Un-Thinkable (I'm Ready)
Un-Thinkable is a song by American singer-songwriter Alicia Keys from her fourth studio album The Element of Freedom. It was initially scheduled to be the single, but it was released as the fourth single. It was her first single to number one on the R&B chart in the United States since 2007s Like Youll Never See Me Again. Un-thinkable is a sample of artist Goapele song Closer Un-Thinkable is a down-tempo R&B song written by Alicia Keys, Aubrey Graham, Kerry Brothers, Jr. and Noah 40 Shebib in the key of B minor. The vocal range spans from D3 to D5 with a slow and simple chord progression of Bm, D major. Mariel Concepcion from Billboard magazine was positive toward the song noting it as The Element of Freedoms standout track, Concepcion said the singer/pianist goes from entertaining puppy love to confessing deeper emotions. Keys sings nervously over extended piano strokes and she finally builds up the courage to share a serious desire with her lover. For an artist who has built her career on songs about love and heartache, Keys has never sounded quite as vulnerable and exposed as she does here.
Ashante Infantry from Toronto Star picked the song as the top track saying Keys is as sexy as shes ever been on the sultry Un-Thinkable. Allison Stewart from The Washington Post neither praised nor criticised the song, some sort of unspoken requirement that every female R&B album contain an appearance by at least one cool-but-unthreatening hip-hop star. Molly Lambert from Pitchfork considered the song as the 64th best song of the year saying, skittering beats, trembling synths, deep piano chord progressions, and floating drums. It sounds like it was recorded in a downtempo underwater sex chamber or inside a neon motel sign and it belongs on the Art Laboe Connection forever, with Sade and Minnie Riperton and other sensual heavyweights. It is the eye of the quiet storm, in the chart week dated May 22,2010, Un-Thinkable topped the U. S. Hot R&B/Hip Hop Songs chart, having already been present on the chart for eighteen weeks and it remained at the top of the summit for twelve consecutive weeks this becoming her longest running Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart leader, beating her previous best of ten weeks with No One.
The single was broke another R&B chart record, this time on the Billboard Adult R&B Songs chart, the single reached number twenty-one on the Billboard Hot 100. To date the songs success on both the Hot 100 and R&B charts make Un-Thinkable the most successful single from The Element of Freedom. At the end of 2010, following its twelve-week run leading the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop chart, the official remix of the song features a verse by Canadian rapper Drake was released on iTunes on May 28,2010. Lloyd Banks released his own remix to the song, joe Budden would follow up and release his own remix to it as well
Interrogation is interviewing as commonly employed by law enforcement officers, military personnel, and intelligence agencies with the goal of eliciting useful information. Interrogation may involve an array of techniques, ranging from developing a rapport with the subject. There are multiple techniques employed in interrogation including deception, increasing suggestibility, a persons suggestibility is how willing they are to accept and act on suggestions by others. Interrogators seek to increase a subjects suggestibility, methods used to increase suggestibility may include moderate sleep deprivation, exposure to constant white noise, and using GABAergic drugs such as sodium amytal or sodium thiopental. Sleep deprivation, exposure to noise, and the use of drugs may greatly inhibit a detainees ability to provide truthful. Deception can form an important part of effective interrogation, see case law on trickery and deception. As noted above, traditionally the issue of deception is considered from the perspective of the engaging in deception towards the individual being interrogated.
The major aim of this technique is to investigate to what extent verbal and non-verbal features of liars’ and truth-tellers’ behaviour change during the course of repeated interrogations and it has shown that liars displays significantly fewer smiles, self-manipulations and less gaze aversion than truth-tellers. The paper talks about three different approaches to non-verbal deceptive behaviour, the emotional, the cognitive and the attempted control approach, emotional approach suggests that a liar can feel either guilt, fear or excitement, and that each emotional state will lead to a specific set of behaviours. The rationale behind the approach is that lying is a more cognitively complex task than telling the truth. Hence, it is predicted that liars will, for example, make more speech disturbances, the attempted control approach proposes that a liar will try to control his or her behaviour in order to appear as normal and as honest as possible. It talks about how liars try to remember what they have said in previous interrogations and it can be speculated that the ‘rehearsal-strategy’ used by liars will promote consistency, while the more re-collective nature of the truth-tellers’ memory will undermine consistency.
