An elevator or lift is a type of vertical transportation device that moves people or goods between floors of a building, vessel, or other structure. Elevators are powered by electric motors that drive traction cables and counterweight systems like a hoist, although some pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like a jack. In agriculture and manufacturing, an elevator is any type of conveyor device used to lift materials in a continuous stream into bins or silos. Several types exist, such as the chain and bucket elevator, grain auger screw conveyor using the principle of Archimedes' screw, or the chain and paddles or forks of hay elevators. Languages other than English may lift; because of wheelchair access laws, elevators are a legal requirement in new multistory buildings where wheelchair ramps would be impractical. There are some elevators which can go sideways in addition to the usual up-and-down motion; the earliest known reference to an elevator is in the works of the Roman architect Vitruvius, who reported that Archimedes built his first elevator in 236 BC.
Some sources from historical periods mention elevators as cabs on a hemp rope powered by hand or by animals. In 1000, the Book of Secrets by al-Muradi in Islamic Spain described the use of an elevator-like lifting device, in order to raise a large battering ram to destroy a fortress. In the 17th century the prototypes of elevators were located in the palace buildings of England and France. Louis XV of France had a so-called'flying chair' built for one of his mistresses at the Chateau de Versailles in 1743. Ancient and medieval elevators used drive systems based on windlasses; the invention of a system based on the screw drive was the most important step in elevator technology since ancient times, leading to the creation of modern passenger elevators. The first screw drive elevator was built by Ivan Kulibin and installed in the Winter Palace in 1793. Several years another of Kulibin's elevators was installed in the Arkhangelskoye near Moscow; the development of elevators was led by the need for movement of raw materials including coal and lumber from hillsides.
The technology developed by these industries and the introduction of steel beam construction worked together to provide the passenger and freight elevators in use today. Starting in the coal mines, by the mid-19th century elevators were operated with steam power and were used for moving goods in bulk in mines and factories; these steam driven devices were soon being applied to a diverse set of purposes—in 1823, two architects working in London and Hormer, built and operated a novel tourist attraction, which they called the "ascending room". It elevated paying customers to a considerable height in the center of London, allowing them a magnificent panoramic view of downtown. Early, crude steam-driven elevators were refined in the ensuing decade; the elevator used a counterweight for extra power. The hydraulic crane was invented by Sir William Armstrong in 1846 for use at the Tyneside docks for loading cargo; these supplanted the earlier steam driven elevators: exploiting Pascal's law, they provided a much greater force.
A water pump supplied a variable level of water pressure to a plunger encased inside a vertical cylinder, allowing the level of the platform to be raised and lowered. Counterweights and balances were used to increase the lifting power of the apparatus. Henry Waterman of New York is credited with inventing the "standing rope control" for an elevator in 1850. In 1845, the Neapolitan architect Gaetano Genovese installed in the Royal Palace of Caserta the "Flying Chair", an elevator ahead of its time, covered with chestnut wood outside and with maple wood inside, it included a light, two benches and a hand operated signal, could be activated from the outside, without any effort on the part of the occupants. Traction was controlled by a motor mechanic utilizing a system of toothed wheels. A safety system was designed to take effect, it consisted of a beam pushed outwards by a steel spring. In 1852, Elisha Otis introduced the safety elevator, which prevented the fall of the cab if the cable broke, he demonstrated it at the New York exposition in the Crystal Palace in a dramatic, death-defying presentation in 1854, the first such passenger elevator was installed at 488 Broadway in New York City on 23 March 1857.
The first elevator shaft preceded the first elevator by four years. Construction for Peter Cooper's Cooper Union Foundation building in New York began in 1853. An elevator shaft was included in the design, because Cooper was confident that a safe passenger elevator would soon be invented; the shaft was cylindrical. Otis designed a special elevator for the building; the Equitable Life Building completed in 1870 in New York City was thought to be the first office building to have passenger elevators. However Peter Ellis, an English architect, installed the first elevators that could be described as paternoster elevators in Oriel Chambers in Liverpool in 1868; the first electric elevator was built by Werner von Siemens in 1880 in Germany. The inventor Anton Freissler developed the ideas of von Siemens and built up a successful enterprise in Austria-Hungary; the safety and speed of electric elevators were enhanced by Frank Sprague who added floor control, automatic elevators, acceleration control of cars, safeties.
