South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces.
South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa.
South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of Humankind
Johannesburg is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world. It is the capital of Gauteng, which is the wealthiest province in South Africa. While Johannesburg is not one of South Africas three capital cities, it is the seat of the Constitutional Court, the city is located in the mineral-rich Witwatersrand range of hills and is the centre of large-scale gold and diamond trade. In 2011, the population of the city of Johannesburg was 4,434,827, in the same year, the population of Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Area was 7,860,781. Some view the surrounding the city of Johannesburg yet more broadly than the metropolitan area, adding Ekurhuleni, West Rand and Lenasia. The land area of the city is large in comparison with those of other major cities, resulting in a moderate population density of 2. The city was established in 1886 following the discovery of gold on what had been a farm, the city is commonly interpreted as the modern day El Dorado due to the extremely large gold deposit found along the Witwatersrand.
The name is attributed to one or all of three men involved in the establishment of the city, in ten years, the population was 100,000 inhabitants. A separate city from the late 1970s until the 1990s, Soweto is now part of Johannesburg, although eventually incorporated into Johannesburg, had been separated as a residential area for blacks, who were not permitted to live in Johannesburg proper. Lenasia is predominantly populated by English-speaking South Africans of Indian descent, controversy surrounds the origin of the name. There were quite a number of people with the name Johannes who were involved in the history of the city. Among them are the principal clerk attached to the office of the surveyor-general Johannes Rissik, Christiaan Johannes Joubert, another was Stephanus Johannes Paulus Paul Kruger, president of the South African Republic 1883-1900. Johannes Meyer, the first government official in the area is another possibility, precise records for the choice of name were lost. Rissik and Joubert were members of a delegation sent to England to attain mining rights for the area.
Joubert had a park in the city named after him and Rissik Street is today a street where the historically important and dilapidated Post Office, since burnt out. The region surrounding Johannesburg was originally inhabited by San people, the Sotho–Tswana practised farming and extensively mined and smelted metals that were available in the area. The most prominent site within Johannesburg is Melville Koppies, which contains an iron smelting furnace, the main Witwatersrand gold reef was discovered in June 1884 on the farm Vogelstruisfontein by Jan Gerritse Bantjes that triggered the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the start of Johannesburg in 1886. The discovery of gold rapidly attracted people to the area, making necessary a name, Johannes Meyer, the first government official in the area is another possibility
The King of the Golden River
The King of the Golden River or The Black Brothers, A Legend of Stiria by John Ruskin was originally written in 1841 for the twelve-year-old Effie Gray, whom Ruskin married. It was published in form in 1851, and became an early Victorian classic which sold out three editions. It was illustrated with 22 illustrations by Richard Doyle and this personified wind has the power to keep things this way through his influence with other winds that had caused the valleys unique fertility. Forced into an other than farming Hans and Schwartz become goldsmiths. They cruelly melt their younger brother Glucks prize heirloom, a golden mug and this action releases the King of the Golden River for Gluck to pour out of the crucible as a finely dressed little golden dwarf. The Golden River is one of the high mountain cataracts, that surround the Treasure Valley, Gluck fancies that it would be good if that high majestic river would actually be what it appears in the setting sun, a river of gold. That person must do it on his first and only attempt or be overwhelmed by the river to become a black stone and Schwartz desire to take the challenge, duel each other with the result that Schwartz is thrown into jail for disturbing the peace.
Hans, who had the sense to hide from the constable, steals holy water from the church. He has a time of it on a glacier and gets away without his provisions. Overcome with thirst Hans is forced to drink from this flask, along the path, Hans comes across three prostrate individuals dying of thirst, a puppy, a fair child, and an old man. Hans satisfies his own thirst while denying the three needy individuals, the demeanor of the surroundings of his journey turns bleak and inauspicious, climaxing in Hans being transformed into a black stone once he has hurled the holy water flask into the Golden River. The Golden River acquires another black stone around which to rush, Gluck takes a turn at climbing the mountain. He encounters first an old man walking down the trail who begs water from the flask. Gluck allows him to drink, leaving only a third of the holy water and he encounters a fair child, lying by the road, whom he allows to drink all but a few drops. Following these unselfish acts, Glucks path is bright and pleasant making him feel better than he had in his whole life—no doubt.
