Unteroffizier is a military rank of the Bundeswehr and of former German-speaking armed forces, OR-5b on the NATO scale of ranks. There is no equivalent in the British Army, Royal Marines and various Commonwealth armies, although the Canadian Army equivalent is OR-5 Master Corporal; the equivalent in the United States Army and United States Marine Corps is OR-5 sergeant. However, Unteroffizier is the collective name for all non-commissioned officers. In German military, Unteroffizier is both a specific military rank as well as a generic term for any non-commissioned officer, which has existed since the 17th century. Unteroffizier means a specific junior NCO rank of both the Luftwaffe, it is placed between Gefreiter and Feldwebel equivalent to a Corporal in the English-speaking world. Until the end of German Reich, the equivalent of Unteroffizier rank in Jäger units was Oberjäger; the term Unteroffizier continues to be used by the German Bundeswehr. There are two classes of non-commissioned officers: Unteroffiziere ohne Portepee, comprising: Unteroffizier and Fahnenjunker Stabsunteroffizier Unteroffiziere mit Portepee, comprising: Feldwebel and Fähnrich Oberfeldwebel Hauptfeldwebel and Oberfähnrich Stabsfeldwebel OberstabsfeldwebelInformally, the non-commissioned officers "mit Portepee" are called "Feldwebel ranks", which creates confusion as the collective term Unteroffizier exists.
The word Unteroffizier, in turn, is getting a third meaning, namely: non-commissioned officer ohne Portepee, as opposed to "Feldwebel ranks". Unteroffizier translates as "subordinate-officer" and, when meaning the specific rank, is in modern-day usage considered the equivalent to sergeant under the NATO rank scale; the Unteroffizier rank was considered a corporal and thus similar in duties to a British Army corporal. In peacetime an Unteroffizier was a career soldier who trained conscripts or led squads and platoons, he could rise through the ranks to become an Unteroffizier mit Portepee, i.e. a Feldwebel, the highest rank a career soldier could reach. Since the German officer corps was immensely class conscious a rise through the ranks from a NCO to become an officer was hardly possible except in times of war; the Unteroffizierskorps was made up of professional soldiers which formed the backbone of German armies. This tradition has not been changed by the Bundeswehr where all ranks of Unteroffizier and up consist only of professional soldiers who sign up for a period extending conscription.
Unteroffizier is one of the few German military ranks whose insignia has remained unchanged over the past one hundred years. The shoulder boards of a modern Unteroffizier are similar to the World War I and World War II designs. A modern-day German Bundeswehr Unteroffizier commands squad sized formations or acts as an assistant platoon NCO; the rank is used in the modern-day German Air Force. In the Bundeswehr the grade of Stabsunteroffizier ranks between Feldwebel. Unteroffizier Unteroffizier corps, is the collective name to all junior NCO-ranks in the modern day´s Austrian Bundesheer, it comprises the ranks of the assignment group M BUO 2 with the rank Oberwachtmeister, M ZUO 2 with the rank Wachtmeister. Training and education of the Unteroffizier corps was reformed in 1995 and until 2000 introduced to the armed forces. First effected were professional NCOs of the assignment group M BUO 1, followed by the assignment group M BUO 2. In the result of a positive entrance examination aspirants attended the NCO trainings course on the Heeresunteroffiziersakademie in Enns.
After positive HUAk-graduation regular assignments to a Unteroffizier might be squad leader, or service in a military staff or headquarters. See also
Przemysław Sadowski born March 18, 1975 in Białystok in the Podlaskie Voivodeship, Poland) is a Polish actor. He grew up in Białystok, he participated first degree music school in guitar. Before he completed his studies in 1999 at the National Film School in Łódź, he debuted first on scene in the role as an Elf in a performance entitled A Midsummer Night's Dream in Stefan Jaracz's Theatre, which he participated between 1997 and 1999, he performed in theatres: Polskim w Szczecin, Scena Prezentacje in Warsaw, Nowym Praga and Tadeusz Łomnicki's Na Woli. In 2000 for the first time he played roles in four different films: Syzyfowe prace, Pierwszy Milion, Strefa ciszy and Enduro Bojz. After playing several roles in television dramas like Więzy krwi, Zostać miss, Klan and Na dobre i na złe he became the college love in TVN Magda M.. In 2006 he took part in the fourth edition of Taniec z gwiazdami, in which he achieved fourth place and where his dancing partner was Ewa Szabatin. Films Syzyfowe prace as an assistant Pierwszy milion as Jacek Berger Kurczewski "Kurtz" Strefa ciszy as a French Enduro Bojz as a Soviet Where Eskimos Live as escapee In Desert and Wilderness as a Major Reich as a drug dealer Julie Walking Home as a wounded man Siedem grzechów popcooltury as Max Tylko mnie kochaj as a police officer Outlanders as Jan Jasiński Droga do kraju as Mirek Cisza as Tadeusz Brzozowski Siedem minut as Piotr Winkler Układ zamknięty as Marek Stawski Tajemnica Westerplatte as Piotr Buder Run Boy Run as Kowalski Polonaise as Maciek Syzyfowe prace as an assistant Mordziaki as a policeman Pierwszy milion − as Jacek Berger Kurczewski "Kurtz" Klan − as doctor Łukasz Kobielski Zostać miss as Artur "Arczi" Więzy krwi as Łukasz Bronowicz, Józef's son, forester W pustyni i w puszczy as Major Na dobre i na złeas Piotr Michałowski Samo Życie as Kacper Szpunar Fala zbrodni as Budrys Sublokatorzy as an agent Pensjonat pod Różą as Gabriel.