His elevator ran faster and with larger loads than hyd
Life Begins (film)
Life Begins is a 1932 American pre-Code drama film starring Loretta Young, Eric Linden, Aline MacMahon and Glenda Farrell. The film was adapted from the play of the same name by Mary M. Axelson, it was released by Warner Bros. on September 10, 1932. The film was praised for its honest portrayal of a maternity ward. At a maternity hospital, future fathers pace the corridors while their wives wait for their babies either anxiously or happily. Efficient and compassionate nurse Miss Bowers keeps the ward running smoothly. Things liven up. Most agree that the man she killed deserved to die, Nurse Bowers sympathetically allows Grace's concerned husband Jed unlimited time with his wife. In the ward, the women have varied feelings about motherhood. Mrs. West, a mother of six children, thinks. In contrast, Florette, a showgirl, just wants to get rid of her twins as soon. Miss Layton has no intention of being a doting mother. While the women debate their various theories, a woman who wants a baby so much that she has become demented wanders in from another ward.
An Italian woman sobs when she learns that her newborn has died. After a touching farewell with Jed, whose health has suffered from prison conditions, is taken into the labor room. While Jed waits anxiously, Florette is appalled by the plans that the prospective adoptive mother of her twins has concocted, she discovers mother love. Miss Layton has given up on her progressive plans for her baby. Down the hall, things are going badly for Grace; when the doctors ask Jed to choose between saving Grace or the baby, he chooses Grace, but she herself insists that the doctors operate and save the baby. After she dies, Jed refuses to see the baby girl, but wise Nurse Bowers places the child in his arms, as with the mothers, he cannot resist her charms; the film's pre-release titles were "Give Me a Child and Woman's Day". The movie was remade by Warner Bros. in 1939. The censors expressed concern at the directness of the movie's subject, but it was acceptable for Warner Bros. to re-release the film in 1936.
A large number of local and international censor boards edited the film or banned it completely. The British Board of Film Censors banned the film. Mordaunt Hall of The New York Times writes in his movie review: "It is a film endowed with fine performances by most of the players. There are some excellent character delineations, but the main thread of the story is disappointing, it is dragged out, the closing interludes possess little in the way of drama. There is too much harping on harrowing details." Life Begins at the TCM Movie Database Life Begins on IMDb
Splendor (1935 film)
Splendor is a 1935 drama film starring Miriam Hopkins and Joel McCrea, produced by Samuel Goldwyn, distributed by United Artists. It is the third film made by Hopkins and McCrea after The Richest Girl in the World and Barbary Coast; the two would star together in These Three and Woman Chases Man. Miriam Hopkins as Phyllis Manning Lorrimore Joel McCrea as Brighton Lorrimore Paul Cavanagh as Martin Deering Helen Westley as Mrs. Emmeline Lorrimore Billie Burke as Clarissa David Niven as Clancey Lorrimore Katharine Alexander as Martha Lorrimore Ruth Weston as Edith Gilbert Splendor on IMDb
Samuel Goldwyn known as Samuel Goldfish, was a Polish-American film producer. He was most well known for being the founding contributor and executive of several motion picture studios in Hollywood, his awards include the 1973 Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award, the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award in 1947, the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award in 1958. Goldwyn was born Szmuel Gelbfisz in Warsaw to Polish Jewish Hasidic parents, Aaron Dawid Gelbfisz, a peddler, his wife, Hanna Reban, he made his way for Hamburg. There he stayed with acquaintances of his family. On 26 November 1898 Goldwyn left Hamburg for Birmingham, where he remained with relatives for six weeks under the name Samuel Goldfish. On January 4, he sailed from Liverpool, arrived in Baltimore on 19 January 1899 and came to New York in late January 1899, he found work in New York in the bustling garment business. Soon his innate marketing skills made him a successful salesman at the Elite Glove Company. After four years, as vice-president of sales, he moved back to New York City and settled at 10 West 61st Street.