He comes across the prostrate puppy, whom he gives the final drops of the holy water. The puppy turns into the King of the Golden River, who tells Gluck the fate of his two brothers and, shakes three drops of dew from a lily into Glucks flask to throw into the river. Gluck does this, and the Golden River forms a whirlpool where it travels underground and emerges in the Treasure Valley, Gluck the new owner is a wealthy man, who never turns away the needy from his door
Flag of India
The National Flag of India is a horizontal rectangular tricolour of India saffron and India green, with the Ashoka Chakra, a 24-spoke wheel, in navy blue at its centre. It was adopted in its present form during a meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on 22 July 1947, the flag was subsequently retained as that of the Republic of India. In India, the term tricolour almost always refers to the Indian national flag, the flag is based on the Swaraj flag, a flag of the Indian National Congress designed by Pingali Venkayya. By law, the flag is to be made of khadi, the manufacturing process and specifications for the flag are laid out by the Bureau of Indian Standards. The right to manufacture the flag is held by the Khadi Development and Village Industries Commission, as of 2009, the Karnataka Khadi Gramodyoga Samyukta Sangha has been the sole manufacturer of the flag. Usage of the flag is governed by the Flag Code of India, the original code prohibited use of the flag by private citizens except on national days such as the Independence day and the Republic Day.
In 2002, on hearing an appeal from a citizen, Naveen Jindal. Subsequently, the Union Cabinet of India amended the code to allow limited usage, the code was amended once more in 2005 to allow some additional use including adaptations on certain forms of clothing. The flag code governs the protocol of flying the flag, according to the Flag code of India, the Indian flag has a ratio of two by three. All three stripes of the flag are to be equal in width and length, the size of the Ashoka Chakra is not specified in the Flag code, but it has twenty-four spokes that are evenly spaced. In section 4.3.1 of IS1, Manufacturing standards for the Indian Flag, in both the Flag code and IS1, they call for the Ashoka Chakra to be printed or painted on both sides of the flag in navy blue. The navy blue colour can be found in the standard IS, note that the values given in the table correspond to CIE1931 color space. Approximate RGB values for use may be taken to be, India saffron #FF9933, white #FFFFFF, India green #138808, pantone values closest to this are 130 U, White,2258 C and 2735 C.
Gandhi first proposed a flag to the Indian National Congress in 1921. The flag was designed by Pingali Venkayya, in the centre was a traditional spinning wheel, symbolising Gandhis goal of making Indians self-reliant by fabricating their own clothing. The design was modified to include a white stripe in the centre for other religious communities. A few days before India became independent on 15 August 1947, a modified version of the Swaraj flag was chosen, the tricolour remained the same saffron and green. However, the charkha was replaced by the Ashoka Chakra representing the wheel of law. To address the question of how the star conveyed Indianness, Queen Victoria created the Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India to honour services to the empire by her Indian subjects
John Ruskin (painting)
John Ruskin is a painting of the leading Victorian art critic John Ruskin. It was painted by the Pre-Raphaelite artist John Everett Millais during 1853–54, John Ruskin was an early advocate of the Pre-Raphaelite group of artists and part of their success was due to his efforts. The painting depicts Ruskin in front of a waterfall in Glenfinlas and Millais spent the summer of 1853 together at Glenfinlas in the Trossachs. Ruskin was especially interested in the formations and undertook his own studies of these. The painting of Ruskin was started at Glenfinlas, during which the details of the landscape were painted, the last stages of work on the painting were undertaken in Millais studio in London. By that time Ruskins wife Effie had fallen in love with Millais and she left Ruskin and sued him for an annulment of the marriage. She and Millais were married the following year, Millais found it very difficult to be in the same room as Ruskin when he was completing the work in London, calling it the most hateful task I have ever had to perform.