Good cop/bad cop is a technique in which the officers take different sides. The bad cop takes a stance on the subject. This allows for the cop to sympathize with and defend the subject. The idea is to get the subject to trust the good cop, the Reid Technique is a trademarked interrogation technique widely used by law enforcement agencies in North America. The technique has been criticized for being difficult to apply across cultures, there is no means of obtaining the truth from those who have the strength to resist says Ulpian, while others unable to withstand the pain will tell any lie rather than suffer it. The use of torture as an investigative technique waned with the rise of Christianity since it was considered antithetical to Christs teachings, and in 866 Pope Nicholas I banned the practice
Terrorism is, in its broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror or fear, in order to achieve a political, religious, or ideological aim. It is classified as fourth-generation warfare and as a violent crime, in modern times, terrorism is considered a major threat to society and therefore illegal under anti-terrorism laws in most jurisdictions. It is considered a war crime under the laws of war when used to target non-combatants, such as civilians, neutral military personnel, a broad array of political organizations have practiced terrorism to further their objectives. It has been practiced by both right-wing and left-wing political organizations, nationalist groups, religious groups and ruling governments, there is no universally agreed upon definition of the term, and many definitions exist. According to data from the Global Terrorism Database, more than 61,000 incidents of non-state terrorism, Terrorism comes from the French word terrorisme, and originally referred specifically to state terrorism as practiced by the French government during the 1793–1794 Reign of Terror.
The French word terrorisme in turn derives from the Latin verb terrere meaning to frighten, the Jacobins, coming to power in France in 1792, are said to have initiated the Reign of Terror. After the Jacobins lost power, the word terrorist became a term of abuse, although terrorism originally referred to acts committed by a government, currently it usually refers to the killing of innocent people for political purposes in such a way as to create a spectacle. This meaning can be traced back to Sergey Nechayev, who described himself as a terrorist, Nechayev founded the Russian terrorist group Peoples Retribution in 1869. It is a form of state-terrorism, the concept was however developed long before the Second Gulf War by Harlan Ullman as chair of a forum of retired military personnel. The definition of terrorism has proven controversial, various legal systems and government agencies use different definitions of terrorism in their national legislation. Moreover, the community has been slow to formulate a universally agreed.
These difficulties arise from the fact that the term terrorism is politically and emotionally charged, in this regard, Angus Martyn, briefing the Australian parliament, The international community has never succeeded in developing an accepted comprehensive definition of terrorism. The international community has adopted a series of conventions that define. U. S. Bruce Hoffman, a scholar, has noted and other long-established scholars in the field are equally incapable of reaching a consensus. Four years and a second later, Schmid was no closer to the goal of his quest. Walter Laqueur despaired of defining terrorism in both editions of his work on the subject, maintaining that it is neither possible to do so nor worthwhile to make the attempt. Hoffman believes it is possible to some key characteristics of terrorism. A definition proposed by Carsten Bockstette at the George C, such acts are meant to send a message from an illicit clandestine organization
A dictatorship is a type of authoritarianism, in which politicians regulate nearly every aspect of the public and private behavior of citizens. Dictatorship and totalitarianism societies generally employ political propaganda to decrease the influence of proponents of alternative governing systems, in the past different religious tactics were used by the dictators to maintain their rule. Like the Monarchy system in the west, in the 19th and 20th centuries, traditional monarchies gradually declined and disappeared. Dictatorship and constitutional democracy emerged as the two major forms of government. Since World War II a broader range of dictatorships have been recognized including Third World dictatorships, theocratic or religious dictatorships, in the Roman Empire, a Roman dictator was the incumbent of a political office of legislate of the Roman Republic. Roman dictators were allocated absolute power during times of emergency and their power was originally neither arbitrary nor unaccountable, being subject to law and requiring retrospective justification.