In 1913, along with his brother-in-law Jesse L. Lasky, Cecil B. DeMille, Arthur Friend formed a partnership, The Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company, to produce feature-length motion pictures. Film rights for a stage play, The Squaw Man, were purchased for $4,000 and Dustin Farnum was hired for the leading role. Shooting for the first feature film made in Hollywood began on December 29, 1913. In 1914, Paramount was a film exhibition corporation headed by W. W. Hodkinson. Looking for more movies to distribute, Paramount signed a contract with the Lasky Company on June 1, 1914 to supply 36 films per year. One of Paramount's other suppliers was Adolph Zukor's Famous Players Company; the two companies merged on June 1916 forming The Famous Players-Lasky Corporation. Zukor had been buying Paramount stock, two weeks prior to the merger, became president of Paramount Pictures Corporation and had Hodkinson replaced with Hiram Abrams, a Zukor associate. With the merger, Zukor became president of both Paramount and Famous Players-Lasky, with Goldfish being named chairman of the board of Famous Players-Lasky, Jesse Lasky first vice-president.
After a series of conflicts with Zukor, Goldfish resigned as chairman of the board, as member of the executive committee of the corporation on September 14, 1916. Goldfish was no longer an active member of management, although he still owned stock and was a member of the board of directors. Famous Players-Lasky would become part of Paramount Pictures Corporation, Paramount would become one of Hollywood's major studios. In 1916, Goldfish partnered with Broadway producers Edgar and Archibald Selwyn, using a combination of both names to call their film-making enterprise Goldwyn Pictures. Seeing an opportunity, he had his name changed to Samuel Goldwyn, which he used for the rest of his life. Goldwyn Pictures proved successful but it is their "Leo the Lion" trademark for which the organization is most famous. On April 10, 1924, Goldwyn Pictures was acquired by Marcus Loew and merged into his Metro Pictures Corporation. Despite the inclusion of his name, Goldwyn had no role in the management or production at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
Before the sale and merger of Goldwyn Pictures in April 1924, Goldwyn had established Samuel Goldwyn Productions in 1923 as a production-only operation. Their first feature was Potash and Perlmutter, released in September 1923 through First National Pictures; some of the early productions named for Goldwyn's wife, Frances. For 35 years, Goldwyn built a reputation in filmmaking and developed an eye for finding the talent for making films. William Wyler directed many of his most celebrated productions, he hired writers such as Ben Hecht, Sidney Howard, Dorothy Parker, Lillian Hellman. During that time, Goldwyn made numerous films and reigned as the most successful independent producer in the US. Many of his films were forgettable. William Wyler was responsible for most of Goldwyn's lauded films, with Best Picture Oscar nominations for Dodsworth, Dead End, Wuthering Heights, The Little Foxes and The Best Years of Our Lives. Leading actors in several of Goldwyn films those directed by Wyler, were Oscar-nominated for their performances.
Throughout the 1930s, he released all his films through United Artists, but beginning in 1941, continuing through the end of his career, Goldwyn released his films through RKO Radio Pictures. In 1946, the year he was honored by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences with the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award, Goldwyn's drama, The Best Years of Our Lives, starring Myrna Loy, Fredric March, Teresa Wright and Dana Andrews, won the Academy Award for Best Picture. In the 1950s Samuel Goldwyn turned to making a number of musicals including the 1952 hit Hans Christian Andersen, the 1955 hit Guys and Dolls starring Marlon Brando, Jean Simmons, Frank Sinatra, Vivian Blaine, based on the successful Broadway musical; this was the only independent f
Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. referred to as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB, is an American entertainment company headquartered in Burbank, California and a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Founded in 1923, it has operations in film and video games and is one of the "Big Five" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association of America; the company's name originated from the four founding Warner brothers: Harry, Albert and Jack Warner. Harry and Sam emigrated as young children with their parents to Canada from Krasnosielc, Poland. Jack, the youngest brother, was born in Ontario; the three elder brothers began in the movie theater business, having acquired a movie projector with which they showed films in the mining towns of Pennsylvania and Ohio. In the beginning and Albert Warner invested $150 to present Life of an American Fireman and The Great Train Robbery, they opened their first theater, the Cascade, in New Castle, Pennsylvania, in 1903. When the original building was in danger of being demolished, the modern Warner Bros. called the current building owners, arranged to save it.
The owners noted people across the country had asked them to protect it for its historical significance. In 1904, the Warners founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company, to distribute films. In 1912, Harry Warner hired. By the time of World War I they had begun producing films. In 1918 they opened the first Warner Brothers Studio on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert, along with their auditor and now controller Chase, handled finance and distribution in New York City. During World War I their first nationally syndicated film, My Four Years in Germany, based on a popular book by former ambassador James W. Gerard, was released. On April 4, 1923, with help from money loaned to Harry by his banker Motley Flint, they formally incorporated as Warner Bros. Pictures, Incorporated; the first important deal was the acquisition of the rights to Avery Hopwood's 1919 Broadway play, The Gold Diggers, from theatrical impresario David Belasco.