As soon as the portrait was finished he broke off contact with Ruskin, Ruskin himself temporarily moved the portrait so that his father would not see it, since he was concerned that he would damage or destroy it. The painting was given by Ruskin to his friend Henry Wentworth Acland in 1871 and it was passed down through his family until it was sold at Christies in 1965. The purchaser retained the painting until their death in 2012 and it was accepted by the British Government in lieu of inheritance tax in 2013 and permanently allocated to the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford to which it had been on loan since 2012. The painting has been exhibited several times, including exhibitions on the Pre-Raphaelites at Tate Britain in London in 1984 and it is valued at £7.0 million
Indian independence movement
The Indian independence movement encompassed all activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule and the British Indian Empire in the Indian subcontinent. The movement spanned a total of 190 years, the early part of the 20th century saw a more radical approach towards political self-rule proposed by leaders such as the Lal, Bal and Aurobindo Ghosh, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai. The last stages of the struggle from the 1920s onwards saw Congress adopt Mohandas Karamchand Gandhis policy of nonviolence and civil resistance. Nationalist like Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh and Vinayak Damodar Sawarkar preached armed revolution to achieve self-rule, feminists such as Sarojini Naidu and Begum Rokeya promoted the emancipation of Indian women and their participation in national politics. Babasaheb Ambedkar championed the cause of the sections of Indian society within the larger self-rule movement. The period of the Second World War saw the peak of the campaigns by the Quit India Movement led by Congress, the Indian self-rule movement was a mass-based movement that encompassed various sections of society.
It underwent a process of constant ideological evolution, in 1971, East Pakistan declared independence as the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. European traders first reached Indian shores with the arrival of the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama in 1498 AD at the port of Calicut, in search of the lucrative spice trade. Just over a century later, the Dutch and English established trading outposts on the subcontinent, the decline of the Mughal empire in the first half of the eighteenth century provided the British with the opportunity to establish a firm foothold in Indian politics. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan, most of South India came either under the Companys direct rule, the Company subsequently gained control of regions ruled by the Maratha Empire, after defeating them in a series of wars. The Punjab was annexed in 1849, after the defeat of the Sikh armies in the First, in 1835, English was made the medium of instruction in Indias schools and many Indians increasingly disliked British rule.
With the British now dominating most of the subcontinent, many British increasingly disregarded local customs, Puli Thevan was one of the opponents of the British rule in India. He was in conflict with the Nawab of Arcot who was supported by the British and his prominent exploits were his confrontations with Marudhanayagam, who rebelled against the British in the late 1750s and early 1760s. Nelkatumseval the present Tirunelveli Dist of Tamil Nadu state of India was the headquarters of Puli Thevan, kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja was one of the earliest freedom fighters in India. He was the regent of the princely state of Kottiyur or Cotiote in North Malabar, near Kannur. He fought a war with tribal people from Wynad supporting him. He was caught by the British and his fort was razed to the ground, Rani Velu Nachiyar, was a queen of Indian Sivaganga in 1760–1790. She was the first queen to fight against the British in India, Rani Nachiyar was trained in war match weapons usage, martial arts like Valari, horse riding and archery
Euphemia Chalmers Effie Millais, Lady Millais née Gray was the wife of the critic John Ruskin, but she left her husband without the marriage being consummated. She married his protégé, the Pre-Raphaelite painter John Everett Millais and this famous Victorian love triangle has been dramatised in plays, films and an opera. Effie Gray, initially known by the pet name of Phemy, was born in Perth and lived in Bowerswell and her family knew Ruskins father, who encouraged a match between them. Ruskin wrote the fantasy novel The King of the Golden River for her in 1841, after their marriage in 1848, they travelled to Venice, where Ruskin was researching his book The Stones of Venice. Their different personalities are thrown into relief by their contrasting priorities. For Effie, Venice provided an opportunity to socialise while Ruskin was engaged in solitary studies, in particular, he made a point of drawing the Ca dOro and the Palazzo Ducale, because he feared they would soon be destroyed by the occupying Austrian troops.