Diaper need is the struggle to provide a sufficient number of clean diapers to ensure that each diaper user can be changed out of wet or soiled diapers as as necessary. An adequate supply of diapers is a basic need for all infants, as necessary for health and well-being as food and shelter. Adults and older children experiencing incontinence may suffer from diaper need if they or their caretakers cannot acquire an adequate supply. Diaper need for toddlers is a widespread issue. 1 in 3 mothers in the U. S. struggle to afford diapers. A study of families in the U. S. and Canada reports that mothers have had to cut back on other necessities including food and childcare in order to cover the costs of diapers. While diapers are not an allowable expense for federal assistance through programs such as the Women and Children's Program and the Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families falls short of helping parents in the U. S. afford diapers. The first and only city-government subsidized program in the U.
S. to address diaper need by distributing diapers monthly to families was developed in San Francisco in 2015. Although some states provide working parents with child care subsidy, this does not include funds for diapers, which the majority of early child care programs require parents to provide in order for a child to attend. A mother who cannot afford diapers may be forced to keep her child out of the daycare program. Not having enough diapers to supply a child care provider may create problems for mothers attending educational or training programs. Although the participation of many low-income single parents in the labor market has increased, their earnings and wages have remained low, their employment is concentrated in low-wage occupations and industries. A single mother of one child working full-time and earning the federal minimum wage will spend over 6% of her gross salary on diapers. Families living below or near the poverty line in the United States pay more for diapers in absolute terms than families at higher income levels.
Less cash flow forces poor parents to purchase diapers in smaller quantities, at higher prices per diaper. Additionally and less flexible time and transportation may prohibit trips to stores that offer savings for consumers who buy diapers in larger quantities. Without an adequate supply of diapers, families may provide less frequent diaper changes in order to stretch out their diaper supplies. In a 2013 study commissioned by Feeding America, 48% of families report delay changing diapers and 32% of families report reusing diapers. For infants and toddlers, less frequent diaper changes can lead to increased instances of diaper rash and urinary tract infections, which can hospitalize the baby; when parents cannot afford diapers, they resort to leaving their child in a diaper for much longer than they should. Some parents will leave their child in a wet or dirty diaper, other parents will “clean” a used disposable diaper and put it on their baby many times; some parents attempt to potty train their baby as young as less than one year old, whereas diaper manufacturers claim most children should not be potty trained until they are two or three years old.
Furthermore, the experience of diapering has been identified as a significant conduit for mother-infant bonding and a source of confidence for mothers. Parents' inability to provide adequate diaper changes has been linked to parenting stress and maternal depression. In households where parents experience high levels of stress and depression, children are at greater risk of social and behavioral problems; the major efforts to alleviate diaper need come through the work of diaper banks and a growing diaper bank movement consisting of individuals and organizations that mobilize a network of community and national level agencies and institutions to address the issue. According to the National Diaper Bank Network, a nonprofit organization that helps other nonprofit organizations start diaper banks in their communities and has tracked the organized response to diaper need since 2012, the number of diaper banks in the U. S. has increased five-fold in three years. Diaper drives are organized by diaper banks, other organizations, individuals to collect diaper donations.
Diaper banks raise funds to purchase diapers and distribute free disposable and cloth diapers to families experiencing diaper need. In the United States, there are over toddlers in low-income families. Nearly half of them are living in poverty. Many of these families face multiple familial risks. Urinary incontinence affects 13 million persons in the United States, with as many as 25 million experiencing transient or ongoing incontinence. Most of these people are older adults, many of whom may be living on limited incomes with limited buying power once medical expenses are factored in. In addition, many disabled people are obliged to wear diapers for a variety of reasons and inability to use a bathroom unaided among the most common. People dealing with incontinence problems are among those who have the fewest resources. According to the Cornell University Online Resource for U. S. Disability Statistics in 2009, an estimated 26.4% percent of the population between 21 and 64 with a disability had incomes below the poverty line.
These numbers only include people with disabilities who are living independently, either alone or with family – not those who are institutionalized and have greater access to care. Though the official census data gives seniors a 2013 poverty rate of only 9.5%, the Supplemental Poverty Measure, which accounts for expenses such as the rising costs of health care, raises the American senior pov