There were no such dictatorships after the beginning of the 2nd century BC, and such as Sulla. After the collapse of Spanish colonial rule, various dictators came to power in many liberated countries, such dictators have been referred to as personalismo. The wave of military dictatorships in Latin America in the half of the twentieth century left a particular mark on Latin American culture. In Latin American literature, the dictator novel challenging dictatorship and caudillismo is a significant genre, there are many films depicting Latin American military dictatorships. After World War II, dictators established themselves in the new states of Africa and Asia. These constitutions often failed to work without a middle class or work against the preexisting autocratic rule. Some elected presidents and prime ministers captured power by suppressing the opposition and installing one-party rule, whatever their form, these dictatorships had an adverse impact on economic growth and the quality of political institutions.
Dictators who stayed in office for a time period found it increasingly difficult to carry out sound economic policies. The often-cited exploitative dictator is the regime of Mobutu Sese Seko, the global dynamics of democratization has been a central question for political scientists. The Third Wave Democracy was said to turn some dictatorships into democracies, the DD index is seen as an example of the minimalist approach, whereas the Polity data series, relatively more substantive. The most general term is despotism, a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power and that entity may be an individual, as in an autocracy, or it may be a group, as in an oligarchy. Despotism can mean tyranny, or absolutism, or dictatorship, dictatorship may take the form of authoritarianism or totalitarianism
A scalpel, or lancet, is a small and extremely sharp bladed instrument used for surgery, anatomical dissection, and various arts and crafts. Scalpels may be disposable or re-usable. Re-usable scalpels can have permanently attached blades that can be sharpened or, more commonly, disposable scalpels usually have a plastic handle with an extensible blade and are used once, the entire instrument is discarded. Scalpel blades are usually packed in sterile pouches but are offered non-sterile. Double-edged scalpels are referred to as lancets, scalpel blades are usually made of hardened and tempered steel, stainless steel, or high carbon steel, in addition, ceramic and even obsidian knives are not uncommon. For example, when performing surgery under MRI guidance, steel blades are unusable, the preferred material for surgical scalpels was silver, on account of its antimicrobial properties. Scalpel blades are offered by manufacturers with a zirconium nitride-coated edge to improve sharpness. Others manufacture blades that are coated to enhance lubricity during a cut.
Alternatives to scalpels in surgical applications include electrocautery and lasers, Surgical scalpels consist of two parts, a blade and a handle. The handles are often reusable, with the blades being replaceable, in medical applications, each blade is only used once. The handle is known as a B. P. handle, named after Charles Russell Bard and Morgan Parker. The handle of medical scalpels come in two basic types, the first is a flat handle used in the #3 and #4 handles. The #7 handle is more like a writing pen, rounded at the front. A #4 handle is larger than a #3, blades are manufactured with a corresponding fitment size so that they fit on only one size handle. The following table of blades is incomplete and some blades listed may work with handles not specified here, called the dinner knife grip. This grip is best for initial incisions and larger cuts, best used for more accurate cuts with smaller blades and the #7 handle. The scalpel is held with the tips of the first and second fingers, care should be taken not to allow the handle to rest too far along the index finger as this promotes an unstable grip and cramped fingers.
Graphical and model-making scalpels tend to have handles, with textured grips
Carrie-Anne Moss is a Canadian actress. Following early roles on television, she rose to prominence for her role of Trinity in The Matrix science fiction action trilogy. She has since starred in Memento, Red Planet, Snow Cake, Unthinkable, Moss currently portrays Jeri Hogarth in several series of the Marvel Cinematic Universe, mainly Jessica Jones. Carrie-Anne Moss was born in Burnaby, British Columbia, the daughter of Barbara and she has an older brother, Brooke. Moss mother reportedly named her after The Hollies 1967 hit song, Carrie Anne, Moss lived with her mother in Vancouver as a child. At the age of 11, she joined the Vancouver childrens musical theatre, while in Spain, Moss obtained a role in the drama series Dark Justice, her first television appearance. She moved from Barcelona to Los Angeles with the series in 1992 and she enrolled at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in Pasadena upon her return, and she subsequently starred in Foxs prime time soap opera Models Inc. a spin-off of Melrose Place, as a model.