One of the troops, Lieutenant Charles Paulizza, made friends with Effie and her brother, among others, claimed that Ruskin was deliberately encouraging the friendship to compromise her, as an excuse to separate. When she met Millais five years later, she was still a virgin and his reasons are unclear, but they involved disgust with some aspect of her body. As she wrote to her father, He alleged various reasons, hatred to children, religious motives, a desire to preserve my beauty, finally this last year he told me his true reason. That he had imagined women were different to what he saw I was. Ruskin confirmed this in his statement to his lawyer during the annulment proceedings, but though her face was beautiful, her person was not formed to excite passion. On the contrary, there were circumstances in her person which completely checked it. The reason for Ruskins disgust with circumstances in her person is unknown, various suggestions have been made, including revulsion at either her pubic hair, or menstrual blood.
While married to Ruskin, she modelled for Millais painting The Order of Release and she became close to Millais when he accompanied the couple on a trip to Scotland in order to paint Ruskins portrait according to the critics artistic principles. During this time, spent in Brig o Turk in the Trossachs, while working on the portrait of her husband, Millais made many drawings and sketches of her. He sent humorous cartoons of himself and Ruskin to friends and she copied some of his works. After their return to London, she left Ruskin, nominally to visit her family and she sent back her wedding ring with a note announcing her intention to file for an annulment. Their youngest son, John Guille Millais, was a bird artist
An economy is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents in a given geographical location. Economic agents can be individuals, organizations, or governments, Economic transactions occur when two parties agree to the value or price of the transacted good or service, commonly expressed in a certain currency. Monetary transactions only account for a part of the economic domain. Economic activity is spurred by production which uses resources, labor. It has changed over time due to technology, innovation such as that which produces intellectual property and these factors give context and set the conditions and parameters in which an economy functions. In other words, the domain is a social domain of human practices. A command-based economy is where political agents directly control what is produced and how it is sold, a green economy is low-carbon, resource efficient, and socially inclusive. Today the range of fields of the examining the economy revolve around the social science of economics, but may include sociology, anthropology.
All professions, economic agents or economic activities, contribute to the economy, consumption and investment are variable components in the economy that determine macroeconomic equilibrium. There are three sectors of economic activity, primary and tertiary. Alternate and long-standing terminology distinguishes measures of an economy expressed in real values, such as real GDP, the English words economy and economics can be traced back to the Greek word οἰκονόμος, a composite word derived from οἶκος and νέμω by way of οἰκονομία. The first recorded sense of the economy is in the phrase the management of œconomic affairs. Economy is recorded in more senses, including thrift. The most frequently used current sense, denoting the system of a country or an area. As long as someone has been making and distributing goods or services, there has some sort of economy, economies grew larger as societies grew. The Babylonians and their city state neighbors developed forms of economics comparable to currently used civil society concepts and they developed the first known codified legal and administrative systems, complete with courts and government records.
The ancient economy was based on subsistence farming. The Shekel referred to an ancient unit of weight and currency, the first usage of the term came from Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC. and referred to a specific mass of barley which related other values in a metric such as silver, copper etc
Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard
The Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard is a parable of Jesus which appears in the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament. The word translated penny in the King James Version of this parable is the denarius, the hours here are measured starting at about 6,00 AM, so that the eleventh hour is between about 4,00 and 5,00 PM. The workers are poor men working as temporary farmhands during the harvest season, in this way it resembles the Parable of the Prodigal Son. The parable has often interpreted to mean that even those who are converted late in life earn equal rewards along with those converted early. An alternative interpretation identifies the early laborers as Jews, some of whom resent the late-comers being welcomed as equals in Gods Kingdom. However, Arland J. Hultgren writes, While interpreting and applying this parable and we might want to name them, such as deathbed converts or persons who are typically despised by those who are longtime veterans and more fervent in their religious commitment.