However, Rin Tin Tin, a dog brought from France after World War I by an American soldier, established their reputation. Rin Tin Tin debuted in the feature; the movie was so successful. Rin Tin Tin became the studio's top star. Jack nicknamed him "The Mortgage Lifter" and the success boosted Darryl F. Zanuck's career. Zanuck became a top producer and between 1928 and 1933 served as Jack's right-hand man and executive producer, with responsibilities including day-to-day film production. More success came. Lubitsch's film The Marriage Circle was the studio's most successful film of 1924, was on The New York Times best list for that year. Despite the success of Rin Tin Tin and Lubitsch, Warner's remained a lesser studio. Sam and Jack decided to offer Broadway actor John Barrymore the lead role in Beau Brummel; the film was so successful. By the end of 1924, Warner Bros. was arguably Hollywood's most successful independent studio, where it competed with "The Big Three" Studios. As a result, Harry Warner—while speaking at a convention of 1,500 independent exhibitors in Milwaukee, Wisconsin—was able to convince the filmmakers to spend $500,000 in newspaper advertising, Harry saw this as an opportunity to establish theaters in cities such as New York and Los Angeles.
As the studio prospered, it gained backing from Wall Street, in 1924 Goldman Sachs arranged a major loan. With this new money, the Warners bought the pioneer Vitagraph Company which had a nationwide distribution system. In 1925, Warners' experimented in radio, establishing a successful radio station, KFWB, in Los Angeles. Warner Bros. was a pioneer of films with synchronized sound. In 1925, at Sam's urging, Warner's agreed to add this feature to their productions. By February 1926, the studio reported a net loss of $333,413. After a long period denying Sam's request for sound, Harry agreed to change, as long as the studio's use of synchronized sound was for background music purposes only; the Warners signed a contract with the sound engineer company Western Electric and established Vitaphone. In 1926, Vitaphone began making films with music and effects tracks, most notably, in the feature Don Juan starring John Barrymore; the film was silent. To hype Don Juan's release, Harry acquired the large Piccadilly Theater in Manhattan, New York City, renamed it Warners' Theatre.
Don Juan premiered at the Warners' Theatre in New York on August 6, 1926. Throughout the early history of film distribution, theater owners hired orchestras to attend film showings, where they provided soundtracks. Through Vitaphone, Warner Bros. produced eight shorts in 1926. Many film production companies questioned the necessity. Don Juan did not recoup its production cost and Lubitsch left for MGM. By April 1927, the Big Five studios had ruined Warner's, Western Electric renewed Warner's Vit
Carl Henry Vogt, known professionally as Louis Calhern, was an American stage and screen actor. For portraying Oliver Wendell Holmes in the film The Magnificent Yankee, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor. Calhern was born Carl Henry Vogt in Brooklyn, New York, in 1895, the son of Eugene Adolf Vogt and Hubertina Friese Vogt, both of whom immigrated to New York from Germany, he had a sister. His father was a tobacco dealer, his family left New York while he was in elementary school and moved to St. Louis, where he was raised. While playing high school football, a stage manager from a touring theatrical stock company noticed the tall, handsome youth, hired him as a bit player, his stage name is an amalgamation of his hometown of St. Louis and his first and middle names and Henry. Just before World War I, Calhern decided to return to New York to pursue an acting career, he began as a prop bit player with various touring and burlesque companies. He became a matinee idol by virtue of a play titled Cobra.
Calhern's Broadway credits include: Calhern's burgeoning career was interrupted by the First World War, he served in France in the 143rd Field Artillery of the United States Army. Calhern began working in silent films for director Lois Weber in the early 1920s. A contemporary newspaper article commented, "The new arrival in stardom is Louis Calhern, until Miss Weber engaged him to enact the leading male role in What's Worth While?, had been playing leads in the Morosco Stock company of Los Angeles."In 1923, Calhern left the movies to devote his career to the stage, but he would return to the screen eight years after the advent of sound pictures. He was cast as a character actor in films, while he continued to play leading roles on the stage, he reached his peak in the early 1950s as a Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer contract player. Among his many memorable screen portrayals were Ambassador Trentino in the Marx Brothers classic Duck Soup and three diverse roles that he appeared in at MGM in 1950: a singing role as Buffalo Bill in the film version of the musical Annie Get Your Gun, the double-crossing lawyer and sugar-daddy to Marilyn Monroe in John Huston's film noir classic The Asphalt Jungle, his Oscar-nominated performance as Oliver Wendell Holmes in The Magnificent Yankee.