The series was cancelled in July 1995 and she headlined a short-lived made-in-Canada series entitled Matrix. Many of her roles in the decade were in B movies, including Flashfire, The Soft Kill, Lethal Tender, Sabotage. Her role demanded extreme acrobatic actions, and she underwent a physical test during casting. The film grossed over US$460 million worldwide and was acclaimed by critics. Moss earned a Saturn Award nomination for Best Actress, Moss had four film releases in 2000—Chocolat, Red Planet, The Crew and Memento. In the romantic comedy Chocolat, she took on the role of Caroline Clairmont, the film received widespread acclaim and made US$152 million at the international box office. The science fiction thriller Red Planet saw her play the commander and leader of a mission to Mars. Despite an US$80 million budget, the film only grossed US$33 million worldwide and she appeared as detective Olivia Neal in the crime black comedy The Crew, directed by Michael Dinner and starring Burt Reynolds, Seymour Cassel and Richard Dreyfuss.
In Christopher Nolans neo-noir psychological thriller Memento, she starred opposite Guy Pearce portraying a manipulative bartender who meets a man suffering from anterograde amnesia, producer Jennifer Todd suggested Moss for the part after being impressed by her performance The Matrix. While actress Mary McCormack lobbied for the role, Nolan decided to cast Moss as Natalie, the film became a sleeper hit, being acclaimed by critics and earning US$39.7 million over a US$9 million budget. She won the Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Female for her performance, Moss reprised the role of Trinity in the back-to-back sequels The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions, both released in 2003
Michael Christopher Sheen, OBE is a Welsh political activist and director. His performances in Amadeus at the Old Vic and Look Back in Anger at the National Theatre were nominated for Olivier Awards in 1998 and 1999, in 2003, he was nominated for a third Olivier Award for his performance in Caligula at the Donmar Warehouse. Sheen has become known as a screen actor since the 2000s. With writer Peter Morgan, he has starred in a trilogy of films as British politician Tony Blair, for playing Blair, he was nominated for both a BAFTA Award and an Emmy. He starred as the football manager Brian Clough in The Damned United. Since 2009 and into the 2010s, Sheen has become known for a variety of roles. In 2009, Sheen appeared in two films, Rise of the Lycans and The Twilight Saga, New Moon, while in 2010. He appeared in the science-fiction film Tron and Woody Allens romantic comedy Midnight in Paris, at Easter 2011, Sheen directed and starred in National Theatre Waless The Passion. From late 2011 until early 2012, Sheen played the role in Hamlet at the Young Vic.
In 2013, he received a Golden Globe nomination for his role in Showtimes television drama Masters of Sex, Sheen was born in Newport, the son of Irene, a secretary, and Meyrick, a British Steel Corporation personnel manager. He has one sister, Joanne. When he was five, the moved to Wallasey. Director Sam Mendes has described Sheen as a creature and attributed that to the actors Welsh roots. Hes Welsh in the tradition of Anthony Hopkins and Richard Burton, mercurial, a keen footballer, Sheen was scouted and offered a place on Arsenals youth team at the age of 12, but his family was unwilling to relocate to London. He said he was grateful for his parents decision, as the chances of forging a professional career were so slim. He lost interest in playing football in his early teens, in his teenage years, Sheen was involved with the West Glamorgan Youth Theatre and, the National Youth Theatre of Wales. It was a brilliant youth theatre, Sheen has said, and it taught me not only a lot about acting and he was influenced by the performances of Laurence Olivier and the writings of theatre critic Kenneth Tynan—the combination of those two things kind of blew my head off.
Sheen was educated at Blaenbaglan Primary School, Glan Afan Comprehensive School and, Neath Port Talbot College where he sat A-levels in English, Drama and he considered studying English at university but instead decided to attend drama school
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe. Bomb disposal does not encompass the remediation of soils polluted with explosive materials, the first professional civilian bomb squad was established by Sir Vivian Dering Majendie. In 1875, he framed The Explosives Act, the first modern legislation for explosives control and he pioneered many bomb disposal techniques, including remote methods for the handling and dismantling of explosives. His advice during the Fenian dynamite campaign of 1881-85 was officially recognised as having contributed to the saving of lives, after Victoria Station was bombed on 26 February 1884 he defused a bomb with a clockwork mechanism which might have gone off at any moment. The New York City Police Department established its first bomb squad in 1903, known as the Italian Squad, its primary mission was to deal with dynamite bombs used by the Mafia to intimidate immigrant Italian merchants and residents. It would be known as the Anarchist Squad and the Radical Squad, Bomb Disposal became a formalized practice in the First World War.