But it is best not to narrow the field too quickly, at a deeper level, we are all the eleventh-hour workers, to change the metaphor, we are all honored guests of God in the kingdom. It is not really necessary to decide who the eleventh-hour workers are, the point of the parable — both at the level of Jesus and the level of Matthews Gospel — is that God saves by grace, not by our worthiness. That applies to all of us, some commentators have used the parable to justify the principle of a living wage, though generally conceding that this is not the main point of the parable. An example is John Ruskin, who quotes the parable in the title of his book Unto This Last, Ruskin does not discuss the religious meaning of the parable but rather its social and economic implications. ’ The Jews accepted and carried out the work. He asked, Who will work for me from midday up to the prayer for one silver coin. ’ The Christians accepted and fulfilled the work. He said, ‘Who will work for me from the afternoon till sunset for two silver coins.
’ You, Muslims have accepted the offer. The Jews and the Christians got angry and said, ‘Why should we work more and get lesser wages. ’ Allah said and he said, ‘It is My Blessing, I bestow upon whomever I wish. The man employed another batch after them and said to them, ‘Complete the rest of the day and yours will be the wages I had fixed for the first batch. ’ So, they worked till the time of ‘Asr prayer. Thereafter he employed another batch to work for the rest of the day and they worked for the rest of the day till the sunset, and they received the wages of the two former batches. So, that was the example of people and the example of this light which they have accepted willingly. ”Life of Jesus in the New Testament Ministry of Jesus Master
Capitalism is an economic system based on private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Characteristics central to capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labor, voluntary exchange, a price system, political economists, and historians have adopted different perspectives in their analyses of capitalism and have recognized various forms of it in practice. These include laissez-faire or free market capitalism, welfare capitalism, different forms of capitalism feature varying degrees of free markets, public ownership, obstacles to free competition, and state-sanctioned social policies. Most existing capitalist economies are mixed economies, which elements of free markets with state intervention. Capitalism has existed under many forms of government, in different times, places. Following the decline of mercantilism, mixed capitalist systems became dominant in the Western world, Capitalism has been criticized for prioritizing profit over social good, natural resources, and the environment, and that is a cause of inequality and economic instabilities.
Supporters believe that it provides better products through competition, and creates strong economic growth, the term capitalist, meaning an owner of capital, appears earlier than the term capitalism. It dates back to the mid-17th century, capitalist is derived from capital, which evolved from capitale, a late Latin word based on caput, meaning head – the origin of chattel and cattle in the sense of movable property. Capitale emerged in the 12th to 13th centuries in the sense of referring to funds, stock of merchandise, sum of money, by 1283 it was used in the sense of the capital assets of a trading firm. It was frequently interchanged with a number of other words – wealth, funds, assets, the Hollandische Mercurius uses capitalists in 1633 and 1654 to refer to owners of capital. In French, Étienne Clavier referred to capitalistes in 1788, six years before its first recorded English usage by Arthur Young in his work Travels in France, David Ricardo, in his Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, referred to the capitalist many times.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, an English poet, used capitalist in his work Table Talk, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon used the term capitalist in his first work, What is Property. To refer to the owners of capital, benjamin Disraeli used the term capitalist in his 1845 work Sybil. The initial usage of the term capitalism in its modern sense has been attributed to Louis Blanc in 1850, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels referred to the capitalistic system. And to the capitalist mode of production in Das Kapital, the use of the word capitalism in reference to an economic system appears twice in Volume I of Das Kapital, p.124, and in Theories of Surplus Value, tome II, p.493. Marx did not extensively use the form capitalism but instead those of capitalist, and capitalist mode of production, according to the OED, Carl Adolph Douai, a German-American socialist and abolitionist, used the phrase private capitalism in 1863. Capital has existed incipiently on a scale for centuries, in the form of merchant and lending activities.
Simple commodity exchange, and consequently simple commodity production, which are the basis for the growth of capital from trade, have a very long history