded porter as having an OG of 1.071 and 6.6% ABV. Increased taxation during the Napoleonic Wars pushed its gravity down to around 1.055, where it remained for the rest of the 19th century.
The popularity of the style prompted brewers to produce porters in a wide variety of strengths. These started with Single Stout Porter at around 1.066, Double Stout Porter at 1.072, Triple Stout Porter at 1.078 and Imperial Stout Porter at 1.095 and more. As the 19th century progressed the porter suffix was dropped; the large London porter breweries pioneered many technological advances, such as the use of the thermometer and the hydrometer. The use of the latter transformed the nature of porter; the first porters were brewed from 100% brown malt. Now brewers were able to measure the yield of the malt they used, noticed that brown malt, though cheaper than pale malt, only produced about two-thirds as much fermentable material; when the malt tax was increased to help pay for the Napoleonic War, brewers had an incentive to use less malt. Their solution was to add colouring to obtain the expected hue; when a law was passed in 1816 allowing only malt and hops to be used in the production of beer, they were left in a quandary.
Their problem was solved by Wheeler's invention of the black patent malt in 1817. It was now possible to brew porter from 95% pale malt and 5% patent malt, though most London brewers continued to use some brown malt for flavour; until about 1800, all London porter was matured in large vats holding several hundred barrels, for between six and eighteen months before being racked into smaller casks to be delivered to pubs. It was discovered. A small quantity of aged beer mixed with fresh or "mild" porter produced a flavour similar to that of aged beer, it was a cheaper method of producing porter. The normal blend was around two parts young beer to one part old. After 1860, as the popularity of porter and the aged taste began to wane, porter was sold "mild". In the final decades of the century, many breweries discontinued their porter, but continued to brew one or two stouts; those that persisted with porter, brewed it weaker and with fewer hops. Between 1860 and 1914, the gravity dropped from 1.058 to 1.050 and the hopping rate from two pounds to one pound per 36 gallon barrel.
During the First World War in Britain, shortages of grain led to restrictions on the strength of beer. Less strict rules were applied in Ireland, allowing Irish brewers such as Guinness to continue to brew beers closer to pre-war strengths. English breweries continued to brew a range of bottled, sometimes draught, stouts until the Second World War and beyond. During the Second World War, because of the Irish Free State's official policy of neutrality, this period was not technically considered wartime, however the country suffered similar resource scarcities and consequent rationing to the United Kingdom, thus this period was named The Emergency there, they were weaker than the pre-war versions and around the strength that porter had been in 1914. The drinking of porter, with its strength slot now occupied by single stout declined, production ceased in the early 1950s; the Anchor Brewing Company started brewing a Porter in 1972 and was bottled in 1974 that kickstarted the revival of the style which began in 1978, w
A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is commercially made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse, where distinct sets of brewing equipment are called plant; the commercial brewing of beer has taken place since at least 2500 BC. Brewing was a cottage industry, with production taking place at home; the diversity of size in breweries is matched by the diversity of processes, degrees of automation, kinds of beer produced in breweries. A brewery is divided into distinct sections, with each section reserved for one part of the brewing process. Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe and was brewed on a domestic scale. In some form, it can be traced back 5000 years to Mesopotamian writings describing daily rations of beer and bread to workers. Before the rise of production breweries, the production of beer took place at home and was the domain of women, as baking and brewing were seen as "women's work". Breweries, as production facilities reserved for making beer, did not emerge until monasteries and other Christian institutions started producing beer not only for their own consumption but to use as payment.
This industrialization of brewing shifted the responsibility of making beer to men. The oldest, still functional, brewery in the world is believed to be the German state-owned Weihenstephan brewery in the city of Freising, Bavaria, it can trace its history back to 1040 AD. The nearby Weltenburg Abbey brewery, can trace back its beer-brewing tradition to at least 1050 AD; the Žatec brewery in the Czech Republic claims it can prove that it paid a beer tax in 1004 AD. Early breweries were always built on multiple stories, with equipment on higher floors used earlier in the production process, so that gravity could assist with the transfer of product from one stage to the next; this layout is preserved in breweries today, but mechanical pumps allow more flexibility in brewery design. Early breweries used large copper vats in the brewhouse, fermentation and packaging took place in lined wooden containers; such breweries were common until the Industrial Revolution, when better materials became available, scientific advances led to a better understanding of the brewing process.
Today all brewery equipment is made of stainless steel. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. A handful of major breakthroughs have led to the modern brewery and its ability to produce the same beer consistently; the steam engine, vastly improved in 1775 by James Watt, brought automatic stirring mechanisms and pumps into the brewery. It gave brewers the ability to mix liquids more reliably while heating the mash, to prevent scorching, a quick way to transfer liquid from one container to another. All breweries now use electric-powered stirring mechanisms and pumps; the steam engine allowed the brewer to make greater quantities of beer, as human power was no longer a limiting factor in moving and stirring. Carl von Linde, along with others, is credited with developing the refrigeration machine in 1871. Refrigeration allowed beer to be produced year-round, always at the same temperature.
Yeast is sensitive to temperature, and, if a beer were produced during summer, the yeast would impart unpleasant flavours onto the beer. Most brewers would produce enough beer during winter to last through the summer, store it in underground cellars, or caves, to protect it from summer's heat; the discovery of microbes by Louis Pasteur was instrumental in the control of fermentation. The idea that yeast was a microorganism that worked on wort to produce beer led to the isolation of a single yeast cell by Emil Christian Hansen. Pure yeast cultures allow brewers to pick out yeasts for their fermentation characteristics, including flavor profiles and fermentation ability; some breweries in Belgium, still rely on "spontaneous" fermentation for their beers. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process, greater knowledge of the results. Breweries today are made predominantly of stainless steel, although vessels have a decorative copper cladding for a nostalgic look.
Stainless steel has many favourable characteristics that make it a well-suited material for brewing equipment. It imparts no flavour in beer, it reacts with few chemicals, which means any cleaning solution can be used on it and it is sturdy. Sturdiness is important, as most tanks in the brewery have positive pressure applied to them as a matter of course, it is not unusual that a vacuum will be formed incidentally during cleaning. Heating in the brewhouse is achieved through pressurized steam, although direct-fire systems are not unusual in small breweries. Cooling in other areas of the brewery is done by cooling jackets on tanks, which allow the brewer to control the temperature on each tank individually, although whole-room cooling is common. Today, modern brewing plants perform myriad analyses on their beers for quality control purposes. Shipments of ingredients are analyzed to correct for variations. Samples are pulled at every step and tested for content, unwanted microbial infections