He was praised for his portrayal of the title role in the John Houseman production of Julius Caesar in 1953, directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz. Calhern played the role of the devious George Caswell, the manipulative board member of Tredway Corporation in the 1954 production of Executive Suite. Calhern's other many film roles included the partner in crime to Spencer Tracy and Bette Davis in 20,000 Years in Sing Sing, the spy boss of Cary Grant in the Alfred Hitchcock suspense classic Notorious, a jaded and acerbic high school teacher in The Blackboard Jungle, his performance as Uncle Willie in High Society, a musical remake of The Philadelphia Story, turned out to be his final film. Calhern was married four times, to Ilka Chase from 1926 to 1927, Julia Hoyt from 1927 to 1932, Natalie Schafer from 1933 to 1942, Marianne Stewart from 1946 to 1955. All four marriages ended in divorce. Calhern suffered from alcoholism. According to Schafer, Calhern's inability to overcome his addiction ended their marriage.
While he was willing to consult doctors, she said Calhern refused to attend Alcoholics Anonymous because he was an atheist, he considered it a religious organization. He overcame his alcohol addiction in the late 1940s. Calhern died at age 61 of a sudden heart attack in Nara, while there to film The Teahouse of the August Moon, he was replaced in the film by Paul Ford, who had played Calhern's role in the original Broadway production. Calhern is interred at Hollywood Forever Cemetery. Louis Calhern on IMDb Louis Calhern at AllMovie Louis Calhern at the Internet Broadway Database
The Mouthpiece is a 1932 American pre-Code crime drama film starring Warren William and directed by James Flood and Elliott Nugent. It was distributed by Warner Bros.. The film is available on DVD in the Forbidden Hollywood series. Vincent Day is a prosecutor, on the fast track to success; when a man he zealously prosecuted all the way to the electric chair is found to have been innocent, he becomes distressed and quits his job. At the suggestion of a friendly bartender, he decides to switch teams and become a defense attorney specializing in the representation of gangsters and other unsavory people, he will use any tactic to get his clients acquitted, up to and including drinking a slow-acting poison from a bottle of evidence to prove that the substance isn't lethal. The jury acquits the man not knowing that after, Day rushes into a mob doctor's office for a pre-arranged stomach pump. Celia Farraday is a young secretary arrived in the city from a small town in Kentucky; when Day makes play for her, she spurns his advances, loyal to her fiance, Johnny.
When the fiance is framed for a crime committed by one of Day's clients, Day's affection for Celia not only prompts Day to defend Johnny by implicating his client in the crime, but to reconsider his life of getting criminals out of jail sentences. However, his associates send him a message, he lets them know that he has all of their secrets in a safe-deposit box, along with instructions for the bank to forward the contents to the District Attorney in the event of his unnatural death. They call his bluff and he is shot while leaving his office to attend Celia's wedding. On the way to the hospital, he tells his faithful secretary that the criminals were wrong to call his bluff and that the information will be on the way to the DA; the movie leaves. The film was remade in 1940; that version, titled The Man Who Talked Too Much, stars George Brent and has a different ending. Warren William as Vincent Day Sidney Fox as Celia Farraday Aline MacMahon as Miss Hickey John Wray as Mr. Barton Mae Madison as Elaine Ralph Ince as J. B.
Roscoe Morgan Wallace as E. A. Smith Guy Kibbee as Bartender J. Carrol Naish as Tony Rocco Walter Walker as District Attorney Forbes Stanley Fields as Mr. Pondapolis Murray Kinnell as Thompson Noel Francis as Miss DeVere Jack LaRue as Joe Garland William Janney as Johnny Morris The Mouthpiece on IMDb The Mouthpiece at AllMovie The Mouthpiece at the TCM Movie Database The Mouthpiece at the American Film Institute Catalog