The swift mass production of munitions led to manufacturing defects. These were hazardous to attacker and defender alike, in response, the British dedicated a section of Ordnance Examiners from the Royal Army Ordnance Corps to handle the growing problem. In 1918, the Germans developed delayed-action fuzes that would develop into more sophisticated versions during the 1930s. These tests led to the development of UXBs, pioneered by Herbert Ruehlemann of Rheinmetall, such delayed-action bombs provoked terror in the civilian population because of the uncertainty of time, and complicated the task of disarming them. The Germans saw that unexploded bombs caused far more chaos and disruption than bombs that exploded immediately and this caused them to increase their usage of delayed-action bombs in World War II. This trend of cat-and-mouse extends even to the present day, modern EOD Technicians across the world can trace their heritage to the Blitz, when the United Kingdoms cities were subjected to extensive bombing raids by Nazi Germany.
In addition to air raids, unexploded bombs took their toll on population and morale, paralyzing vital services. Bombs fitted with delayed-action fuzes provoked fear and uncertainty in the civilian population, the first UXBs were encountered in the autumn of 1939 before the Blitz and were for the most part easily dealt with, mostly by Royal Air Force or Air Raid Precautions personnel. In the spring of 1940, when the Phony War ended,25 sections were authorized for the Royal Engineers in May 1940, another 109 in June, and 220 by August. Organization was needed, and as the Blitz began,25 Bomb Disposal Companies were created between August 1940 and January 1941, each company had ten sections, each section having a bomb disposal officer and 14 other ranks to assist. Six companies were deployed in London by January 1941, Bomb fuzes incorporating anti-handling devices were specifically designed to kill bomb disposal personnel. Scientists and technical staff responded by devising methods and equipment to render them safe, the next year, the Office of Civilian Defense and War Department both sponsored a bomb disposal program
President of the United States
The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.
In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation
A shopping arcade is a specific form serving the same purpose. Many early shopping arcades such as the Burlington Arcade in London, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, many smaller arcades have been demolished, replaced with large centers or malls, often accessible by vehicle. Technical innovations such as lighting and escalators were introduced from the late 19th century. From the late 20th century, entertainment venues such as movie theaters, as a single built structure, early shopping centers were often architecturally significant constructions, enabling wealthier patrons to buy goods in spaces protected from the weather. In places around the world, the shopping centre is used, especially in Europe, Australia. Mall is a term used predominantly in North America, outside of North America, shopping precinct and shopping arcade are used. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, malls are commonly referred to as shopping centres, the majority of British shopping centres are located in city centres, usually found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets.
Large examples include West Quay in Southampton, Manchester Arndale, Bullring Birmingham, Liverpool One, Trinity Leeds, Buchanan Galleries in Glasgow and these centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres, although with patchy success. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year, there are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of $12.47 billion and this represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year. One of the earliest examples of public shopping areas comes from ancient Rome, One of the earliest public shopping centers is Trajans Market in Rome located in Trajans Forum. Trajans Market was probably built around 100-110 CE by Apollodorus of Damascus, the Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the 15th century and is still one of the largest covered shopping centers in the world, with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops.
Numerous other covered shopping arcades, such as the 19th-century Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus, isfahans Grand Bazaar, which is largely covered, dates from the 10th century. The 10-kilometer-long, covered Tehrans Grand Bazaar has a lengthy history, the oldest continuously occupied shopping mall in the world is likely to be the Chester Rows. Dating back at least to the 13th century, these covered walkways housed shops, with storage, different rows specialized in different goods, such as Bakers Row or Fleshmongers Row. The Marché des Enfants Rouges in Paris opened in 1628 and still runs today, the Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England opened in 1774 and still runs today. The Passage du Caire was opened in Paris in 1798, the Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819